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Joseph T Church, Elena M Perkins, Megan A Coughlin, Jennifer S McLeod, Katherine Boss, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson, Raja Rabah, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
BACKGROUND: Extremely premature neonates suffer high morbidity and mortality. An artificial placenta (AP) using extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a promising therapy. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that intratracheal perfluorocarbon (PFC) instillation during AP support would reduce lung injury and promote lung development relative to intratracheal amniotic fluid or crystalloid. METHODS: Lambs at an estimated gestational age (EGA) 116-121 days (term 145 days) were placed on venovenous ECLS with jugular drainage and umbilical vein reinfusion and intubated...
February 23, 2018: Neonatology
Andreas Holzinger, Andreas Albert, Siegfried Aigner, Jenny Uhl, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Kateřina Trumhová, Martina Pichrtová
Species of Zygnema form macroscopically visible mats in polar and temperate terrestrial habitats, where they are exposed to environmental stresses. Three previously characterized isolates (Arctic Zygnema sp. B, Antarctic Zygnema sp. C, and temperate Zygnema sp. S) were tested for their tolerance to experimental UV radiation. Samples of young vegetative cells (1 month old) and pre-akinetes (6 months old) were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm, 400 μmol photons m-2  s-1 ) in combination with experimental UV-A (315-400 nm, 5...
February 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Ming-Ming Pei, Ping Liu, Yan Liu, Xin-Ming Lv, Xiao-Wei Ma, Bin Dai
Highly selective C(sp²)-C(sp²) cross-coupling of dihalogenated hydrocarbons comprising C(sp²)-Br and C(sp³)-Cl bonds with arylboronic acids is reported. This highly selective coupling reaction of the C(sp²)-Br bond is successfully achieved using Pd(OAc)₂ and PCy₃·HBF₄ as the palladium source and ligand, respectively. A series of chloromethyl-1,1'-biphenyl compounds are obtained in moderate-to-excellent yields. Moreover, this protocol can be extended to the one-pot dual arylation of 1-bromo-4-(chloromethyl)benzene with two arylboronic acids, leading to diverse unsymmetrical 4-benzyl-1,1'-biphenyl derivatives...
February 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiancui Zhu, Yang Li, Dianjun Guo, Shaowu Wang, Yun Wei, Shuangliu Zhou
Herein, rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes supported by a neutral pyrrolyl-functionalized β-diketiminato ligand with the formula LRE(CH2 SiMe3 )2 (thf) (RE = Y (1a), Dy (1b), Er (1c), Yb (1d); L = MeC(NDipp)CHC(Me)NCH2 CH2 NC4 H2 -2,5-Me2 , Dipp = 2,6-i Pr2 C6 H3 ) were synthesized via the reactions of the β-diketimine HL with the rare-earth metal trialkyl complexes RE(CH2 SiMe3 )3 (thf)2 in high yields. The reactivities of 1 with pyridine derivatives, unsaturated substrates, and elemental sulfur were investigated, and some interesting chemical transformations were observed...
February 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nidhi Arora, Sunil Kumar, N Satti, Asif Ali, Prasoon Gupta, Meenu Katoch
AIM: Exploration of microbes isolated from rhizospheric soil of Crataegus oxycantha for bioactive natural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: A strain of Streptomyces sp. (C-7) was isolated from rhizospheric soil of Crataegus oxycantha. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain C-7 displayed 99% sequence similarity with different Streptomyces species. The highest score was displayed for Streptomyces sp. strain Chy2-8 followed by Streptomyces violarus strain NBRC13104 and Streptomyces arenae strain ISP5293...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ryu Sakamoto, Terumasa Kato, Shunya Sakurai, Keiji Maruoka
A copper-catalyzed C(sp)-C(sp 3 ) coupling reaction between terminal alkynes and alkylsilyl peroxides is reported. In the presence of a copper catalyst and 4-dimethylaminopyridine, the reaction smoothly affords a variety of internal alkynes by coupling alkylsilyl peroxides and terminal alkynes. Mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via a radical mechanism, whereby the alkyl radicals are generated from the alkylsilyl peroxides. The present transformation represents a rare example of a radical-mediated C(sp)-C(sp 3 ) coupling reaction of terminal alkynes...
February 16, 2018: Organic Letters
Andriana I Papaioannou, Elisavet Konstantelou, Anastasia Papaporfyriou, Konstantinos Bartziokas, Aris Spathis, Petros Bakakos, Stelios Loukides, Nikolaos Koulouris, Spyros Papiris, Konstantinos Kostikas
Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been studied in COPD patients as biomarkers of disease severity and as predictive factors of unfavorable outcomes. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate serum levels of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D in patients with COPD both during AECOPD and in stability and to test their possible associations with disease severity and with the development of new exacerbation events. 20 consecutive COPD patients hospitalized for AECOPD were included. Serum SP levels were measured on admission, at discharge, and on stability...
February 14, 2018: Lung
Reiko Sakurai, Cindy Lee, Humphrey Shen, Alan J Waring, Frans J Walther, Virender K Rehan
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in perinatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants has not decreased. Postnatal surfactant therapy provides symptomatic relief from respiratory distress syndrome, but does not translate into a reduction in BPD. Therefore, the search for effective interventions to prevent BPD continues. OBJECTIVES: Since PPAR-γ agonists have been demonstrated to promote neonatal lung maturation and injury repair, we hypothesized that a formulation of a PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone (PGZ) and a synthetic lung surfactant (a surfactant protein B peptide mimic, B-YL) combined would stimulate lung maturation and block hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury more effectively than either modality alone...
February 9, 2018: Neonatology
Y Jin, L-Q Peng, A-L Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of surfactant protein C, D (SP-C, SP-D) and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung injury of neonatal rats induced by hyperoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided neonatal rats within 24 hours into two groups randomly: the air group (n = 50) and the hyperoxia group (n = 50). Rats in the air group and hyperoxia group were bred conventionally and in tanks with normal pressure and 90% concentration of oxygen, respectively...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ken-Loon Choo, Mark Lautens
A rhodium-catalyzed conjugate alkynylation/aldol cyclization cascade was developed. Densely functionalized cyclic α-propargyl-β-hydroxyketones were synthesized with simultaneous formation of a C(sp)-C(sp3) bond, a C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond, as well as three new contiguous stereocenters. The transformation was achieved with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities using BINAP as the ligand. The synthetic utility of the newly installed alkynyl moiety was exhibited by subjecting the products to an array of derivatizations...
February 9, 2018: Organic Letters
Min Zhao, Lv-Yi Yuan, Da-Le Guo, Ye Ye, Zhuo-Ma Da-Wa, Xiao-Ling Wang, Feng-Wei Ma, Lei Chen, Yu-Cheng Gu, Li-Sheng Ding, Yan Zhou
Guided by the UPLC-ESIMS profile, seven previously undescribed halogenated dihydroisocoumarins, palmaerones A-G, along with eleven known dihydroisocoumarins, were isolated from Lachnum palmae, an endophytic fungus from Przewalskia tangutica by exposure to a histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by analysis of their NMR, MS and optical rotation values. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of palmaerones A-G were evaluated. Palmaerones A-G showed antimicrobial activities against the strains (C...
February 3, 2018: Phytochemistry
Chris T McAllister, Vasyl V Tkach, David Bruce Conn
Free pre-tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp. are described, for the first time, from samples obtained from the coelomic cavity of a ground skink, Scincella lateralis from Oklahoma, USA. Closer examination of these early stage tapeworms revealed they were transitional metamorphosis stages between a post-hexacanth procercoid form to the full metacestode of Mesocestoides. A series of transitional stages from before the suckers and apical organ are developed, through full development of both structures were found...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Guolin Cheng, Weiwei Lv, Changsheng Kuai, Si Wen, Shangyun Xiao
A new protocol for the synthesis of amides via base-promoted cleavage of the C(sp)-C(CO) bond of ynones with aliphatic primary and secondary amines under transition-metal-, ligand-, and oxidant-free conditions has been developed. This method exhibits a wide substrate scope, high functional group tolerance and exclusive chemoselectivity, as well as mild reaction conditions.
January 29, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Stefan Schob, Alexander Weiß, Alexey Surov, Julia Dieckow, Cindy Richter, Mandy Pirlich, Diana Horvath-Rizea, Wolfgang Härtig, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Matthias Krause, Ulf Quäschling
Surfactant proteins (SPs) are a multifunctional group of proteins, responsible for the regulation of rheological properties of body fluids, host defense, and cellular waste clearance. Their concentrations are changed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from communicating hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalic conditions are accompanied by altered CSF flow dynamics; however, the association of CSF-SP concentrations and CSF flow has not yet been investigated. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SP concentrations in the CSF and marked CSF flow phenomena at different anatomical landmarks of CSF spaces...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Andreas Posa, Friedrich Paulsen, Richard Dietz, Fabian Garreis, Ralph Sander, Martin Schicht, Saadettin Sel, Michael Scholz, Christian M Hammer, Lars Bräuer
PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the amounts of surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D in the tear fluid collected from patients with dry eye syndrome and from individuals with a healthy ocular surface. METHODS: Schirmer strips were used to collect tear fluid from both eyes of 241 volunteers (99 men, 142 women; age range: 18-87 years). Dry eye syndrome was diagnosed by ophthalmologists in 125 patients, whereas the healthy control group comprised 116 individuals...
December 24, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Kevin Visconti, Paranthaman Senthamaraikannan, Matthew W Kemp, Masatoshi Saito, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of antenatal steroids for fetal lung maturation in the periviable period is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the lung maturational effects of antenatal steroids and inflammation in early gestation sheep fetuses, similar to the periviable period in human beings. STUDY DESIGN: Date-mated ewes with singleton fetuses were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 8/group): (1) maternal intramuscular injection of betamethasone; (2) intraamniotic lipopolysaccharide; (3) betamethasone + lipopolysaccharide; and (4) intraamniotic + intramuscular saline (controls)...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Nikita J Kluge, Eugenia A Novikova
Four species of Ephemerythus Gillies 1960 are described here. Larvae, subimagoes, imagoes of both sexes and eggs of Ephemerythus niger Gillies 1960 (= E. niger ugandanus Kluge 2010 syn. n.) and Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960 (= E. kiboensis Gillies 1960 syn. n.) are redescribed based on reared material from their type localities (Amani in Usambara Mountains and Marangu in Kilimandjaro respectively) and from other places in Tanzania. Larvae, subimagoes, imagoes of both sexes and eggs of a new species Ephemerythus nigricolor sp...
November 10, 2017: Zootaxa
Rafael R Ferrari
A taxonomic revision of Colletes Latreille species with known geographic distribution in Chile is presented. In addition to the traditional morphological approach to taxonomy, DNA barcoding was employed to facilitate sexual association and cryptic species recognition. I provide diagnoses, synonymies, geographic and floral records, and a fully-illustrated key for 31 recognized species, 23 of them previously described: C. alocochila Moure, C. atacamensis Janvier, C. atripes Smith, C. bicolor Smith, C. chusmiza Rojas & Toro, C...
December 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Yu-Xin Bai, Fang Fang, Jia-Ling Jiang, Feng Xu
BACKGROUND Lung alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II) are the most important stem cells in lung tissues, which are critical for wound repair of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study investigated the effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on AEC II cells exposed to hyperoxia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Neonatal rat AEC II cells were isolated and identified by detecting surfactant protein C (SP-C). Three small interfering RNAs targeting Notch 1 were synthesized and transfected into AEC II. A hyperoxia-exposed AEC II cell injury model was established and was divided into 8 groups...
December 5, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Chahrazed Rahmouni, Maarten P M Vanhove, Andrea Šimková
BACKGROUND: Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse cichlid assemblage of the Great African Lakes. Considering its cichlid flocks consist of approximately 250 endemic species, we can hypothesize a high species-richness in their often quite host-specific monogenean ectoparasites belonging to Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960. Yet, only 24 species were described from Tanganyikan hosts and some host tribes have never been investigated for monogeneans. This study presents the first parasitological examination of species of the tribes Cyprichromini (Cyprichromis microlepidotus (Poll, 1956)), Eretmodini (Eretmodus marksmithi Burgess, 2012 and Tanganicodus irsacae Poll, 1950) and Ectodini (Aulonocranus dewindti (Boulenger, 1899))...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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