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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550243/apomorphine-therapy-for-neuronal-insulin-resistance-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Norimichi Nakamura, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Tomohiro Imamura, Yuki T Yanagihara, Kyoko M Iinuma, Naoko Soejima, Hiroyuki Murai, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira
Apomorphine (APO) promotes intraneuronal amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation and improves memory function in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, 3xTg-AD mice. Since insulin resistance is increased in AD neurons, we investigated the effects of APO on brain insulin resistance in 3xTg-AD mice at early and late stages. After 1-month subcutaneous injection of Apokyn® to 3xTg-AD mice at 6 or 12 months of age, memory function was significantly improved in both age groups. Protein levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is linked to insulin signaling and degrades Aβ, significantly increased in the 3xTg-AD mice brain compared with non-transgenic mice, and were further increased by APO...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550194/the-risk-of-severe-hypoglycemia-in-type-1-diabetes-over-30-years-of-follow-up-in-the-dcct-edic-study
#2
Rose A Gubitosi-Klug, Barbara H Braffett, Neil H White, Robert S Sherwin, F John Service, John M Lachin, William V Tamborlane
OBJECTIVE: During the DCCT, intensive diabetes therapy achieving a mean HbA1c of ∼7% was associated with a threefold increase in the rate of severe hypoglycemia (defined as requiring assistance) compared with conventional diabetes therapy with a mean HbA1c of 9% (61.2 vs. 18.7 per 100 patient-years). After ∼30 years of follow-up, we investigated the rates of severe hypoglycemia in the DCCT/EDIC cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Rates of severe hypoglycemia were reported quarterly during DCCT and annually during EDIC (i...
May 26, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547206/glycemic-variability-in-type-1-diabetes-compared-with-degludec-and-glargine-on-the-morning-injection-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Ryo Iga, Hiroshi Uchino, Ken Kanazawa, Shuki Usui, Masahiko Miyagi, Naoki Kumashiro, Hiroshi Yoshino, Yasuyo Ando, Takahisa Hirose
INTRODUCTION: Optimal adjustment of basal insulin to overcome hypoglycemia and glycemic variability (GV) depends on its duration of action and peak-less profile. Owing to the ability of long-acting basal insulin to avoid hypoglycemia, we titrated pre-meal glucose to normal fasting blood glucose, 80-110 mg/dL (4.5-6.1 mmol/L), and post-meal glucose to 80-140 mg/dL (4.5-7.8 mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to evaluate two basal insulin analogues degludec (IDeg) and glargine (IGlar), injected in the morning, for GV using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM)...
May 25, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546831/effect-of-variable-antidiabetic-treatments-strategy-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-obese-patients-with-t2dm
#4
Abeer A ALrefai, Alsayed M Alsalamony, Sameer H Fatani, Hala F M Kamel
AIM: To evaluate the effect of different anti-diabetic treatment strategy on oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SUBJECT AND METHODS: A total of 93 patients with T2DM treated with metformin (G1 = 25), OHA (G2 = 22), OA and insulin (G3 = 26) and insulin alone (G4 = 20). In all patients, lipid profile and glycemic indices were assessed using routine laboratory tests. MDA and Oxidized LDL were assessed using commercially available ELISA kits...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545927/stem-cells-to-restore-insulin-production-and-cure-diabetes
#5
V Sordi, S Pellegrini, M Krampera, P Marchetti, A Pessina, G Ciardelli, G Fadini, C Pintus, G Pantè, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge in the field of regenerative medicine is increasing the therapeutic expectations of patients and clinicians on cell therapy approaches. Within these, stem cell therapies are often evoked as a possible therapeutic option for diabetes, already ongoing or possible in the near future. AIM: The purpose of this document is to make a point of the situation on existing knowledge and therapies with stem cells to treat patients with diabetes by focusing on some of the aspects that most frequently raise curiosity and discussion in clinical practice and in the interaction with the patient...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545910/thyroid-function-test-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#6
Amir Ahmad Mirboluk, Farzaneh Rohani, Ramin Asadi, Mohammad Reza Eslamian
BACKGROUND: Metabolism of thyroid hormones is influenced by acute systemic illnesses including diabetic ketoacidosis. In these cases T3 level is usually decreased and this condition is called "low T3 syndrome" which is usually reversed by treating the under lying Disease. OBJECTIVES: thyroid function test analysis before and after diabetic ketoacidosis treatment. METHOD: In this cross sectional study thyroid function tests were analyzed in 16 diabetic ketoacidosis patients according to American diabetic association before and after insulin therapy...
April 15, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544654/hypogonadism-in-testicular-cancer-patients-is-associated-with-risk-factors-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#7
C Bogefors, S Isaksson, J Bobjer, M Kitlinski, I Leijonhufvud, K Link, A Giwercman
More than 95% of testicular cancer are cured but they are at increased long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. The risk of cardiovascular disease and treatment intensity was reported, but it is unknown whether this effect of cancer therapy is direct or indirect, mediated through androgen deficiency. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate whether testicular cancer patients have increased the prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular disease and if these risk factors are associated with hypogonadism and/or the cancer treatment given...
May 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543022/sedentary-behaviour-is-a-key-determinant-of-metabolic-inflexibility
#8
Corey A Rynders, Stephane Blanc, Nathan DeJong, Daniel H Bessesen, Audrey Bergouignan
Metabolic flexibility is defined as the ability to adapt substrate oxidation rates in response to changes in fuel availability. The inability to switch between the oxidation of lipid and carbohydrate appears to be an important feature of chronic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Laboratory assessment of metabolic flexibility has traditionally involved measurement of the respiratory quotient (RQ) by indirect calorimetry during the fasted to fed transition (e.g. mixed meal challenge) or during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541188/a-variable-state-dimension-approach-to-meal-detection-and-meal-size-estimation-in-silico-evaluation-through-basal-bolus-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#9
Jinyu Xie, Qian Wang
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to develop an algorithm that can detect unannounced meals and estimate meal sizes to achieve a robust glucose control. METHODS: A variable state dimension (VSD) algorithm is developed to detect unannounced meals and estimate meal sizes, where a Kalman filter operates on a quiescent state model when no meal is detected, and switches to a maneuvering state model to estimate meal information once the meal-induced glucose variability is statistically significant...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541137/clinical-use-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Anders L Carlson, Deborah M Mullen, Richard M Bergenstal
Hemoglobin A1c is an excellent population health measure for the risk of vascular complications in diabetes, while continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a tool to help personalize a diabetes treatment plan. The value of CGM in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been well demonstrated when compared with utilizing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to guide treatment decisions. CGM is a tool for patients and clinicians to visualize the important role that diet, exercise, stress management, and the appropriate selection of diabetes medications can have in managing type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541132/how-can-we-realize-the-clinical-benefits-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#11
Ramzi A Ajjan
Controlling glycemia in diabetes remains key to prevent complications in this condition. However, glucose levels can undergo large fluctuations secondary to daily activities, consequently creating management difficulties. The current review summarizes the basics of glucose management in diabetes by addressing the main glycemic parameters. The advantages and limitation of HbA1c, the gold standard measure of glucose control, are discussed together with the clinical importance of hypoglycemia and glycemic variability...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541131/clinical-use-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#12
David Slattery, Pratik Choudhary
With the emphasis on intensive management of type 1 diabetes, data from studies support frequent monitoring of glucose levels to improve glycemic control and reduce glucose variability, which can be related to an increase in macro and microvascular complications. However, few perform capillary blood glucose that frequently. There are currently two available alternatives that this review will discuss, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring. CGM has become an important diagnostic and therapeutic option in optimizing diabetes management...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540104/pseudohyperglycemia-effects-of-unwashed-hand-after-fruit-peeling-or-handling-on-fingertips-blood-glucose-monitoring-results
#13
M A Olamoyegun, T Oloyede, O G Adewoye, S O Abdulkarim, A A Adeleke
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of management for diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in T1DM and T2DM patients who are on insulin therapy. Adequate blood glucose monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent blood glucose (BG) fluctuation and delay long-term diabetes complications. People with DM are advised to clean their hands before SMBG to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. AIM: The study tested the hypothesis that falsely elevated BG levels from fingertip occur after peeling or handling fruits in an unwashed hand...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540043/prescription-patterns-of-long-acting-somatostatin-analogues
#14
Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba, Manuel Enrique Machado-Duque
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly and endocrine tumors are uncommon morbidities that are currently treated with different drugs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prescription patterns of somatostatin analogues in patients affiliated with the Health System of Colombia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients of any age and sex treated with octreotide or lanreotide between January 2011 and August 2015. Socio-demographic, clinical (indications) and pharmacological (comedications) variables were considered...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539977/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-type-2-diabetes
#15
P Avari, S Devendra
The prevalence of diabetes is higher amongst individuals infected with HIV. The major contributor to hyperglycaemia is thought to be iatrogenic, with protease inhibitors being most commonly associated to insulin resistance. This article is to update general practitioners on the diagnosis and management of diabetes in HIV-infected patients. Specific considerations are highlighted including interactions of particular diabetic drugs with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We articulate why the use of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing is not recommended as a diagnostic tool...
May 2017: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539618/effect-of-exenatide-after-short-time-intensive-insulin-therapy-on-glycaemic-remission-maintenance-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Xiulin Shi, Yalin Shi, Ning Chen, Mingzhu Lin, Weijuan Su, Huijie Zhang, Changqin Liu, Haiqu Song, Fangsen Xiao, Peiying Huang, Liying Wang, Wei Liu, Jinyang Zeng, Bing Yan, Qi Liu, Suhuan Liu, Shuyu Yang, Xiaoying Li, Zhibin Li, Xuejun Li
Early short-term intensive insulin (STII) therapy can induce drug-free glycemic remission for up to 1 year in half of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. Whether exenatide following STII therapy will induce higher long-term glycaemic remission is currently unknown. To assess the effect of STII+ exenatide therapy, compared with STII only, on maintenance of glycaemic remission in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. In this randomized, parallel-group, open-label, controlled trial, 129 patients (66 in STII+ exenatide group and 63 in STII only group) firstly completed 3-week STII therapy, then STII+ exenatide group was treated with exenatide for 12 weeks further...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539291/-beneficial-effect-of-periodontal-therapy-on-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-metabolism-in-obese-rats-with-periodontitis
#17
Qiao-Xue Chai, Su-Lan Zhong, Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Lei Zhou, Jin-Cai Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of periodontal therapy in controlling periodontitis and on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into normal group (group C), obese group (group O), periodontitis combined with obesity group (group P) and periodontal treatment group (group T). The obese rats in groups P and T were subjected to ligation of the maxillary second molar with silk thread to induce experimental periodontitis, and the rats in group T received periodontal therapy after the ligation...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538386/safety-and-efficiency-of-sglt2-inhibitor-combining-with-insulin-in-subjects-with-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Yingying Yang, Shi Chen, Hui Pan, Yun Zou, Bo Wang, Guixia Wang, Huijuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the safety and efficiency of the novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in combinations with insulin for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). METHODS: We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from January 2010 to December 2016 without restriction of language. FDA data and Clinical Trials (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched. Study selection, data extraction, and evaluation of risk of bias were performed by 2 persons independently...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538088/effects-of-the-insulin-sensitizer-metformin-in-alzheimer-disease-pilot-data-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#19
Aaron M Koenig, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, Sharon X Xie, Martha F Combs, Anne R Cappola, Long Xie, John A Detre, David A Wolk, Steven E Arnold
Epidemiological studies have identified a robust association between type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD), and neurobiological studies have suggested the presence of central nervous system insulin resistance in individuals with AD. Given this association, we hypothesized that the central nervous system-penetrant insulin-sensitizing medication metformin would be beneficial as a disease-modifying and/or symptomatic therapy for AD, and conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging, and cognitive biomarkers...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538000/revascularization-for-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-an-update
#20
G B John Mancini, Michael Farkouh, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the management of patients with diabetes mellitus and requiring coronary revascularization. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence continues to show that patients with diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease represent a very high-risk group of patients. Choice of stent appears important for minimizing target lesion and target vessel adverse events with everolimus eluting stents having the best performance, particularly in patients being treated with insulin...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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