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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786794/protocols-for-studies-on-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Chris W D Armstrong, Oksana Lyubomska, Melissa J LaBonte, David J J Waugh
Cancer studies have entered an era that is heavily focused on the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. For this reason, in vivo experimentation in an immunodeficient model system is no longer fit for purpose. As a consequence, numerous genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) which self-develop tumors have been developed to allow experiments to be performed in a fully immunocompetent setting. One of the most commonly used technologies is Cre-loxP recombination due to its unique ability to control target gene expression in a specified tissue type...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786698/a-reconstruction-of-global-hydroclimate-and-dynamical-variables-over-the-common-era
#2
Nathan J Steiger, Jason E Smerdon, Edward R Cook, Benjamin I Cook
Hydroclimate extremes critically affect human and natural systems, but there remain many unanswered questions about their causes and how to interpret their dynamics in the past and in climate change projections. These uncertainties are due, in part, to the lack of long-term, spatially resolved hydroclimate reconstructions and information on the underlying physical drivers for many regions. Here we present the first global reconstructions of hydroclimate and associated climate dynamical variables over the past two thousand years...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785766/schizophyllum-commune-an-unexploited-source-for-lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes
#3
REVIEW
Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Adriana Mayrel Martha-Paz, Yordanis Pérez-LLano, Elisabet Aranda, Juan Enrique Tacoronte-Morales, María Teresa Pedroso-Cabrera, Katiushka Arévalo-Niño, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
Lignocellulose represents the most abundant source of carbon in the Earth. Thus, fraction technology of the biomass turns up as an emerging technology for the development of biorefineries. Saccharification and fermentation processes require the formulation of enzymatic cocktails or the development of microorganisms (naturally or genetically modified) with the appropriate toolbox to produce a cost-effective fermentation technology. Therefore, the search for microorganisms capable of developing effective cellulose hydrolysis represents one of the main challenges in this era...
May 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785480/potential-treatment-options-in-a-post-antibiotic-era
#4
R R Bragg, C M Meyburgh, J-Y Lee, M Coetzee
Following the Golden Age of antibiotic discovery in the previous century, the rate of antibiotic discovery has plummeted during the past 50 years while the incidence of antimicrobial resistance is ever-increasing. Presently, humankind is forced to address a major public health threat in the form of multiple drug resistance and urgent action is required to halt the advent of a post-antibiotic era. This chapter aims to draw the attention to the escalating global crisis of antimicrobial resistance fueled by the irresponsible use of antibiotics in healthcare and animal production sectors...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785398/marker-assisted-introgression-of-saltol-qtl-enhances-seedling-stage-salt-tolerance-in-the-rice-variety-pusa-basmati-1
#5
Vivek Kumar Singh, Brahma Deo Singh, Amit Kumar, Sadhna Maurya, Subbaiyan Gopala Krishnan, Kunnummal Kurungara Vinod, Madan Pal Singh, Ranjith Kumar Ellur, Prolay Kumar Bhowmick, Ashok Kumar Singh
Marker-assisted selection is an unequivocal translational research tool for crop improvement in the genomics era. Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1) is an elite Indian Basmati rice cultivar sensitive to salinity. Here, we report enhanced seedling stage salt tolerance in improved PB1 genotypes developed through marker-assisted transfer of a major QTL, Saltol . A highly salt tolerant line, FL478, was used as the Saltol donor. Parental polymorphism survey using 456 microsatellite (SSR)/QTL-linked markers revealed 14.3% polymorphism between PB1 and FL478...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785287/lymph-node-dissection-during-sublobar-resection-why-when-and-how
#6
REVIEW
Pascal-Alexandre Thomas
Appropriate lymph node (LN) assessment is a hallmark of surgical quality of curative intent operations for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Even in the era of extensive pre-treatment work-up including routine PET-scanning and brain imaging, and selective invasive LN evaluation, unexpected LN metastases are found at surgery in more than 10% of patients with a cT1aN0 tumor. Systematic lymphadenectomy minimizes the risk of leaving tumor-LN behind and thus the risk of an incomplete resection, and provides the most truthful pTNM, which is decisive in directing adjuvant chemotherapy...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785285/a-conference-at-the-onset-of-a-new-era
#7
Dominique Gossot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785027/targeting-g-quadruplex-dna-as-cognitive-function-therapy-for-atr-x-syndrome
#8
Norifumi Shioda, Yasushi Yabuki, Kouya Yamaguchi, Misaki Onozato, Yue Li, Kenji Kurosawa, Hideyuki Tanabe, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Takumi Era, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Takahito Wada, Kohji Fukunaga
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is caused by mutations in ATRX, which encodes a chromatin-remodeling protein. Genome-wide analyses in mouse and human cells indicate that ATRX tends to bind to G-rich sequences with a high potential to form G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that Atrx mutation induces aberrant upregulation of Xlr3b expression in the mouse brain, an outcome associated with neuronal pathogenesis displayed by ATR-X model mice. We show that ATRX normally binds to G-quadruplexes in CpG islands of the imprinted Xlr3b gene, regulating its expression by recruiting DNA methyltransferases...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785006/the-era-of-immunogenomics-immunopharmacogenomics
#9
REVIEW
Makda Zewde, Kazuma Kiyotani, Jae-Hyun Park, Hua Fang, Kai Lee Yap, Poh Yin Yew, Houda Alachkar, Taigo Kato, Tu H Mai, Yuji Ikeda, Tatsuo Matsuda, Xiao Liu, Lili Ren, Boya Deng, Makiko Harada, Yusuke Nakamura
Although germline alterations and somatic mutations in disease cells have been extensively analyzed, molecular changes in immune cells associated with disease conditions have not been characterized in depth. It is clear that our immune system has a critical role in various biological and pathological conditions, such as infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, drug-induced skin and liver toxicity, food allergy, and rejection of transplanted organs. The recent development of cancer immunotherapies, particularly drugs modulating the immune checkpoint molecules, has clearly demonstrated the importance of host immune cells in cancer treatments...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784837/the-inoculum-effect-in-the-era-of-multidrug-resistance-minor-differences-in-inoculum-have-dramatic-effect-on-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-determination
#10
Kenneth P Smith, James E Kirby
The observed MIC may depend on the number of bacteria initially inoculated into the assay. This phenomenon is termed the inoculum effect (IE) and is often most pronounced for β-lactams in strains expressing β-lactamase enzymes. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended inoculum is 5 x 105 CFU mL-1 with an acceptable range of 2-8 x 105 CFU mL-1 IE testing is typically performed using an inoculum 100-fold greater than the CLSI recommended inoculum. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the IE influences MICs during testing performed according to CLSI guidelines...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784507/in-hospital-length-of-stay-after-major-surgical-oncological-procedures
#11
Sebastiano Nazzani, Felix Preisser, Elio Mazzone, Zhe Tian, Francesco A Mistretta, Shahrokh F Shariat, Fred Saad, Markus Graefen, Derya Tilki, Emanuele Montanari, Stefano Luzzago, Alberto Briganti, Luca Carmignani, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols (ERAS) have been developed and implemented as of 2001. However, no previous analyses targeted length of stay (LOS) changes over time after major surgical oncological procedures (MSOPs). METHODS: Between 2003 and 2013, we retrospectively identified patients, who underwent prostatectomy, colectomy, cystectomy, mastectomy, gastrectomy, hysterectomy, nephrectomy, oophorectomy, lung resection or pancreatectomy within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784485/p-wave-analysis-in-the-era-of-atrial-fibrillation-ablation
#12
REVIEW
Fabio M Leonelli, Emanuela T Locati, Giuseppe Bagliani, Roberto De Ponti, Luigi Padeletti, Laura Cipolletta, Alessandro Capucci
The common arrhythmia atrial fibrillation (AF) is incompletely understood. The mechanism of initiation and the perpetuation of AF remain speculative. This article summarizes current knowledge of the complex relationship between arrhythmias triggering AF and their long-term effects on atrial tissue, leading to perpetuation of tachycardia. It focuses on the role of the electrocardiogram (ECG) from AF diagnosis to identification of sinus P wave abnormalities predicting future occurrences. The role of ambulatory ECG recordings in managing AF and the use of frequency analysis determining degree of organization and identification of AF triggers are discussed...
June 2018: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784466/knowledge-gaps-persist-and-hinder-progress-in-eliminating-mumps
#13
REVIEW
R Ramanathan, E A Voigt, R B Kennedy, G A Poland
Mumps, a common childhood disease in the pre-vaccine era that causes swelling of the parotid salivary glands, can lead to orchitis, viral meningitis, and sensorineural deafness. While the incidence of disease decreased dramatically after the vaccine was added to standard vaccination schedules, the disease has made a substantial resurgence in recent years. As a result, it becomes critical to examine the factors involved in recurring outbreaks. Although low and incomplete vaccination coverage may be a key reason, it does not fully explain the issue due to the high rate of occurrence in populations with high vaccination coverage rates...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784460/review-of-real-time-3-dimensional-image-guided-radiation-therapy-on-standard-equipped-cancer-radiation-therapy-systems-are-we-at-the-tipping-point-for-the-era-of-real-time-radiation-therapy
#14
Paul J Keall, Doan Trang Nguyen, Ricky O'Brien, Pengpeng Zhang, Laura Happersett, Jenny Bertholet, Per R Poulsen
PURPOSE: To review real-time 3-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on standard-equipped cancer radiation therapy systems, focusing on clinically implemented solutions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three groups in 3 continents have clinically implemented novel real-time 3D IGRT solutions on standard-equipped linear accelerators. These technologies encompass kilovoltage, combined megavoltage-kilovoltage, and combined kilovoltage-optical imaging. The cancer sites treated span pelvic and abdominal tumors for which respiratory motion is present...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784062/multidrug-resistant-proteus-mirabilis-and-escherichia-coli-causing-fulminant-necrotising-fasciitis-a-case-report
#15
Eugene Vernyuy Yeika, Joyce Bei Foryoung, Derrick Tembi Efie, Eugene Adze Nkwetateba, Paul Nkemtendong Tolefac, Marcelin Ngowe Ngowe
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare soft tissue infection characterized by rapid progressive necrosis with relative sparing of underlying muscles. This case is reported to highlight the emergence of multidrug resistant microbes in recent days which limits the use of empiric antibiotic therapy and necessitates early cultures and sensitivity enabling targeted antibiotic therapy. Factors that lead to antimicrobial resistance especially in sub-Saharan Africa have also been discussed...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783953/immunologic-and-virological-response-to-art-among-hiv-infected-individuals-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#16
Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Faustina Pappoe, Ibrahim Baidoo, Francis Arthur, Anna Hayfron-Benjamin, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Stephen Ayisi Addo
BACKGROUND: The need to study the outcome of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country crucial in the era of the "Treat All" policy. The aim of this study was to analyze selected determinants of immunological and virological response to ART among HIV infected individuals in a tertiary facility in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study with a retrospective component was conducted in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH), Central Region...
May 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783593/re-optimising-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-in-the-era-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-based-on-the-prostate-mr-imaging-study-promis
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782620/genomic-big-data-hitting-the-storage-bottleneck
#18
Louis Papageorgiou, Picasi Eleni, Sofia Raftopoulou, Meropi Mantaiou, Vasileios Megalooikonomou, Dimitrios Vlachakis
During the last decades, there is a vast data explosion in bioinformatics. Big data centres are trying to face this data crisis, reaching high storage capacity levels. Although several scientific giants examine how to handle the enormous pile of information in their cupboards, the problem remains unsolved. On a daily basis, there is a massive quantity of permanent loss of extensive information due to infrastructure and storage space problems. The motivation for sequencing has fallen behind. Sometimes, the time that is spent to solve storage space problems is longer than the one dedicated to collect and analyse data...
2018: EMBnet.journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782560/adjuvant-bevacizumab-for-resected-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-the-end-of-an-era
#19
EDITORIAL
Giannis Mountzios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782405/the-impact-of-anesthesia-influenced-process-measure-compliance-on-length-of-stay-results-from-an-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-for-colorectal-surgery-cohort
#20
Michael C Grant, Claro M Pio Roda, Joseph K Canner, Philip Sommer, Daniel Galante, Deborah Hobson, Susan Gearhart, Christopher L Wu, Elizabeth Wick
BACKGROUND: Process measure compliance has been associated with improved outcomes in enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. Herein, we sought to assess the impact of compliance with measures directly influenced by anesthesiology in an ERAS for colorectal surgery cohort. METHODS: From January 2013 to April 2015, data from 1140 consecutive patients were collected for all patients before (pre-ERAS) and after (ERAS) implementation of an ERAS program. Compliance with 9 specific process measures directly influenced by the anesthesiologist or acute pain service was analyzed to determine the impact on hospital length of stay (LOS)...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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