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childhood cancer outcomes

Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Saro H Armenian, Melissa M Hudson, Ming Hui Chen, Steven D Colan, Lanie Lindenfeld, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Sarah Gelehrter, Ha Dang, Wendy Hein, Daniel M Green, Leslie L Robison, F Lennie Wong, Pamela S Douglas, Smita Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of childhood cancer. One of the well-recognized side-effects of anthracycline therapy is dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that may progress to heart failure (HF) years after completion of cancer-directed therapy. This study will evaluate the efficacy of low-dose beta-blocker (carvedilol) for HF risk reduction in childhood cancer survivors at highest risk for HF. The proposed intervention has the potential to significantly reduce chronic cardiac injury via interruption of neurohormonal systems responsible for left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in improved cardiac function and decreased risk of HF...
October 4, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Ritva Ahomäki, Arja Harila-Saari, Jaakko Matomäki, Päivi M Lähteenmäki
BACKGROUND: In order to assess neurocognitive and social outcomes after childhood cancer, we explored the educational and vocational attainments of Finnish survivors in comparison to matched population controls. METHODS: From national registries, we identified survivors (n = 3243) born from 1960 to 1992 and aged below 16 at cancer diagnosis (years 1964-2009) as well as their controls (n = 16,215). Data on educational achievements, yearly income, employment status, and retirement were retrieved from Statistics Finland...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Mengling Liu, Yingfeng Xia, Jane Ding, Bingwei Ye, Erhu Zhao, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Ahmet Alptekin, Chunhong Yan, Zheng Dong, Shuang Huang, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui, Yunhong Zha, Han-Fei Ding
High-risk neuroblastoma remains one of the deadliest childhood cancers. Identification of metabolic pathways that drive or maintain high-risk neuroblastoma may open new avenues of therapeutic interventions. Here, we report the isolation and propagation of neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential from tumors of the TH-MYCN mouse, an animal model of high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification. Transcriptional profiling reveals that mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells acquire a metabolic program characterized by transcriptional activation of the cholesterol and serine-glycine synthesis pathways, primarily as a result of increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding factors and Atf4, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Federico G Antillón, Jessica G Blanco, Patricia D Valverde, Mauricio Castellanos, Claudia P Garrido, Veronica Girón, Tomas R Letona, Emilia J Osorio, Dyna A Borrayo, Ricardo A Mack, Mario A Melgar, Rodolfo Lorenzana, Raul C Ribeiro, Monika Metzger, Valentino Conter, Emanuela Rossi, Maria Grazia Valsecchi
BACKGROUND: The National Pediatric Oncology Unit (UNOP) is the only pediatric hemato-oncology center in Guatemala. METHODS: Patients ages 1 to 17 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated according to modified ALL Intercontinental Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (IC-BFM) 2002 protocol. Risk classification was based on age, white blood cell count, immunophenotype, genetics (when available), and early response to therapy. RESULTS: From July 2007 to June 2014, 787 patients were treated, including 160 who had standard-risk ALL, 450 who had intermediate-risk ALL, and 177 who had high-risk ALL...
September 28, 2016: Cancer
Lazaros Belbasis, Makrina D Savvidou, Chidimma Kanu, Evangelos Evangelou, Ioanna Tzoulaki
BACKGROUND: Birth weight, a marker of the intrauterine environment, has been extensively studied in epidemiological research in relation to subsequent health and disease. Although numerous meta-analyses have been published examining the association between birth weight and subsequent health-related outcomes, the epidemiological credibility of these associations has not been thoroughly assessed. The objective of this study is to map the diverse health outcomes associated with birth weight and evaluate the credibility and presence of biases in the reported associations...
September 28, 2016: BMC Medicine
Maria A Karalexi, Margarita Baka, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Snezana Zivkovic, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Anna Demetriou, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Eftichia Stiakaki, Maria Moschovi, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Kourti, Stelios Graphakos, Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Hans Olov Adami, Eleni Th Petridou
AIM: To assess trends in survival and geographic disparities among children (0-14 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) before and after the introduction of molecular therapy, namely tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in Southern-Eastern European (SEE) countries and the USA. METHODS: We calculated survival among children with CML, acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in 14 SEE (1990-2014) cancer registries and the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER, 1990-2012)...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Mary Ann Cantrell, Teresa M Conte, Melissa M Hudson, Kathy Ruble, Kaye Herth, Aziza Shad, Alyssa Canino
Research has shown that self-esteem and hopefulness are positively related among female childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and contribute to their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL remains a significant outcome of treatment for CCS. This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, hopefulness, and HRQOL in young adult female CCS to inform the development of evidence-based practice guidelines for pediatric oncology nursing practice. An online survey was conducted with a sample of young adult female CCS from 58 treatment centers across the United States at 4 time points: at baseline and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after initial measurement time...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Karin Zins, Daniel Kovatchki, Trevor Lucas, Dietmar Abraham
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is a rapidly growing, highly-vascularized cancer. NBs frequently express angiogenic factors and high tumor angiogenesis has been associated with poor outcomes. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic protein belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and is up-regulated mainly in pathologic conditions. Recently, PlGF was identified as a member of a gene expression signature characterizing highly malignant NB stem cells drawing attention as a potential therapeutic target in NB...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nader Bagheri, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hedaytollah Shirzad
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) usually colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population, causing an infection that may appear in early childhood and can persist for life. H. pylori is suggested as the main cause of peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. It is also associated with gastric cancer. Its severity and symptoms depend on environmental factors, host susceptibility and bacterial components, which allow H. pylori to switch between commensalism and pathogenicity. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and the variability which affects H...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tejaswi Kandula, Susanna B Park, Richard J Cohn, Arun V Krishnan, Michelle A Farrar
BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors over the last 60years has made monitoring and minimising long term side effects of cancer treatment increasingly important. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been described with many commonly used chemotherapy agents. This article provides a critical overview of pediatric CIPN, its incidence, clinical manifestations, late effects, and recent advances in understanding of risk factors and pharmacogenomics as well as evaluating current assessment strategies and treatment approaches...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Yin Ting Cheung, Noah D Sabin, Wilburn E Reddick, Deepa Bhojwani, Wei Liu, Tara M Brinkman, John O Glass, Scott N Hwang, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy is observed in some children undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, although its effects on long-term outcomes is unknown. This study examines the associations between acute leukoencephalopathy and neurobehavioural, neurocognitive, and brain white matter imaging outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy without cranial radiation. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we used data of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, TN, USA) who had been treated between June 1, 2000, and Oct 31, 2010...
October 2016: Lancet Haematology
Nirmalya Roy Moulik, Ketan Prasad Kulkarni, Archana Kumar
Refusal for treatment and therapy abandonment are important reasons for unfavorable outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in resource-poor countries. The present study, conducted on children with ALL whose treatment was abandoned, attempted to track all these children to ascertain the causes and outcome of therapy abandonment/refusal. In order to improve outcome of ALL, measures to prevent abandonment were introduced in the form of treatment subsidies and intensified multistage counseling...
August 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Maria A Karalexi, Marios K Georgakis, Nick Dessypris, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Snezana Zivkovic, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Anna Demetriou, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Kourti, Maria Moschovi, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Eftichia Stiakaki, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eleni Th Petridou
Childhood (0-14 years) lymphomas, nowadays, present a highly curable malignancy compared with other types of cancer. We used readily available cancer registration data to assess mortality and survival disparities among children residing in Southern-Eastern European (SEE) countries and those in the United States. Average age-standardized mortality rates and time trends of Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin (NHL; including Burkitt [BL]) lymphomas in 14 SEE cancer registries (1990-2014) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, United States; 1990-2012) were calculated...
September 19, 2016: Hematological Oncology
Lisa M Jacola, Kim Edelstein, Wei Liu, Ching-Hon Pui, Robert Hayashi, Nina S Kadan-Lottick, Deokumar Srivastava, Tara Henderson, Wendy Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive deficits that affect development in adolescence and young adulthood, and influence educational attainment and future independence. We examined a large and diverse cohort of survivors to identify risk predictors and modifiers of these outcomes. METHODS: In this cohort study, cognitive and behaviour symptoms were assessed via a standardised parent questionnaire for 1560 adolescent survivors of ALL diagnosed between 1970 and 1999...
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Francesco Ceppi, Michel Duval, Jean-Marie Leclerc, Caroline Laverdiere, Yves-Line Delva, Sonia Cellot, Pierre Teira, Henrique Bittencourt
Relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a leading cause of death by cancer in children. Our institution has switched relapse treatment strategy to improve survival. We reviewed records of first relapse/refractory childhood ALL between 1996 and 2012. Based on length of first remission, relapse site and immunophenotype, patients were classified into two groups: standard-risk relapse (SRR) and high-risk relapse and refractory (HRRR). Before 2007, all patients were uniformly treated with the same induction as at presentation, followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
2016: PloS One
Aldwin Suryo Rahmanto, Vasil Savov, Andrä Brunner, Sara Bolin, Holger Weishaupt, Alena Malyukova, Gabriela Rosén, Matko Čančer, Sonja Hutter, Anders Sundström, Daisuke Kawauchi, David Tw Jones, Charles Spruck, Michael D Taylor, Yoon-Jae Cho, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool, Andrey Korshunov, Fredrik J Swartling, Olle Sangfelt
SOX9 is a master transcription factor that regulates development and stem cell programs. However, its potential oncogenic activity and regulatory mechanisms that control SOX9 protein stability are poorly understood. Here, we show that SOX9 is a substrate of FBW7, a tumor suppressor, and a SCF (SKP1/CUL1/F-box)-type ubiquitin ligase. FBW7 recognizes a conserved degron surrounding threonine 236 (T236) in SOX9 that is phosphorylated by GSK3 kinase and consequently degraded by SCF(FBW) (7α) Failure to degrade SOX9 promotes migration, metastasis, and treatment resistance in medulloblastoma, one of the most common childhood brain tumors...
September 13, 2016: EMBO Journal
Ramandeep Singh Arora, Brijesh Arora
Acute leukemias are the most common diagnostic group of childhood cancer. This review summarizes the published literature on reported current outcomes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from India. Overall survival in ALL ranged from 45% to 81% (commonly >60%) and event-free survival ranged from 41% to 70% (commonly >50%). Outcome data for AML was patchy with varying duration of follow-up, but it can be inferred that 50-80% of treated patients had experienced an event (toxic death, refractory disease or relapse)...
July 2016: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Martin G McCabe, Dominique Valteau-Couanet
Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood...
2016: Progress in Tumor Research
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