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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429039/-true-thymic-hyperplasia-differential-diagnosis-of-thymic-mass-lesions-in-neonates-and-children
#1
C-A Weis, B Märkl, T Schuster, K Vollert, P Ströbel, A Marx
Reactive and neoplastic thymic pathologies are the main considerations in the case of masses in the anterior and middle part of the mediastinum, while neurogenic tumors are predominant in the posterior mediastinum (which are not dealt with here). In neonates and infants, the commonest pathologies in the anterior mediastinum comprise germ cell tumors (mainly teratomas), congenital thymic cysts and true thymic hyperplasia (TTH). In toddlers, teratomas, yolk sac tumors and cysts predominate. In children over 5 years of age, lymphomas are the commonest mass lesions whereas thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare...
April 20, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427002/incidental-posterior-mediastinal-paraganglioma-the-safe-approach-to-management-case-report
#2
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Roan J Glocker, Jacob Moalem, Michael J Singh, Virginia R Litle
INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells located in sympathetic paraganglia. Mediastinal paragangliomas are extremely rare and can be classified as functional or non-functional according to their ability for secreting catecholamines. Patients can be asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually incidental. Complete surgical resection remains the standard of care for paragangliomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a 44-year-old woman with a functional mediastinal paraganglioma incidentally found during the perioperative imaging workup for a diagnosed breast carcinoma...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420320/pediatric-non-vestibular-schwannoma
#3
Cory Broehm, Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi, Karen J Fritchie
While the clinicopathologic features of pediatric vestibular schwannomas, often in the context of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), have been well studied, there is less data regarding the characteristics of pediatric non-vestibular schwannomas (NVS). Additionally, the rate of loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression in this population has not been systematically evaluated. Our institutional archives were searched for cases of NVS arising in patients 18 years or younger. Clinicopathologic features including SMARCB1/INI1 status were assessed for each case...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418952/fdg-pet-ct-findings-of-nodular-sclerosis-subtype-classic-hodgkin-lymphoma-presented-as-mediastinal-nodal-lesions-at-onset-but-as-predominant-osseous-disease-at-relapse
#4
Kun Zheng, Hongming Zhuang
Nodular sclerosis-subtype classic Hodgkin lymphoma in general manifests as bulky mediastinal lymphadenopathy but very rarely involves bones. We report FDG PET/CT findings of a 19-year-old man with pathology-proven, nodular sclerosis-type classic Hodgkin lymphoma. His initial FDG PET/CT scan at the diagnosis showed only hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy in the mediastinum. However, the FDG PET/CT acquired when the disease recurred 20 months later showed predominant osseous disease without additional nodal lesions outside the mediastinum...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414660/a-mullerian-cyst-resected-from-the-posterior-mediastinum
#5
Ronald Mowad, Navdeep Singh Samraf, Vyas Rao
Differential diagnoses of mediastinal masses are often based on the anatomic locations. Traditionally the posterior mediastinum has been home to esophageal and neurogenic cysts, but a new entity has been found to be prevalent since its initial report in 2005: the Müllerian cyst. We present a 49-year-old with history of cough who was found to have such a mass. We will discuss the surgical outcome and the details of this interesting entity. The literature pertinent to this type of cyst will be evaluated. In all cases reported, the literature demonstrates that surgical removal results in uneventful follow-up with no evidence of malignancy or cyst recurrence...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413505/rare-scar-sarcoidosis-a-case-report
#6
Sha Zhao, Qin Wang, Beibei Cheng, Xiao-Fang Zhu
A 70-year-old female patient presenting with swelling and subcutaneous nodule formation localized to the knee scars over a two-month period is presently reported. Dermatological examinations found erythematous swelling and small papules on the patient's knee scars, along with subcutaneous nodules beneath and around the scars. Computer tomography of the chest region identified multiple obscure tubercles in the lungs and swollen lymph nodes in the hilum pulmonis and mediastinum. Skin biopsy revealed multiple non-caseating granulomas, which had infiltrated the dermis...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411336/fdg-pet-for-therapy-monitoring-in-hodgkin-and-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
#7
REVIEW
Sally F Barrington, Regine Kluge
PET using (18)F-FDG for treatment monitoring in patients with lymphoma is one of the most well-developed clinical applications. PET/CT is nowadays used during treatment to assess chemosensitivity, with response-adapted therapy given according to 'interim' PET in clinical practice to adults and children with Hodgkin lymphoma. PET is also used to assess remission from disease and to predict prognosis in the pretransplant setting. Mature data have been reported for the common subtypes of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, with more recent data also supporting the use of PET for response assessment in T-cell lymphomas...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410289/initial-experience-with-real-time-hybrid-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-computed-tomography-guided-percutaneous-transthoracic-needle-biopsy
#8
Qian Hua, Xiangyun Zhu, Lei Zhang, Yanjun Zhao, Ping Tang, Jianming Ni
The aim of this study was to explore a technique that uses real-time fusion image of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) to guide percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) and test its feasibility and safety in patients. Twelve patients with intrathoracic lesions suspicious for malignancy underwent real-time 99m-technetium sestamibi SPECT/CT-guided PTNB. Chest SPECT/CT fusion images were used for biopsy planning and intraprocedure fusion of SPECT with guiding CT was used to adjust the puncture angle and direction...
April 13, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410288/the-utility-of-the-combination-of-a-spect-study-with-123i-fp-cit-of-dopamine-transporters-and-123i-mibg-myocardial-scintigraphy-in-differentiating-parkinson-disease-from-other-degenerative-parkinsonian-syndromes
#9
Naoto Uyama, Hideki Otsuka, Takayoshi Shinya, Yoichi Otomi, Masafumi Harada, Wataru Sako, Yuishin Izumi, Ryuji Kaji, Yuya Watanabe, Satoru Takashi, Yamato Kunikane
OBJECTIVE: Molecular imaging of nigrostriatal dopamine transporters (DAT) and sympathetic cardiac innervation with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are useful tools for differentiating idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) from other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes (non-PD). Nevertheless, these modalities are often insufficient for achieving a definite diagnosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of these tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SPECT radiotracers [I]-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-nortropane (FP-CIT) and meta-[I]-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were used to research presynaptic dopaminergic projections (DAT SPECT) and myocardial adrenergic innervation (MIBG scintigraphy), respectively...
April 13, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407803/orchitis-reveals-an-extragonadal-primary-mediastinal-thymic-seminoma-a-coincidence-or-not
#10
Athanasios Tampakis, Ekaterini Christina Tampaki, Christos Damaskos, Themistoklis Feretis, Irene Thymara, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Periklis Tomos, Gregory Kouraklis
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal thymic seminomas are rare male germ cell tumors with extragonadal origin that appear predominately with a cystic appearance. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year-old male was referred to our department for further investigation of a mediastinal mass discovered incidentally during routine chest X-ray. The patient has denied any symptoms including dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever, dysphagia, hemoptysis, weight loss, and weakness. His past medical history was remarkable for orchitis, for which he had undergone a bilateral testicular biopsy, without the latter however, indicating the presence of a germ cell tumor or a premalignant lesion...
April 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406780/dysphagia-an-unusual-presentation-of-metastatic-uterine-cervical-carcinoma
#11
Anam Hameed, Alexander A Dekovich, Phillip J Lum, Mehnaz A Shafi
Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women and the fourth leading cause of death from cancer. The most common sites of metastasis are the pelvic lymph nodes, vagina, and the pelvic sidewalls. Distant metastases are uncommon but can involve the bone, lung, and liver. Characteristics associated with increased rate of distant metastasis include bulky tumor, endometrial extension, lymph node involvement, and advanced disease. We report the case of a woman with stage II cervical carcinoma, who presented with dysphagia due to cervical cancer metastases to the mediastinum...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405080/myeloid-sarcoma-causing-airway-obstruction
#12
Aaron R Belknap, John R Krause
Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary collection of blasts of the myeloid series that partially or totally effaces the architecture of the tissue in which it is found. These tumors have been described in many sites of the body, but the skin, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, bone, soft tissue, and testes are most common. They can arise in a patient following the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, but they may also be precursors of leukemia and should be considered diagnostic for acute myeloid leukemia. The differential diagnosis of this neoplasm includes malignant lymphoma, with which it is often mistaken, leading to diagnostic and therapeutic delays...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400998/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-measurement-in-mediastinal-lymphadenopathies-differentiation-between-benign-and-malignant-lesions
#13
Fethi Emre Ustabasioglu, Cesur Samanci, Deniz Alis, Nilay Sengul Samanci, Osman Kula, Deniz Cebi Olgun
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively assess the diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in the differentiation of benign and malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 63 consecutive patients (28 women, 35 men; mean age 59.3 years) with 125 mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Echoplanar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the mediastinum was performed with b-factors of 0 and 600 mm(2)/s before mediastinoscopy and mediastinotomy, and ADC values were measured...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400507/effects-of-unilateral-airway-occlusion-on-rib-motion-and-inspiratory-intercostal-activity-in-dogs
#14
Dimitri Leduc, Sarah Marechal, Olivier Taton, Bernard Blairon, Alexandre Legrand
Unilateral bronchial occlusion, a complication of many lung diseases, causes dyspnea but the mechanism of this symptom is uncertain. In this study, electromyographic (EMG) activity in the parasternal and external intercostal muscles in the third intercostal space and inspiratory motion of the third rib on both sides of the thorax were assessed during occlusion of a main bronchus for a single breath in anesthetized dogs. Occlusion produced a 65% increase in external intercostal EMG activity in both hemithoraces without altering parasternal EMG activity...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393789/knife-in-the-superior-mediastinum-amazing-escape
#15
Kareem Salhiyyah, Ahmed Ashoub, Paul Diprose, Clifford Barlow
This text describe through images, how a knife is retrieved from the superior mediastinum.
April 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393719/a-case-of-tracheal-leiomyoma-misdiagnosed-as-asthma
#16
Ayperi Öztürk, Zafer Aktaş, Aydın Yılmaz, Havva Yeşildağlı, Leyla Memiş
Primary benign tumors of trachea are rare. Of them, tracheal leiomyoma, constitutes only 1% of all benign lower respiratory tract tumors. Here, we present a case of tracheal leiomyoma who has been receiving high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators for a year with a misdiagnosis of asthma. As the symptoms did not resolve with an overtreatment, she has been undergone radiologic study to find a possible alternative diagnosis. The chest roentgenogram revealed an opacity in the upper mediastinum...
December 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392624/mediastinal-pseudocyst-varied-presentations-and-management-experience-from-a-tertiary-referral-care-centre-in-india
#17
Durairaj Segamalai, Abdul Rehman Abdul Jameel, Naveen Kannan, Amudhan Anbalagan, Benet Duraisamy, Prabhakaran Raju, Kannan Devy Gounder
Pseudocysts are a recognised complication following acute or chronic pancreatitis. Usually located in peripancreatic areas, they have also been reported to occur in atypical regions like liver, pelvis, spleen, and mediastinum. Mediastinal pseudocysts are a rare entity and present with myriad of symptoms due to their unique location. They are a clinical challenge to diagnose and manage. In this paper, we describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of mediastinal pseudocysts in 7 of our patients, as well as our experience in managing these patients along with their clinical outcome...
2017: HPB Surgery: a World Journal of Hepatic, Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391172/large-bronchogenic-cyst-of-stomach-a-case-report
#18
Amine Chhaidar, Houssem Ammar, Nihed Abdessayed, Mohamed Azzaza, Rahul Gupta, Nefis Abdennaceur, Ahlem Bdioui, Moncef Mokni, Ali Ben Ali
INTRODUCTION: Bronchogenic cysts are congenital cysts arising as an abnormal budding from primitive tracheobronchial tree. They are lined by pseudostratified columnar or cuboidal ciliated epithelium and contain smooth muscle fibers, submucosal bronchial glands and/or cartilage. They are most frequently located in the mediastinum or the lung parenchyma. Intramural occurrence of bronchogenic cyst in the gastric wall is very rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of 65-year-old lady with a 7×8cm lesion in the gastric cardia suspicious of gastrointestinal stromal tumor...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387488/-mediastinitis-on-oesphagal-perforation
#19
G Canbay, X Bertrand
Vomiting is less benign than it seems … Esophageal perforations and ruptures cause the contents of the esophageal lumen to leak into the cervical retroesophageal space, the mediastinum or the abdomen, which can trigger, among other adverse events, a mediastinitis, the diagnosis of which is difficult and should be established as promptly as possible. It's a rare pathology involving a high risk of diagnostic errors.
March 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384953/neonatal-airway-compromise-by-a-giant-cervicothoracic-venous-haemangioma
#20
Janardhan Shenoy, Anita Coutinho, Sowmini P Kamath, Suresh Pai, Santosh Pv Rai
Haemangiomas are most common non-malignant vascular tumours of infancy. Here, we describe an antenatally detected mass over the neck causing compressive respiratory compromise at birth requiring resuscitative measures at birth. The mass showed increased vascularity on Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) with extension upto superior mediastinum. Surgical excision was required following failure to medical measures with steroids and propranolol. Histopathology confirmed it to be a venous haemangioma. This case highlights that these benign lesions may reach large sizes and antenatal detection may help in planning effective delivery and resuscitative measures...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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