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Sarah Elizabeth Jones, Lars Olsen, Jerzy Dorosz, Signe Teuber Seger, Jan Legaard Andersson, Line Hyltoft Kristensen, Michael Gajhede
The KDM6 subfamily of histone lysine demethylases has recently been implicated as a putative target in treatment of a number of diseases, making the availability of potent and selective inhibitors important. Due to high sequence similarity of the catalytic domain of Jumonji C histone demethylases, development of small molecule family specific inhibitors has, however, proven challenging. One approach to achieve selective inhibition of these enzymes is the use of peptides derived from the substrate the histone H3 C-terminus...
June 7, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Ömer Copur, Jürg Müller
The trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for the repression of Polycomb target genes. However, the role of enzymatic demethylation of H3K27me3 by the KDM6-family demethylases Utx, Uty, and JmjD3 is less clear. Studies in both mice and worms led to the proposal that KDM6 proteins, but not their H3K27me3 demethylase activity, is critical for normal development. Here, we investigated the requirement of the demethylase activity of the single KDM6 family member Utx in Drosophila We generated Drosophila expressing a full-length but catalytically inactive Utx protein and found that these mutants show the same phenotypes as animals lacking the Utx protein...
February 2018: Genetics
Liberalis Debraj Boila, Shankha Subhra Chatterjee, Debasis Banerjee, Amitava Sengupta
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy that is caused by proliferation of immature myeloid cells and is frequently characterized by perturbations in chromatin-modifying enzymes. Emerging evidence indicates that histone demethylases play a role in tumorigenesis. However, due to the complexity of this enormous family of histone-modifying enzymes, substrate redundancy, and context-specific roles, the contribution of each member remains ambiguous and targeting them remains challenging...
February 2018: Experimental Hematology
Marie Balslev Backe, Jan Legaard Andersson, Karl Bacos, Dan Ploug Christensen, Jakob Bondo Hansen, Jerzy Jòzef Dorosz, Michael Gajhede, Tina Dahlby, Madhusudhan Bysani, Line Hyltoft Kristensen, Charlotte Ling, Lars Olsen, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
Transcriptional changes control β-cell survival in response to inflammatory stress. Posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone transcriptional regulators activate or repress gene transcription, but the link to cell-fate signaling is unclear. Inhibition of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) protects β cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis and reduces type 1 diabetes incidence in animals. We hypothesized that also lysine demethylases (KDMs) regulate β-cell fate in response to inflammatory stress. Expression of the demethylase Kdm6B was upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines suggesting a possible role in inflammation-induced β-cell destruction...
January 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Jerzy Dorosz, Lars Olsen, Signe Teuber Seger, Cornelia Steinhauer, Giorgos Bouras, Charlotte Helgstrand, Anders Wiuf, Michael Gajhede
The histone demethylase PHF8 catalyzes demethylation of mono- and di-methylated Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9me1/2), and is a transcriptional activator involved in the development and cancer. Affinity and specificity of PHF8 towards H3K9me2 is affected by interaction with both the catalytic domain and a PHD reader domain. The latter specifically recognizes tri-methylated Ly4 on histone H3. A fragment of the histone H3 tail with tri-methylated Lys4 was used as a template for the structure-based design of a cyclic, cell-penetrating peptide that exhibits micromolar binding affinity to PHF8 in biochemical assays...
July 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Xin Gan, Haifeng Wang, Yanyan Yu, Wei Yi, Shanshan Zhu, En Li, Yu Liang
Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infects a broad range of the population and establishes life-long latency in the infected individuals. Periodically the latently infected virus can reactivate and becomes a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In latent infection, the viral genome is suppressed in a heterochromatic state and viral gene transcription is silenced. Upon reactivation, the repressive chromatin is remodeled to an active form, allowing viral lytic gene transcription, initiated by the expression of viral Immediate Early (IE) genes...
2017: PloS One
Sian Cregan, Maeve Breslin, Gerard Roche, Sigrid Wennstedt, Lauren MacDonagh, Cinaria Albadri, Yun Gao, Kenneth J O'Byrne, Sinead Cuffe, Stephen P Finn, Steven G Gray
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare aggressive cancer of the pleura primarily associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The current standard of care for patients suffering from MPM is a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed (or alternatively cisplatin and raltitrexed). Most patients, however, die within 24 months of diagnosis. New therapies are therefore urgently required for this disease. Inflammation is thought to be a key element in the pathogenesis of MPM, and recently Kdm6 family members (Kdm6a and Kdm6b) have been identified as playing important roles in inflammatory processes...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Catrine Johansson, Srikannathasan Velupillai, Anthony Tumber, Aleksandra Szykowska, Edward S Hookway, Radoslaw P Nowak, Claire Strain-Damerell, Carina Gileadi, Martin Philpott, Nicola Burgess-Brown, Na Wu, Jola Kopec, Andrea Nuzzi, Holger Steuber, Ursula Egner, Volker Badock, Shonagh Munro, Nicholas B LaThangue, Sue Westaway, Jack Brown, Nick Athanasou, Rab Prinjha, Paul E Brennan, Udo Oppermann
Members of the KDM5 (also known as JARID1) family are 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(2+)-dependent oxygenases that act as histone H3K4 demethylases, thereby regulating cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic core of the human KDM5B enzyme in complex with three inhibitor chemotypes. These scaffolds exploit several aspects of the KDM5 active site, and their selectivity profiles reflect their hybrid features with respect to the KDM4 and KDM6 families...
July 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Christine Hofstetter, Justyna M Kampka, Sascha Huppertz, Heike Weber, Andreas Schlosser, Albrecht M Müller, Matthias Becker
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterised by their capacity to self-renew indefinitely while maintaining the potential to differentiate into all cell types of an adult organism. Both the undifferentiated and differentiated states are defined by specific gene expression programs that are regulated at the chromatin level. Here, we have analysed the contribution of the H3K27me2- and H3K27me23-specific demethylases KDM6A and KDM6B to murine ESC differentiation by employing the GSK-J4 inhibitor, which is specific for KDM6 proteins, and by targeted gene knockout (KO) and knockdown...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Vassilios Bavetsias, Rachel M Lanigan, Gian Filippo Ruda, Butrus Atrash, Mark G McLaughlin, Anthony Tumber, N Yi Mok, Yann-Vaï Le Bihan, Sally Dempster, Katherine J Boxall, Fiona Jeganathan, Stephanie B Hatch, Pavel Savitsky, Srikannathasan Velupillai, Tobias Krojer, Katherine S England, Jimmy Sejberg, Ching Thai, Adam Donovan, Akos Pal, Giuseppe Scozzafava, James M Bennett, Akane Kawamura, Catrine Johansson, Aleksandra Szykowska, Carina Gileadi, Nicola A Burgess-Brown, Frank von Delft, Udo Oppermann, Zoe Walters, Janet Shipley, Florence I Raynaud, Susan M Westaway, Rab K Prinjha, Oleg Fedorov, Rosemary Burke, Christopher J Schofield, Isaac M Westwood, Chas Bountra, Susanne Müller, Rob L M van Montfort, Paul E Brennan, Julian Blagg
We report the discovery of N-substituted 4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-2-amine derivatives and their subsequent optimization, guided by structure-based design, to give 8-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones, a series of potent JmjC histone N-methyl lysine demethylase (KDM) inhibitors which bind to Fe(II) in the active site. Substitution from C4 of the pyrazole moiety allows access to the histone peptide substrate binding site; incorporation of a conformationally constrained 4-phenylpiperidine linker gives derivatives such as 54j and 54k which demonstrate equipotent activity versus the KDM4 (JMJD2) and KDM5 (JARID1) subfamily demethylases, selectivity over representative exemplars of the KDM2, KDM3, and KDM6 subfamilies, cellular permeability in the Caco-2 assay, and, for 54k, inhibition of H3K9Me3 and H3K4Me3 demethylation in a cell-based assay...
February 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
John R Horton, Amanda Engstrom, Elizabeth L Zoeller, Xu Liu, John R Shanks, Xing Zhang, Margaret A Johns, Paula M Vertino, Haian Fu, Xiaodong Cheng
The KDM5/JARID1 family of Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent demethylases remove methyl groups from tri- and dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3. Accumulating evidence from primary tumors and model systems supports a role for KDM5A (JARID1A/RBP2) and KDM5B (JARID1B/PLU1) as oncogenic drivers. The KDM5 family is unique among the Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases in that there is an atypical insertion of a DNA-binding ARID domain and a histone-binding PHD domain into the Jumonji domain, which separates the catalytic domain into two fragments (JmjN and JmjC)...
February 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sung Chul Kang, Se Kye Kim, Jin Choul Chai, Sun Hwa Kim, Kyoung-Jae Won, Young Seek Lee, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
The removal of histone H3 trimethylation at lysine residue 27 (H3K27me3) plays a critical role in the transcriptional initiation of developmental genes. The H3K27me3-specific KDM6 demethylases JMJD3 and UTX are responsible for the transcriptional initiation of various developmental genes, but some genes are expressed in a KDM6 demethylase-independent manner. To address the role of H3K27me3 in the retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of the human carcinoma NCCIT cell line, we inhibited JMJD3 and UTX using the H3K27me3 demethylase inhibitor GSK-J4...
2015: PloS One
Shengzhan Qian, Yingxiang Wang, Hong Ma, Liangsheng Zhang
Histone modifications, such as methylation and demethylation, are crucial mechanisms altering chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent biochemical and molecular studies have uncovered a group of histone demethylases called Jumonji C (JmjC) domain proteins. However, their evolutionary history and patterns have not been examined systematically. Here, we report extensive analyses of eukaryotic JmjC genes and define 14 subfamilies, including the Lysine-Specific Demethylase3 (KDM3), KDM5, JMJD6, Putative-Lysine-Specific Demethylase11 (PKDM11), and PKDM13 subfamilies, shared by plants, animals, and fungi...
August 2015: Plant Physiology
Laurens Kruidenier, Chun-wa Chung, Zhongjun Cheng, John Liddle, KaHing Che, Gerard Joberty, Marcus Bantscheff, Chas Bountra, Angela Bridges, Hawa Diallo, Dirk Eberhard, Sue Hutchinson, Emma Jones, Roy Katso, Melanie Leveridge, Palwinder K Mander, Julie Mosley, Cesar Ramirez-Molina, Paul Rowland, Christopher J Schofield, Robert J Sheppard, Julia E Smith, Catherine Swales, Robert Tanner, Pamela Thomas, Anthony Tumber, Gerard Drewes, Udo Oppermann, Dinshaw J Patel, Kevin Lee, David M Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2014: Nature
Bo Heinemann, Jesper Morten Nielsen, Heidi Rye Hudlebusch, Michael J Lees, Dorthe Vang Larsen, Thomas Boesen, Marc Labelle, Lars-Ole Gerlach, Peter Birk, Kristian Helin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2014: Nature
Karl B Shpargel, Joshua Starmer, Della Yee, Michael Pohlers, Terry Magnuson
The early mammalian embryo utilizes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) to maintain essential developmental genes in a repressive chromatin state. As differentiation progresses, H3K27me3 is removed in a distinct fashion to activate lineage specific patterns of developmental gene expression. These rapid changes in early embryonic chromatin environment are thought to be dependent on H3K27 demethylases. We have taken a mouse genetics approach to remove activity of both H3K27 demethylases of the Kdm6 gene family, Utx (Kdm6a, X-linked gene) and Jmjd3 (Kdm6b, autosomal gene)...
August 2014: PLoS Genetics
Shuzhen Chen, Yang Shi
Histone lysine demethylases are chromatin modifiers that play important roles in many pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer, making them potentially attractive drug targets. In a recent study, Kruidenier et al. provided proof of concept by identifying chemical matters that inhibit demethylation mediated by the two related histone H3 lysine 27 demethylases, KDM6A and 6B (UTX and JMJD3). The KDM6 inhibitor shows remarkable substrate selectivity and can inhibit transcription of a plethora of pro-inflammatory genes in cell culture by altering H3K27me3 level at some of the KDM6 target genes...
March 2013: Cell Research
Laurens Kruidenier, Chun-wa Chung, Zhongjun Cheng, John Liddle, KaHing Che, Gerard Joberty, Marcus Bantscheff, Chas Bountra, Angela Bridges, Hawa Diallo, Dirk Eberhard, Sue Hutchinson, Emma Jones, Roy Katso, Melanie Leveridge, Palwinder K Mander, Julie Mosley, Cesar Ramirez-Molina, Paul Rowland, Christopher J Schofield, Robert J Sheppard, Julia E Smith, Catherine Swales, Robert Tanner, Pamela Thomas, Anthony Tumber, Gerard Drewes, Udo Oppermann, Dinshaw J Patel, Kevin Lee, David M Wilson
The jumonji (JMJ) family of histone demethylases are Fe2+- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases that are essential components of regulatory transcriptional chromatin complexes. These enzymes demethylate lysine residues in histones in a methylation-state and sequence-specific context. Considerable effort has been devoted to gaining a mechanistic understanding of the roles of histone lysine demethylases in eukaryotic transcription, genome integrity and epigenetic inheritance, as well as in development, physiology and disease...
August 16, 2012: Nature
Toru Sengoku, Shigeyuki Yokoyama
Tri- and dimethylations of histone H3K9 (H3K9me3/2) and H3K27 (H3K27me3/2), both situated in the "A-R-Kme-S" sequence motif, mediate transcriptional repression of distinct genomic regions. H3K9me3/2 mainly governs constitutive heterochromatin formation, while H3K27me3/2 represses key developmental genes. The mechanisms by which histone-modifying enzymes selectively regulate the methylation states of H3K9 and H3K27 are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structures of the catalytic fragment of UTX/KDM6A, an H3K27me3/2-specific demethylase, in the free and H3 peptide-bound forms...
November 1, 2011: Genes & Development
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