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L Rafael-Vázquez, García-Trejo Semiramis, O G Aztatzi-Aguilar, B Bazán-Perkins, B Quintanilla-Vega
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer that is metabolized to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Inhalation is an important exposure route for both phthalates, and their effects on lungs include inflammation, alteration of postnatal maturation (alveolarization), enlarged airspaces and cell differentiation changes, suggesting that alveolar epithelial cells-2 (AEC) are targets of phthalates. This study evaluated the cell progression, epithelial and mesenchymal markers, including surfactant secretion in A549 cells (AEC) that were exposed to DEHP (1-100 µM) or MEHP (1-50 µM) for 24-72 h...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jiarong Pan, Canyang Zhan, Tianming Yuan, Weiyan Wang, Ying Shen, Yi Sun, Tai Wu, Weizhong Gu, Lihua Chen, Huimin Yu
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection/inflammation plays an important role in the development of lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, While a multifactorial genesis is likely, mechanisms involved in BPD after intrauterine infection/inflammation are largely unknown. Recent studies have suggested microRNAs (miRNAs) are likely to play a role. Therefore, this study aimed to study the effects and mechanisms of intrauterine infection/inflammation on lung development, and to identify miRNAs related to lung injury and BPD...
May 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
Elisa J Cabré, Marta Martínez-Calle, Manuel Prieto, Alexander Fedorov, Bárbara Olmeda, Luís M S Loura, Jesús Pérez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid/protein mixture that reduces surface tension at the respiratory air-water interface in lungs. Among its non-lipidic components are pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C, respectively). These highly hydrophobic proteins are required for normal pulmonary surfactant function, and while past literature works have suggested possible SP-B/SP-C interactions and a reciprocal modulation effect, no direct evidence has been yet identified. In this work, we report an extensive fluorescence spectroscopy study of both intramolecular and intermolecular SP-B and SP-C interactions, using a combination of quenching and FRET steady-state and time-resolved methodologies...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chunyan Jiang, Roberto Caldara, Runzhi Zhang
The Chinese species of Cleopomiarus Pierce, 1919 (Curculionidae, Curculioninae, Mecinini) are revised. Six taxa are reported: two already know from China (C. distinctus (Boheman, 1845), C. vestitus (Roelofs, 1875)), two cited for the first time from this country (C. flavoscutellatus (Morimoto, 1959), C. graminis (Gyllenhal, 1813)), and two new to science (C. danfengensis Jiang Caldara n. sp., C. nuerhachii Jiang Caldara n. sp.). The following new synonymy is proposed: C. distinctus (Boheman, 1845) = Miarus longirostris mandschuricus Voss, 1952 n...
February 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Pei Cui, Haiming Xin, Yongming Yao, Shichu Xiao, Feng Zhu, Zhenyu Gong, Zhiping Tang, Qiu Zhan, Wei Qin, Yanhua Lai, Xiaohui Li, Yalin Tong, Zhaofan Xia
BACKGROUND: White smoke inhalation (WSI) is an uncommon but potentially deadly cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome for which no effective pharmaceutical treatment has been developed. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) against WSI-induced lung injury in rats. METHODS: hAMSCs were injected into rats via the tail vein 4 h after WSI. At 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after cell injection, hAMSCs labeled with PKH26 in lung, heart, liver, and kidney tissues were observed by fluorescence microscopy...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jie Zhang, Hanchen Liu, Chenguang Song, Jinjin Zhang, Youlei Wang, Changjun Lv, Xiaodong Song
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The nature of pulmonary fibrosis involves inadequate repair of the epithelial cell barrier accompanied by impaired regulation of the fibroblast. Moreover, pulmonary fibrosis currently lacks an effective therapeutic drug. This study targets the protection of the epithelial cell and fibroblast to identify a novel, potentially therapeutic drug (i.e., astilbin). METHODS: In this study, the cytotoxicity of astilbin was firstly detected using CCK-8...
April 2, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kelly A Correll, Karen E Edeen, Rachel L Zemans, Elizabeth F Redente, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Robert J Mason
TGF beta is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates alveolar epithelial cells as well as immune cells and fibroblasts. TGF beta inhibits surfactant protein A, B and C expression in fetal human lung and can inhibit type II cell proliferation induced by FGF7 (KGF). However, little is known about direct effects of TGF beta on adult human type II cells. We cultured alveolar type II cells under air/liquid interface conditions to maintain their state of differentiation with or without TGF beta. TGF beta markedly decreased expression of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, fatty acid synthase, and the phospholipid transporter ABCA3...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mechthild Stoeckelhuber, Friedrich Feuerhake, Christoph Schmitz, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
Surfactant proteins in different glandular structures of the oral cavity display antimicrobial activity for protection of invading microorganisms. Moreover, they are involved in lowering liquid tension in fluids and facilitate secretion flows. Numerous investigations for studying the occurrence of surfactant proteins in glandular tissues were performed using different methods. In the oral cavity, minor salivary glands secrete saliva continuously for the maintenance of a healthy oral environment. For the first time, we could show that infantile labial glands show expression of the surfactant proteins (SP) SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D in acinar cells and the duct system in different intensities...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Qin Chen, Bin Fang, Ying Wang, Chu Li, Xiaoxue Li, Ronggen Wang, Qiang Xiong, Lining Zhang, Yong Jin, Manling Zhang, Xiaorui Liu, Lin Li, Lisha Mou, Rongfeng Li, Haiyuan Yang, Yifan Dai
Genetic studies with mouse models have shown that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb (FGFR2-IIIb) plays crucial roles in lung development and differentiation. To evaluate the effect of FGFR2-IIIb in pig lung development, we employed somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology to generate transgenic pig fetuses overexpressing the transmembrane (dnFGFR2-IIIb-Tm) and soluble (dnFGFR2-IIIb-HFc) forms of the dominant-negative human FGFR2-IIIb driven by the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter, which was specifically expressed in lung epithelia...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Joseph T Church, Elena M Perkins, Megan A Coughlin, Jennifer S McLeod, Katherine Boss, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson, Raja Rabah, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
BACKGROUND: Extremely premature neonates suffer high morbidity and mortality. An artificial placenta (AP) using extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a promising therapy. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that intratracheal perfluorocarbon (PFC) instillation during AP support would reduce lung injury and promote lung development relative to intratracheal amniotic fluid or crystalloid. METHODS: Lambs at an estimated gestational age (EGA) 116-121 days (term 145 days) were placed on venovenous ECLS with jugular drainage and umbilical vein reinfusion and intubated...
February 23, 2018: Neonatology
Andreas Holzinger, Andreas Albert, Siegfried Aigner, Jenny Uhl, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Kateřina Trumhová, Martina Pichrtová
Species of Zygnema form macroscopically visible mats in polar and temperate terrestrial habitats, where they are exposed to environmental stresses. Three previously characterized isolates (Arctic Zygnema sp. B, Antarctic Zygnema sp. C, and temperate Zygnema sp. S) were tested for their tolerance to experimental UV radiation. Samples of young vegetative cells (1 month old) and pre-akinetes (6 months old) were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm, 400 μmol photons m-2  s-1 ) in combination with experimental UV-A (315-400 nm, 5...
February 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Ming-Ming Pei, Ping Liu, Yan Liu, Xin-Ming Lv, Xiao-Wei Ma, Bin Dai
Highly selective C(sp²)-C(sp²) cross-coupling of dihalogenated hydrocarbons comprising C(sp²)-Br and C(sp³)-Cl bonds with arylboronic acids is reported. This highly selective coupling reaction of the C(sp²)-Br bond is successfully achieved using Pd(OAc)₂ and PCy₃·HBF₄ as the palladium source and ligand, respectively. A series of chloromethyl-1,1'-biphenyl compounds are obtained in moderate-to-excellent yields. Moreover, this protocol can be extended to the one-pot dual arylation of 1-bromo-4-(chloromethyl)benzene with two arylboronic acids, leading to diverse unsymmetrical 4-benzyl-1,1'-biphenyl derivatives...
February 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiancui Zhu, Yang Li, Dianjun Guo, Shaowu Wang, Yun Wei, Shuangliu Zhou
Herein, rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes supported by a neutral pyrrolyl-functionalized β-diketiminato ligand with the formula LRE(CH2 SiMe3 )2 (thf) (RE = Y (1a), Dy (1b), Er (1c), Yb (1d); L = MeC(NDipp)CHC(Me)NCH2 CH2 NC4 H2 -2,5-Me2 , Dipp = 2,6-i Pr2 C6 H3 ) were synthesized via the reactions of the β-diketimine HL with the rare-earth metal trialkyl complexes RE(CH2 SiMe3 )3 (thf)2 in high yields. The reactivities of 1 with pyridine derivatives, unsaturated substrates, and elemental sulfur were investigated, and some interesting chemical transformations were observed...
March 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
N Arora, S Kumar, N K Satti, A Ali, P Gupta, M Katoch
AIM: Exploration of microbes isolated from rhizospheric soil of Crataegus oxycantha for bioactive natural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: A strain of Streptomyces sp. (C-7) was isolated from rhizospheric soil of C. oxycantha. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain C-7 displayed 99% sequence similarity with different Streptomyces species. The highest score was displayed for Streptomyces sp. strain Chy2-8 followed by Streptomyces violarus strain NBRC13104 and Streptomyces arenae strain ISP5293...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ryu Sakamoto, Terumasa Kato, Shunya Sakurai, Keiji Maruoka
A copper-catalyzed C(sp)-C(sp3 ) coupling reaction between terminal alkynes and alkylsilyl peroxides is reported. In the presence of a copper catalyst and 4-dimethylaminopyridine, the reaction smoothly affords a variety of internal alkynes by coupling alkylsilyl peroxides and terminal alkynes. Mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via a radical mechanism, whereby the alkyl radicals are generated from the alkylsilyl peroxides. The present transformation represents a rare example of a radical-mediated C(sp)-C(sp3 ) coupling reaction of terminal alkynes...
March 2, 2018: Organic Letters
Andriana I Papaioannou, Elisavet Konstantelou, Anastasia Papaporfyriou, Konstantinos Bartziokas, Aris Spathis, Petros Bakakos, Stelios Loukides, Nikolaos Koulouris, Spyros Papiris, Konstantinos Kostikas
Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been studied in COPD patients as biomarkers of disease severity and as predictive factors of unfavorable outcomes. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate serum levels of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D in patients with COPD both during AECOPD and in stability and to test their possible associations with disease severity and with the development of new exacerbation events. 20 consecutive COPD patients hospitalized for AECOPD were included. Serum SP levels were measured on admission, at discharge, and on stability...
April 2018: Lung
Reiko Sakurai, Cindy Lee, Humphrey Shen, Alan J Waring, Frans J Walther, Virender K Rehan
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in perinatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants has not decreased. Postnatal surfactant therapy provides symptomatic relief from respiratory distress syndrome, but does not translate into a reduction in BPD. Therefore, the search for effective interventions to prevent BPD continues. OBJECTIVES: Since PPAR-γ agonists have been demonstrated to promote neonatal lung maturation and injury repair, we hypothesized that a formulation of a PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone (PGZ) and a synthetic lung surfactant (a surfactant protein B peptide mimic, B-YL) combined would stimulate lung maturation and block hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury more effectively than either modality alone...
February 9, 2018: Neonatology
Y Jin, L-Q Peng, A-L Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of surfactant protein C, D (SP-C, SP-D) and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung injury of neonatal rats induced by hyperoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided neonatal rats within 24 hours into two groups randomly: the air group (n = 50) and the hyperoxia group (n = 50). Rats in the air group and hyperoxia group were bred conventionally and in tanks with normal pressure and 90% concentration of oxygen, respectively...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ken-Loon Choo, Mark Lautens
A rhodium-catalyzed conjugate alkynylation/aldol cyclization cascade was developed. Densely functionalized cyclic α-propargyl-β-hydroxyketones were synthesized with simultaneous formation of a C(sp)-C(sp3 ) bond, a C(sp3 )-C(sp3 ) bond, as well as three new contiguous stereocenters. The transformation was achieved with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities using BINAP as the ligand. The synthetic utility of the newly installed alkynyl moiety was exhibited by subjecting the products to an array of derivatizations...
March 2, 2018: Organic Letters
Min Zhao, Lv-Yi Yuan, Da-Le Guo, Ye Ye, Zhuo-Ma Da-Wa, Xiao-Ling Wang, Feng-Wei Ma, Lei Chen, Yu-Cheng Gu, Li-Sheng Ding, Yan Zhou
Guided by the UPLC-ESIMS profile, seven previously undescribed halogenated dihydroisocoumarins, palmaerones A-G, along with eleven known dihydroisocoumarins, were isolated from Lachnum palmae, an endophytic fungus from Przewalskia tangutica by exposure to a histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by analysis of their NMR, MS and optical rotation values. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of palmaerones A-G were evaluated. Palmaerones A-G showed antimicrobial activities against the strains (C...
April 2018: Phytochemistry
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