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Nuria Roldan, Thomas K M Nyholm, J Peter Slotte, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Begoña García-Álvarez
To allow breathing and prevent alveolar collapse, lung surfactant (LS) develops a complex membranous system at the respiratory surface. LS is defined by a specific protein and lipid composition, including saturated and unsaturated phospholipid species and cholesterol. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been suggested to be an essential element for sustaining the presence of cholesterol in surfactant without functional impairment. In this work, we used a fluorescent sterol-partitioning assay to assess the effect of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on cholesterol distribution in membranes...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Eric Bosch
Weak interactions between organic molecules are important in solid-state structures where the sum of the weaker interactions support the overall three-dimensional crystal structure. The sp-C-H...N hydrogen-bonding interaction is strong enough to promote the deliberate cocrystallization of a series of diynes with a series of dipyridines. It is also possible that a similar series of cocrystals could be formed between molecules containing a terminal alkyne and molecules which contain carbonyl O atoms as the potential hydrogen-bond acceptor...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Yange Tian, Jiansheng Li, Ya Li, Yuqiong Dong, Fengjia Yao, Jing Mao, Linlin Li, Lili Wang, Shan Luo, Minghang Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Bufei Yishen granules combined with acupoint sticking therapy (the integrated therapy) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SPs, including SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) may be included in pathophysiology of COPD. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of the integrated therapy on SPs. COPD rat models were established. The treatment groups received Bufei Yishen granules or acupoint sticking or their combination...
2016: BioMed Research International
Wolfgang Bernhard
Lung surfactant is a complex with a unique phospholipid and protein composition. Its specific function is to reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The underlying Young-Laplace equation, applying to the surface of any geometrical structure, is the more important the smaller its radii are. It therefore applies to the alveoli and bronchioli of mature lungs, as well as to the tubules and saccules of immature lungs. Surfactant comprises 80% phosphatidylcholine (PC), of which dipalmitoyl-PC, palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC together are 75%...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Harry Pachajoa, Felipe Ruiz-Botero, Luis Enrique Meza-Escobar, Vania Alexandra Villota-Delgado, Adriana Ballesteros, Ivan Padilla, Diana Duarte
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins. Mutations in surfactant protein-C, surfactant protein-D, and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily A member 3 have been related to surfactant dysfunction and neonatal respiratory failure in full-term babies. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily A member 3 facilitates the transfer of lipids to lamellar bodies. We report the case of patient with a homozygous intronic ABCA3 mutation. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a newborn full-term Colombian baby boy who was the son of non-consanguineous parents of mixed race ancestry (Mestizo), who was delivered with severe respiratory depression...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Hang Nguyen, Bruce D Uhal
Recent work from this laboratory showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is regulated by the autocrine angiotensin (ANG)II/ANG1-7 system. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 or surfactant protein C (SP-C) BRICHOS domain mutation G100S induced apoptosis in human AECs by activating the pro-apoptotic cathepsin D and reducing anti-apoptotic angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2). This study tested the hypothesis that ER stress-induced apoptosis of human AECs might be mediated by influence of the unfolded protein response (UPR) on the autocrine ANGII/ANG1-7 system...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Laura Heyen, Uwe Müller, Sabine Siegemund, Bianca Schulze, Martina Protschka, Gottfried Alber, Daniel Piehler
Inhalation of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) results in pulmonary cryptococcosis associated with IL-33-dependent type 2 immunity. Lung epithelium represents the initial contact site of infection. The role of IL-33 in type 2 immunity has been analyzed, but the source of this cytokine and its effect on lung epithelial cell function in pulmonary cryptococcosis remained unclear. In mice infected with C. neoformans, we identified alveolar type 2 epithelial cells as major source of IL-33. On both, IL-33-positive and IL-33-negative epithelial cells, IL-33 receptor expression was detectable...
September 4, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Gabriela Pirani, Dalton De Souza Amorim
Drosophilidae comprises more than 4,000 described species worldwide. Despite the huge number of papers published on the genus Drosophila Fallén, 1823, large parts of the family are still poorly known. The drosophiline genus Cladochaeta Coquillet, 1900 has more than 100 Neotropical and several southern Nearctic described species, but there is quite a large number of undescribed species. The Brazilian fauna of the genus was studied and 12 new species are herein described-Cladochaeta armatopsis nov. sp., C. balbiae nov...
2016: Zootaxa
Oscar J Cadena-Castañeda, Andrea Garay, Didier M Castañeda, Juan Manuel Cardona-Granda, Alexander García García
Eumastacinae are well-recognized because most genera feature showy colors, and because of particular morphological characteristics of the phallic complex. This orthopteran subfamily includes the genus Caenomastax, distributed in mid-elevations in the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Santander in Colombia. Three new species are described for this genus: Caenomastax similis n. sp., C. bimaculata n. sp. and C. magdalenensis n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis was performed based on morphological characters for 10 species (five ingroup and five outgroup) and 61 characters, which comprised external and genital morphology...
2016: Zootaxa
Morteza Kahrarian, Rafael Molero, Miquel Gaju
Several samples belonging to the genus Ctenolepisma Escherich, 1905 collected in western Iran allow us to describe three new species: Ctenolepisma iranicum n. sp., C. sagartianum n. sp. and C. kermanshanum n. sp. Ctenolepisma iranicum n. sp. belongs to the nominate subgenus Ctenolepisma sensu stricto and is closely related to C. ciliatum and C. armeniacum. The other two new species belong to the subgenus Sceletolepisma. They are compared mainly with Asian species belonging to this subgenus, which is reported for the first time in Iran...
2016: Zootaxa
Melissa Kaori Silva Litao, Don Hayes, Saurabh Chiwane, Lawrence M Nogee, Geoffrey Kurland, Lokesh Guglani
Mutations of the Surfactant Protein C (SPC) gene (SFTPC) have been associated with childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) with variable age of onset, severity of lung disease, and outcomes. We report a novel mutation in SFTPC [c.435G->A, p.(Gln145)] that was associated with onset of symptoms in early infancy, progressive respiratory failure with need for prolonged mechanical ventilatory support, and eventual lung transplant at 1 year of age. While the mutation was not predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the SP-C precursor protein, analysis of SP-C transcripts demonstrated skipping of exon 4...
June 30, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
W-N Wang, J-H Zhou, P Wang, X-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is the only essential protein component of lung surfactant, the relationship between localization and function is very close. The localization of rat SP-B and influences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on it were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The localization of SP-B protein in lung tissue was detected by immunofluorescence after challenged with intratracheal instillation of LPS. The constructed recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N2-SP-B was transfected with CCl-149 cell lines by liposome to explore the localization of SP-B in alveolar type II epithelial cells...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Laura Elena Carreto-Binaghi, El Moukhtar Aliouat, Maria Lucia Taylor
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability...
2016: Respiratory Research
H Schröder, L Sollfrank, F Paulsen, M Schicht, L Bräuer
Surfactant proteins are broadly understood to be an important structural and functional part of the lung surfactant system. These proteins influence the intra-alveolar surface tension and contribute to innate immunity of the lung. Beside the four already known surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D, two novel SPs (SP-G/SFTA2 and SP-H/SFTA3) have recently been described. These show no sequential or structural similarity with the already known SPs. However, bioinformatic prediction tools suggest physicochemical properties, which have already been described for other surfactant proteins...
May 21, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Liang Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Lijie Yuan, Hongmin Wu, Hong Jiang, Gang Luo
Life-saving mechanical ventilation can also cause lung injury through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-like symptoms in preterm infants. It is reported that the autophagic protein microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain (LC)-3B can confer protection against hyperoxia-induced DNA damage in lung alveolar epithelium. However, its role in the transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) to type I cells (AECIs) is unclear and requires further investigation...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Miroslava Jancusova, Lubomir Kovacik, Antonio Batista Pereira, Roman Dusinsky, Annick Wilmotte
The evolutionary relationships of 10 Antarctic cyanobacterial strains of the order Oscillatoriales isolated from King George and Deception Islands, South Shetland Islands were studied by a polyphasic approach (morphology, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences). The studied taxa are characteristic of coastal Antarctic biotopes, where they form distinct populations and ecologically delimited communities. They were isolated from terrestrial habitats: microbial mats in seepages; crusts on soil, rocks, bones and mosses; mud, sometimes close to bird colonies; and from guano...
July 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Susana Al-Halabí, Pilar A Sáiz, Patricia Burón, Marlén Garrido, Antoni Benabarre, Esther Jiménez, Jorge Cervilla, María Isabel Navarrete, Eva M Díaz-Mesa, Leticia García-Álvarez, José Muñiz, Kelly Posner, María A Oquendo, María Paz García-Portilla, Julio Bobes
OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the C-SSRS (Sp-CSSRS). METHOD: Data are from a naturalistic, cross-sectional, multicentre, validation study, including 467 psychiatric outpatients, 242 of whom had a history of suicide attempt. The study measures were: C-SSRS; the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); the Beck Suicide Intent Scale; the Medical Damage Scale. RESULTS: Construct validity: Pearson coefficient between the C-SSRS severity (C-Sev) and intensity (C-Int) of ideation subscale scores was 0...
July 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
Nina Hobi, Michael Giolai, Bárbara Olmeda, Pika Miklavc, Edward Felder, Paul Walther, Paul Dietl, Manfred Frick, Jesus Pérez-Gil, Thomas Haller
The molecular basis involving adsorption of pulmonary surfactant at the respiratory air-liquid interface and the specific roles of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in this process have not been completely resolved. The reasons might be found in the largely unknown structural assembly in which surfactant lipids and proteins are released from alveolar type II cells, and the difficulties to sample, manipulate and visualize the adsorption of these micron-sized particles at an air-liquid interface under appropriate physiological conditions...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Markus Fehrholz, Kirsten Glaser, Silvia Seidenspinner, Barbara Ottensmeier, Tore Curstedt, Christian P Speer, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Natural surfactant preparations, commonly isolated from porcine or bovine lungs, are used to treat respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Besides biophysical effectiveness, several studies have documented additional immunomodulatory properties. Within the near future, synthetic surfactant preparations may be a promising alternative. CHF5633 is a new generation reconstituted synthetic surfactant preparation with defined composition, containing dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and synthetic analogs of surfactant protein (SP-) B and SP-C...
2016: PloS One
T Kato, K Oka, T Nakamura, A Ito
Organ-specific stem cells play key roles in maintaining the epithelial cell layers of lung. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are distal lung epithelial stem cells of adult mice. Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells have important functions and serve as progenitor cells of alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells to repair the epithelium when they are injured. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) elicits mitogenic, morphogenic, and anti-apoptotic effects on lung epithelial cells through tyrosine phosphorylation of Met receptor, and thus is recognized as a pulmotrophic factor...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
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