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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069814/muc2-mucin-and-butyrate-contribute-to-the-synthesis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-in-response-to-e-histolytica-and-dss-induced-colitis
#1
Eduardo R Cobo, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, France Moreau, Ravi Holani, Kris Chadee
Embedded in the colonic mucus are cathelicidins, small cationic peptides secreted by colonic epithelial cells. Humans and mice have one cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), LL-37/hCAP-18 and Cramp respectively, with related structure and functions. Altered production of MUC2 mucin and antimicrobial peptides is characteristic of intestinal amebiasis. The interactions between MUC2 mucin and cathelicidins in conferring innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) are not well characterized...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064019/the-random-co-polymer-glatiramer-acetate-rapidly-kills-primary-human-leukocytes-through-sialic-acid-dependent-cell-membrane-damage
#2
Stig Hill Christiansen, Xianwei Zhang, Kristian Juul-Madsen, Michael Lykke Hvam, Brian Stougaard Vad, Manja Annette Behrens, Ida Lysgaard Thygesen, Babak Jalilian, Jan Skov Pedersen, Kenneth A Howard, Daniel E Otzen, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
The formulation glatiramer acetate (GA) is widely used in therapy of multiple sclerosis. GA consists of random copolymers of four amino acids, in ratios that produce a predominantly positive charge and an amphipathic character. With the extraordinary complexity of the drug, several pharmacological modes-of-action were suggested, but so far none, which rationalizes the cationicity and amphipathicity as part of the mode-of-action. Here, we report that GA rapidly kills primary human T lymphocytes and, less actively, monocytes...
January 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061765/mir-663a-regulates-growth-of-colon-cancer-cells-after-administration-of-antimicrobial-peptides-by-targeting-cxcr4-p21-pathway
#3
Kengo Kuroda, Tomokazu Fukuda, Marija Krstic-Demonacos, Constantinos Demonacos, Kazuhiko Okumura, Hiroshi Isogai, Miwa Hayashi, Kazuki Saito, Emiko Isogai
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play important roles in the innate immune system of all life forms and recently have been characterized as multifunctional peptides that have a variety of biological roles such as anticancer agents. However, detailed mechanism of antimicrobial peptides on cancer cells is still largely unknown. METHODS: miRNA array and real-time qPCR were performed to reveal the behavior of miRNA in colon cancer HCT116 cells during the growth suppression induced by the AMPs...
January 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038684/ll-37-boosts-immunosuppressive-function-of-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#4
Martha Oliveira-Bravo, Bruno Braga Sangiorgi, Josiane Lilian Dos Santos Schiavinato, Juliana Lott Carvalho, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Francisco de Assis Rocha Neves, Octávio Luiz Franco, Rinaldo Wellerson Pereira, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo
BACKGROUND: Although promising for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) treatment, MSC therapy still faces important challenges. For instance, increasing MSC migratory capacity as well as potentializing immune response suppression are of interest. For GvHD management, preventing opportunistic infections is also a valuable strategy, since immunocompromised patients are easy targets for infections. LL-37 is a host defense peptide (HDP) that has been deeply investigated due to its immunomodulatory function...
December 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013511/assays-for-identifying-inducers-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#5
Frank Nylén, Peter Bergman, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Birgitta Agerberth
One promising approach to meet the growing problem of antibiotic resistance is to modulate host defense mechanisms, i.e., host-directed therapy (HDT), in the fight against infections. Induction of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) via small molecular compounds, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or phenylbutyrate, could provide one such HDT-based approach.We have developed a cell-based screening assay for the identification of novel compounds with the capacity to induce AMP expression and here follows the detailed protocol...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012697/the-host-defense-peptide-ll-37-a-possible-inducer-of-the-type-i-interferon-system-in-patients-with-polymyositis-and-dermatomyositis
#6
Xin Lu, Quan Tang, Monica Lindh, Maryam Dastmalchi, Helene Alexanderson, Karin Popovic Silwerfeldt, Birgitta Agerberth, Ingrid E Lundberg, Cecilia Wick
The type I interferon (IFN) system has recently been suggested to play important and essential roles in the pathogenesis of myositis. However, a clarification of how type I IFNs could function as triggering factor(s) in the pathogenesis of myositis has yet failed. Through activation of the type I IFN system, the host defense peptide LL-37 carries numerous immunomodulatory properties and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several other autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The expression of LL-37 can be regulated by various endogenous factors including the active form of vitamin D (25(OH)D3)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006672/gene-electrotransfer-into-skin-using-noninvasive-multi-electrode-array-for-vaccination-and-wound-healing
#7
Spela Kos, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Tanja Dolinsek, Maja Cemazar, Jure Jelenc, Véronique Préat, Gregor Sersa, Gaëlle Vandermeulen
Skin is an attractive target for gene electrotransfer due to its easy accessibility and its interesting immune properties. Since electrodes are often invasive and frequently induce discomfort during pulse application, there is a fundamental need for non-invasive electrodes for skin delivery. We developed circular pin non-invasive multi-electrode array (MEA), suitable for different clinical applications. MEA was first employed to deliver a luciferase reporter gene. Then, it was used to deliver a DNA vaccine coding for ovalbumin or a plasmid encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 for promoting wound healing...
December 10, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997347/mirolysin-a-lysarginase-from-tannerella-forsythia-proteolytically-inactivates-the-human-cathelicidin-ll-37
#8
Lahari Koneru, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Irena Waligorska, Anna Straczek, Magdalena Lukasik, Mariusz Madej, Ida B Thøgersen, Jan J Enghild, Jan Potempa
Tannerella forsythia is a periodontal pathogen expressing six secretory proteolytic enzymes with a unique multidomain structure referred to as KLIKK proteases. Two of these proteases, karilysin and mirolysin, were previously shown to protect the bacterium against complement-mediated bactericidal activity. The latter metalloprotease, however, was not characterized at the protein level. Therefore, we purified recombinant mirolysin and subjected it to detailed biochemical characterization. Mirolysin was obtained as a 66 kDa zymogen, which autoproteolytically processed itself into a 31 kDa active form via truncations at both the N- and C-termini...
December 20, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994673/antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-participates-in-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-melanoma-cells
#9
Mindy Muñoz, Madeleine Craske, Patricia Severino, Thais Martins de Lima, Paul Labhart, Roger Chammas, Irineu Tadeu Velasco, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Brian Egan, Helder I Nakaya, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
Antimicrobial peptides are an ancient family of molecules that emerged millions of years ago and have been strongly conserved during the evolutionary process of living organisms. Recently, our group described that the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 migrates to the nucleus, raising the possibility that LL-37 could directly modulate transcription under certain conditions. Here, we showed evidence that LL-37 binds to gene promoter regions, and LL-37 gene silencing changed the transcriptional program of melanoma A375 cells genes associated with histone, metabolism, cellular stress, ubiquitination and mitochondria...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990411/identification-of-human-cathelicidin-peptide-ll-37-as-a-ligand-for-macrophage-integrin-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-mac-1-cd11b-cd18-that-promotes-phagocytosis-by-opsonizing-bacteria
#10
Valeryi K Lishko, Benjamin Moreno, Nataly P Podolnikova, Tatiana P Ugarova
LL-37, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has numerous immune-modulating effects. However, the identity of a receptor(s) mediating the responses in immune cells remains uncertain. We have recently demonstrated that LL-37 interacts with the αMI-domain of integrin αMβ2 (Mac-1), a major receptor on the surface of myeloid cells, and induces a migratory response in Mac-1-expressing monocyte/macrophages as well as activation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Here, we show that LL-37 and its C-terminal derivative supported strong adhesion of various Mac-1-expressing cells, including HEK293 cells stably transfected with Mac-1, human U937 monocytic cells and murine IC-21 macrophages...
July 7, 2016: Research and Reports in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975979/engineering-of-kr-12-a-minimalized-domain-derived-from-human-host-defense-peptide-ll-37-into-a-potent-antimicrobial-drug-lead
#11
T Muhammad, S Gunasekera, A A Strömstedt, U Göransson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974458/cutting-edge-ll-37-mediated-formyl-peptide-receptor-2-signaling-in-follicular-dendritic-cells-contributes-to-b-cell-activation-in-peyer-s-patch-germinal-centers
#12
Sae-Hae Kim, Yu Na Kim, Yong-Suk Jang
Peyer's patches (PPs) are the major mucosal immune-inductive site, and germinal centers (GCs) in PPs determine the quality of the Abs produced. PP GCs are continuously induced by the gut microbiota, and their maintenance contributes to the induction of strong IgA responses to Ags. In this study, we investigated the role of formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated signaling in the maintenance of PP GCs, because FPRs recognize the microbiota and initiate an innate immune response by chemotaxis. We found that follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), a key organizer of B cell follicles and GCs in mucosal immunity, express Fpr2...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931333/implication-of-vitamin-d-associated-factors-in-patients-with-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#13
S-Y Kim, B Chang, B-H Jeong, H Y Park, K Jeon, S J Shin, W-J Koh
BACKGROUND: Little information is available regarding vitamin D-associated factors in patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between vitamin D-related factors and susceptibility to NTM lung disease. DESIGN: The relative gene expression levels of cathelicidin (CAMP), defensin (DEFB4), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), as well as the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), cathelicidin (LL-37), defensin (hBD-2) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) from 82 patients with NTM lung disease and 28 control subjects were analysed...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#14
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922666/antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-promotes-yb-1-expression-and-the-viability-migration-and-invasion-of-malignant-melanoma-cells
#15
Jinjing Jia, Yan Zheng, Wei Wang, Yongping Shao, Zhengxiao Li, Qiong Wang, Yuan Wang, Huling Yan
The cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, is a multifunctional peptide with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, such as chemotaxis and neutralizing endotoxins. Previous studies have demonstrated that it LL‑37 serves a functional role in the development of numerous types of cancer including ovarian, breast, prostate and lung cancer. However, its role in the development of malignant melanoma (MM) remains unclear. To determine the role of LL‑37 and the potential interaction with Y-box binding protein 1 (YB‑1) in MM, RNA interference, western blot, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, MTT and Transwell assays were performed...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915299/cathelicidin-ll-37-level-in-the-scalp-hair-of-patients-with-tinea-capitis
#16
Nagwa H Abdelaal, Laila A Rashed, Sahar Y Ibrahim, Mona H Abd El Halim, Noha Ghoneim, Noha A Saleh, Marwah A Saleh
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered an important first line of defense against pathogens. Cathelicidin LL-37 was upregulated in response to fungal infection. In this work we aimed to evaluate cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair of tinea capitis and compare it to normal controls. Hair samples were collected from 30 children and 30 controls aged from 2 to10 years old, and the level of cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The 30 patients were further subdivided into three subgroups according to their clinical type...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910811/ll-37-hnp-1-and-hbd2-3-modulate-the-secretion-of-cytokines-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-ifn-%C3%AE-il-10-and-mmp1-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#17
Carlos Erik Medina Santos, Carmen Nathaly López Hurtado, Bruno Rivas Santiago, Roberto Gonzalez-Amaro, Yolanda Guadalupe Cataño Cañizales, Margarita de la Luz Martínez Fierro, José Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Mariana Haydee García Hernández
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the LL-37, HNP-1 and HBD2/3 peptides on cytokine and MMP production in human polymorphonuclear cells, mononuclear cells and chondrocytes. The levels of cytokines in supernatants from mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell cultures were measured with a cytometric bead array by flow cytometry. Likewise, the levels of metalloproteinase/MMP-1, 3, and 13 were measured in supernatants from chondrocyte cultures using an ELISA. The expression of RANKL on lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901075/membrane-core-specific-antimicrobial-action-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-peptide-switches-between-pore-and-nanofibre-formation
#18
Mahdi Shahmiri, Marta Enciso, Christopher G Adda, Brian J Smith, Matthew A Perugini, Adam Mechler
Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated phospholipids...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863138/prevention-of-sinonasal-inflammation-by-a-synthetic-glycosaminoglycan
#19
Abigail Pulsipher, Xuan Qin, Andrew J Thomas, Glenn D Prestwich, Siam Oottamasathien, Jeremiah A Alt
BACKGROUND: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharides that are distributed on respiratory epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and submucosal glands. Uniquely positioned, certain GAGs exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in respiratory diseases and serve important roles in repairing mucosal surfaces and modulating mucociliary clearance. We hypothesized that topical administration of a synthetic GAG (GM-0111) would prevent sinonasal inflammation in a mouse model of rhinosinusitis (RS)...
November 11, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856789/collectins-h-ficolin-and-ll-37-reduce-influence-viral-replication-in-human-monocytes-and-modulate-virus-induced-cytokine-production
#20
Mitchell R White, Shweta Tripathi, Anamika Verma, Paul Kingma, Kazue Takahashi, Jens Jensenius, Steffen Thiel, Guangshun Wang, Erika C Crouch, Kevan L Hartshorn
Infiltrating activated monocytes are important mediators of damaging inflammation during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We show that soluble respiratory proteins [collectins, surfactant proteins D (SP-D) and mannose binding lectin (MBL), H-ficolin and LL-37] inhibit replication of seasonal IAV in human monocytes. The collectins and H-ficolin also increased viral uptake by the cells, while LL-37 did not. H-ficolin was able to inhibit replication of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain (Cal09) in monocytes, but SP-D and LL-37 had significantly fewer inhibitory effects on this strain than on seasonal IAV...
November 17, 2016: Innate Immunity
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