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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282698/elevated-surfactant-protein-levels-and-increased-flow-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Stefan Schob, Alexander Weiß, Alexey Surov, Julia Dieckow, Cindy Richter, Mandy Pirlich, Diana Horvath-Rizea, Wolfgang Härtig, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Matthias Krause, Ulf Quäschling
Surfactant proteins (SPs) are a multifunctional group of proteins, responsible for the regulation of rheological properties of body fluids, host defense, and cellular waste clearance. Their concentrations are changed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from communicating hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalic conditions are accompanied by altered CSF flow dynamics; however, the association of CSF-SP concentrations and CSF flow has not yet been investigated. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SP concentrations in the CSF and marked CSF flow phenomena at different anatomical landmarks of CSF spaces...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278744/quantification-of-surfactant-proteins-in-tears-of-patients-suffering-from-dry-eye-disease-compared-to-healthy-subjects
#2
Andreas Posa, Friedrich Paulsen, Richard Dietz, Fabian Garreis, Ralph Sander, Martin Schicht, Saadettin Sel, Michael Scholz, Christian M Hammer, Lars Bräuer
PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the amounts of surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D in the tear fluid collected from patients with dry eye syndrome and from individuals with a healthy ocular surface. METHODS: Schirmer strips were used to collect tear fluid from both eyes of 241 volunteers (99 men, 142 women; age range: 18-87 years). Dry eye syndrome was diagnosed by ophthalmologists in 125 patients, whereas the healthy control group comprised 116 individuals...
December 24, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274832/extremely-preterm-fetal-sheep-lung-responses-to-antenatal-steroids-and-inflammation
#3
Kevin Visconti, Paranthaman Senthamaraikannan, Matthew W Kemp, Masatoshi Saito, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of antenatal steroids for fetal lung maturation in the peri-viable period is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE(S): To determine the lung maturational effects of ANS and inflammation in early gestation sheep fetuses, similar to the peri-viable period in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Date-mated ewes with singleton fetuses were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups (n=8/group): 1) maternal intramuscular injection (IM) of betamethasone (Beta), 2) intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (IA) (LPS), 3) Beta+LPS, 4) IA+IM Saline (controls)...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245605/revision-of-i-ephemerythus-i-gillies-1960-ephemeroptera-tricorythidae
#4
Nikita J Kluge, Eugenia A Novikova
Four species of Ephemerythus Gillies 1960 are described here. Larvae, subimagoes, imagoes of both sexes and eggs of Ephemerythus niger Gillies 1960 (= E. niger ugandanus Kluge 2010 syn. n.) and Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960 (= E. kiboensis Gillies 1960 syn. n.) are redescribed based on reared material from their type localities (Amani in Usambara Mountains and Marangu in Kilimandjaro respectively) and from other places in Tanzania. Larvae, subimagoes, imagoes of both sexes and eggs of a new species Ephemerythus nigricolor sp...
November 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245375/taxonomic-revision-of-the-species-of-i-colletes-i-latreille-1802-hymenoptera-colletidae-colletinae-found-in-chile
#5
Rafael R Ferrari
A taxonomic revision of Colletes Latreille species with known geographic distribution in Chile is presented. In addition to the traditional morphological approach to taxonomy, DNA barcoding was employed to facilitate sexual association and cryptic species recognition. I provide diagnoses, synonymies, geographic and floral records, and a fully-illustrated key for 31 recognized species, 23 of them previously described: C. alocochila Moure, C. atacamensis Janvier, C. atripes Smith, C. bicolor Smith, C. chusmiza Rojas & Toro, C...
December 13, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206808/extrinsic-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-inhibits-hyperoxia-induced-alveolar-epithelial-type-ii-cells-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-production-by-enhancing-notch-1-and-homocysteine-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-herp-expression
#6
Yu-Xin Bai, Fang Fang, Jia-Ling Jiang, Feng Xu
BACKGROUND Lung alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II) are the most important stem cells in lung tissues, which are critical for wound repair of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study investigated the effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on AEC II cells exposed to hyperoxia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Neonatal rat AEC II cells were isolated and identified by detecting surfactant protein C (SP-C). Three small interfering RNAs targeting Notch 1 were synthesized and transfected into AEC II. A hyperoxia-exposed AEC II cell injury model was established and was divided into 8 groups...
December 5, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197419/underexplored-diversity-of-gill-monogeneans-in-cichlids-from-lake-tanganyika-eight-new-species-of-cichlidogyrus-paperna-1960-monogenea-dactylogyridae-from-the-northern-basin-of-the-lake-with-remarks-on-the-vagina-and-the-heel-of-the-male-copulatory-organ
#7
Chahrazed Rahmouni, Maarten P M Vanhove, Andrea Šimková
BACKGROUND: Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse cichlid assemblage of the Great African Lakes. Considering its cichlid flocks consist of approximately 250 endemic species, we can hypothesize a high species-richness in their often quite host-specific monogenean ectoparasites belonging to Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960. Yet, only 24 species were described from Tanganyikan hosts and some host tribes have never been investigated for monogeneans. This study presents the first parasitological examination of species of the tribes Cyprichromini (Cyprichromis microlepidotus (Poll, 1956)), Eretmodini (Eretmodus marksmithi Burgess, 2012 and Tanganicodus irsacae Poll, 1950) and Ectodini (Aulonocranus dewindti (Boulenger, 1899))...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101780/thyroid-disrupting-effects-of-halogenated-and-next-generation-chemicals-on-the-swim-bladder-development-of-zebrafish
#8
Amy Godfrey, Blair Hooser, Ahmed Abdelmoneim, Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freemanc, Maria S Sepúlveda
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter thyroid function and adversely affect growth and development. Halogenated compounds, such as perfluorinated chemicals commonly used in food packaging, and brominated flame retardants used in a broad range of products from clothing to electronics, can act as thyroid disruptors. Due to the adverse effects of these compounds, there is a need for the development of safer next generation chemicals. The objective of this study was to test the thyroid disruption potential of old use and next generation halogenated chemicals...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083321/emc3-coordinates-surfactant-protein-and-lipid-homeostasis-required-for-respiration
#9
Xiaofang Tang, John M Snowball, Yan Xu, Cheng-Lun Na, Timothy E Weaver, Geremy Clair, Jennifer E Kyle, Erika M Zink, Charles Ansong, Wei Wei, Meina Huang, Xinhua Lin, Jeffrey A Whitsett
Adaptation to respiration at birth depends upon the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli and prevents lung collapse during the ventilatory cycle. Herein, we demonstrated that the gene encoding a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex, EMC3, also known as TMEM111 (Emc3/Tmem111), was required for murine pulmonary surfactant synthesis and lung function at birth. Conditional deletion of Emc3 in murine embryonic lung epithelial cells disrupted the synthesis and packaging of surfactant lipids and proteins, impaired the formation of lamellar bodies, and induced the unfolded protein response in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053208/intermolecular-pummerer-coupling-with-carbon-nucleophiles-in-non-electrophilic-media
#10
Kilian Colas, Raúl Martín-Montero, Abraham Mendoza
A new Pummerer-type C-C coupling protocol is introduced based on turbo-organomagnesium amides, which unlike traditional Pummerer reactions, does not require strong electrophilic activators, engages a broad range of C(sp(3) )-, C(sp(2) )-, and C(sp)-nucleophiles, and seamlessly integrates with C-H and C-X magnesiation. Given the central character of sulfur compounds in organic chemistry, this protocol allows access to unrelated carbonyls, olefins, organometallics, halides, and boronic esters through a single strategy...
October 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978789/unexpected-beauty-and-diversity-in-the-structures-of-three-homologous-4-5-dialkoxy-1-ethynyl-2-nitrobenzenes-the-subtle-interplay-between-intermolecular-c-h-o-hydrogen-bonds-and-alkyl-chain-length
#11
Shalisa M Oburn, Eric Bosch
The synthesis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, and X-ray structures are described for three dialkoxy ethynylnitrobenzenes that differ only in the length of the alkoxy chain, namely 1-ethynyl-2-nitro-4,5-dipropoxybenzene, C14H17NO4, 1,2-dibutoxy-4-ethynyl-5-nitrobenzene, C16H21NO4, and 1-ethynyl-2-nitro-4,5-dipentoxybenzene, C18H25NO4. Despite the subtle changes in molecular structure, the crystal structures of the three compounds display great diversity. Thus, 1-ethynyl-2-nitro-4,5-dipropoxybenzene crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system in the space group R-3, with Z = 18, 1,2-dibutoxy-4-ethynyl-5-nitrobenzene crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system in the space group P21/c, with Z = 4, and 1-ethynyl-2-nitro-4,5-dipentoxybenzene crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system in the space group P-1, with Z = 2...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954633/clusterin-modulates-transdifferentiation-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Runsen Jin, Xingshi Chen, Dingpei Han, Xiaoying Luo, Hecheng Li
BACKGROUND: Secreted clusterin (sCLU), a 75-80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein, plays crucial roles in various pathophysiological processes, including lipid transport, tissue remodeling, cell apoptosis and reproduction. Our previous studies demonstrated that sCLU could influence cell apoptosis, proliferation, and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. METHODS: In this study, clusterin's function in regulating transdifferentiation of NSCLC cells was investigated...
September 27, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937231/pulmonary-surfactant-and-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-the-interaction-and-its-functional-consequences
#13
M Kolomaznik, Z Nova, A Calkovska
The respiratory system is constantly exposed to pathogens which enter the lungs by inhalation or via blood stream. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also named endotoxin, can reach the airspaces as the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and lead to local inflammation and systemic toxicity. LPS affects alveolar type II (ATII) cells and pulmonary surfactant and although surfactant molecule has the effective protective mechanisms, excessive amount of LPS interacts with surfactant film and leads to its inactivation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930236/antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-essential-oils-against-pathogens-responsible-for-otitis-externa-in-dogs-and-cats
#14
Valentina V Ebani, Simona Nardoni, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Basma Najar, Luisa Pistelli, Francesca Mancianti
Background: Essential oils (EOs) are recommended by some veterinarians to treat otitis externa in pets, but data about their efficacy in scientific literature are very scant. Methods: Nine commercial EOs, from roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), star anise (Illicium verum), lavender (Lavandula hybrida), litsea (Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirticum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L...
April 21, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834721/divide-conquer-surfactant-protein-sp-c-and-cholesterol-modulate-phase-segregation-in-lung-surfactant
#15
Nuria Roldan, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Michael R Morrow, Begoña García-Álvarez
Lung surfactant (LS) is an essential system supporting the respiratory function. Cholesterol can be deleterious for LS function, a condition that is reversed by the presence of the lipopeptide SP-C. In this work, the structure of LS-mimicking membranes has been analyzed under the combined effect of SP-C and cholesterol by deuterium NMR and phosphorus NMR and by electron spin resonance. Our results show that SP-C induces phase segregation at 37°C, resulting in an ordered phase with spectral features resembling an interdigitated state enriched in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, a liquid-crystalline bilayer phase, and an extremely mobile phase consistent with small vesicles or micelles...
August 22, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749493/sulfur-directed-carbon-sulfur-bond-cleavage-for-rh-catalyzed-regioselective-alkynylthiolation-of-alkynes
#16
Takanori Shibata, Akihito Mitake, Yosuke Akiyama, Kyalo Stephen Kanyiva
Sulfur-directed sp C-S bond cleavage along with a regioselective reaction with alkynes proceeded to give (Z)-enyne sulfides in high to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies were conducted, including characterization of an intermediate. An intramolecular variant realized the construction of a dibenzodithiepin skeleton, which is a seven-membered ring with two sulfur atoms.
August 8, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746823/irx1-regulates-dental-outer-enamel-epithelial-and-lung-alveolar-type-ii-epithelial-differentiation
#17
Wenjie Yu, Xiao Li, Steven Eliason, Miguel Romero-Bustillos, Ryan J Ries, Huojun Cao, Brad A Amendt
The Iroquois genes (Irx) appear to regulate fundamental processes that lead to cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation during development. In this report, the Iroquois homeobox 1 (Irx1) transcription factor was functionally disrupted using a LacZ insert and LacZ expression demonstrated stage-specific expression during embryogenesis. Irx1 is highly expressed in the brain, lung, digits, kidney, testis and developing teeth. Irx1 null mice are neonatal lethal and this lethality it due to pulmonary immaturity...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733146/resveratrol-efficiently-improves-pulmonary-function-via-stabilizing-mast-cells-in-a-rat-intestinal-injury-model
#18
Xiaolei Huang, Weicheng Zhao, Dan Hu, Xue Han, Hanbin Wang, Jianyu Yang, Yang Xu, Yuantao Li, Weifeng Yao, Chaojin Chen
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IIR) leads to acute lung injury (ALI) distally by aggravating pulmonary oxidative stress. Resveratrol is effective in attenuating ALI through its antioxidant capacity. This study aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on IIR-induced ALI and to explore the role of mast cells (MCs) activation in a rat model of IIR. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to IIR by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 60min followed by 4-hour reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725012/phycocyanin-attenuates-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-the-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#19
Chengcheng Li, Yan Yu, Wenjun Li, Bo Liu, Xudong Jiao, Xinyu Song, Changjun Lv, Song Qin
Our aim was to investigate the effects of phycocyanin (PC) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In this study, C57 BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 deficient mice were treated with PC for 28 days following BLM exposure. Serum and lung tissues were collected on days 3, 7 and 28. Data shows PC significantly decreased the levels of hydroxyproline (HYP), vimentin, surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C), fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) but dramatically increased E-cadherin and podoplanin (PDPN) expression on day 28...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704044/new-scandium-borylimido-chemistry-synthesis-bonding-and-reactivity
#20
Benjamin A Clough, Simona Mellino, Eric Clot, Philip Mountford
We report a combined synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical study of the first borylimido complex of a rare earth metal, (NacNac(NMe2))Sc{NB(NAr'CH)2} (25, Ar' = 2,6-C6H3(i)Pr2, NacNac(NMe2) = Ar'NC(Me)CHC(Me)NCH2CH2NMe2). Thermolysis of the methyl-borylamide (NacNac(NMe2))Sc(Me){NHB(NAr'CH)2} (18) generated transient imide 25 via rate-determining, first-order methane elimination (KIE ≈ 8.7). In the absence of external substrate, 25 underwent a reversible cyclometalation reaction (sp(3) C-H bond addition to Sc═Nimide) with a methyl group of the NacNac(NMe2) ligand forming {MeC(NC6H3(i)PrCH(Me)CH2)CHC(Me)NCH2CH2NMe2}Sc{NHB(NAr'CH)2} (21)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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