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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622430/enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-active-defense-system-against-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#1
Akiko Urashima, Ayano Sanou, Hilo Yen, Toru Tobe
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as a stimulant for the expression of virulence genes. The increase of resistance depended on the activation of the ompT gene, which encodes the outer membrane protease OmpT for LL-37...
June 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606090/comparative-efficacy-analysis-of-anti-microbial-peptides-ll-37-and-indolicidin-upon-conjugation-with-cnt-in-human-monocytes
#2
Biswaranjan Pradhan, Dipanjan Guha, Krushna Chandra Murmu, Abhinav Sur, Pratikshya Ray, Debashmita Das, Palok Aich
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the potential to serve as an alternative to antibiotic. AMPs usually exert bactericidal activity via direct killing of microbial pathogens. Reports have proposed that by harnessing innate immune activation, AMPs can regulate pathogen invasion and may control infection. It has been reported that AMPs could be utilized to activate the innate mucosal immune response in order to eliminate pathogenic infections. This way of controlling pathogen infection, by activating host immunity, confers the potential to the select AMPs to alleviate the problem of antibiotic resistance...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605742/endotoxin-exposure-increases-ll-37-but-not-calprotectin-in-healthy-human-airways
#3
Margaretha E Smith, Marit Stockfelt, Sara Tengvall, Peter Bergman, Anders Lindén, Ingemar Qvarfordt
RATIONALE: The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) LL-37 and calprotectin are important players in the innate immunity of human airways. In patients with diseases characterized by bacterial colonization, the airway concentrations of these AMPs are increased. Less is known about their presence and release patterns in healthy humans. Our aim was to determine whether LL-37 and calprotectin are released after the activation of the innate immune response in the peripheral airways. METHODS: Healthy volunteers underwent exposure to endotoxin and vehicle in contralateral segment bronchi...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554590/the-antimicrobial-peptide-derived-from-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-amp-ibp5-regulates-keratinocyte-functions-through-mas-related-gene-x-receptors
#4
Panjit Chieosilapatham, François Niyonsaba, Chanisa Kiatsurayanon, Ko Okumura, Shigaku Ikeda, Hideoki Ogawa
BACKGROUND: In addition to their microbicidal properties, host defense peptides (HDPs) display various immunomodulatory functions, including keratinocyte production of cytokines/chemokines, proliferation, migration and wound healing. Recently, a novel HDP named AMP-IBP5 (antimicrobial peptide derived from insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) was shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against numerous pathogens, even at concentrations comparable to those of human β-defensins and LL-37...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550757/serum-levels-of-peptide-cathelicidin-ll-37-in-elderly-patients-with-depression
#5
Elżbieta Kozłowska, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
Cathelicidin LL-37 is a small cationic that plays an important role in antimicrobial defense, as it kills a broad spectrum of infectious agents by disrupting their membranes, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, some viruses and fungi; and it neutralizes activity of bacterial endotoxins. Moreover, cathelicidin LL-37 exerts proinflammatory effect, while numerous reports indicate the role of inflammation in the development of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the circulating levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in elderly depressed patients...
May 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550277/escherichia-coli-pagp-enzyme-based-de-novo-design-and-in-vitro-activity-of-antibacterial-peptide-ll-37
#6
Hao Yang, Jingyu Fu, Youyun Zhao, Huiping Shi, Hua Hu, Hongliang Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial property of peptide LL-37 sequences. MATERIAL AND METHODS Humanized antibacterial peptide LL-37 and the mutant were prepared by chemical synthesis. The physicochemical properties of antibacterial peptide LL-37 were analyzed by SWISS-MODEL online prediction tool. Molecular docking between antibacterial peptide LL-37 fragments and palmitoyl transferase PagP was made with Lamarckian genetic algorithm by AutoDock1.5.6. RESULTS The systems contacted each other at 8...
May 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549244/ll-37-induced-human-mast-cell-activation-through-g-protein-coupled-receptor-mrgx2
#7
Yangyang Yu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yarui Zhang, Yihong Lai, Wenwen Chen, Zhangang Xiao, Wei Zhang, Meiling Jin, Bo Yu
Human LL-37 is an important class of cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP) that is known to stimulate mast cell activation. While many studies have been conducted on LL-37, to date little is known about the functional receptors for LL-37-induced human mast cell activation, in particular in terms of the release of de novo synthesized mediators. Thus, the aim of the present study is to identify the functional receptors for LL-37-induced human mast cell activation in terms of the degranulation and release of de novo synthesized mediators and investigate the downstream signalling pathways involved in mast cell activation...
May 23, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541502/serum-ll-37-level-is-associated-with-severity-of-bronchiolitis-and-viral-etiology
#8
Jonathan M Mansbach, Kohei Hasegawa, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Courtney N Tierney, Janice A Espinola, Carlos A Camargo
Background: LL-37 is a host defense peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the relation of serum LL-37 levels to the severity of bronchiolitis and viral etiology. Methods: We performed a 17-center prospective cohort study of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis over 3 winters (2011-2014). Site teams collected clinical data, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and serum. We used real-time PCR to test NPAs for 16 viruses. We tested serum for LL-37...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#9
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525841/ll-37-derived-short-antimicrobial-peptide-kr-12-a5-and-its-d-amino-acid-substituted-analogs-with-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-synergistic-effect-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#10
Eun Young Kim, Ganesan Rajasekaran, Song Yub Shin
KR-12-a5 is a 12-meric α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities designed from human cathelicidin LL-37. We designed and synthesized a series of d-amino acid-substituted analogs of KR-12-a5 with the aim of developing novel α-helical AMPs that possess higher cell selectivity than KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity. d-amino acid incorporation into KR-12-a5 induced a significant improvement in the cell selectivity by 2.6- to 13.6-fold as compared to KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521337/perspectives-for-clinical-use-of-engineered-human-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#11
María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Younes Smani, Jerónimo Pachón, Javier Sánchez-Céspedes
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistance mechanisms, especially among bacteria, threatens the efficacy of all current antimicrobial agents, some of them already ineffective. As a result, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial drugs. Host defense antimicrobial peptides (HDPs) are natural occurring and well-conserved peptides of innate immunity, broadly active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500314/activation-of-eosinophils-interacting-with-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-implications-in-allergic-asthma
#12
Delong Jiao, Chun-Kwok Wong, Miranda Sin-Man Tsang, Ida Miu-Ting Chu, Dehua Liu, Jing Zhu, Man Chu, Christopher Wai-Kei Lam
The role of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in asthma exacerbation is unclear. Microbial infection, which is the most common inducer of asthma exacerbation, is accompanied by elevated LL-37. The present study found that co-culture of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B significantly enhanced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on both cells and CD18 expression on eosinophils upon LL-37 stimulation. IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL4 were substantially released in co-culture in the presence of LL-37. LL-37 triggered the activation of eosinophils interacting with BEAS-2B cells in a P2X purinoceptor 7/epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent manner...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494754/circulating-cathelicidin-levels-correlate-with-mucosal-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis-risk-of-intestinal-stricture-in-crohn-s-disease-and-clinical-prognosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Jiani Wang, Christina Ha, Wendy Ho, S Anjani Mattai, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Guy Weiss, Precious Lacey, Michelle Cheng, Christine Shieh, Caroline C Mussatto, Samantha Ho, Daniel Hommes, Hon Wai Koon
BACKGROUND: Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an antimicrobial peptide known to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. We attempt to determine if cathelicidin can accurately reflect IBD disease activity. We hypothesize that serum cathelicidin correlates with mucosal disease activity, stricture, and clinical prognosis of IBD patients. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from two separate cohorts of patients at the University of California, Los Angeles. Cohort 1 consisted of 50 control, 23 UC, and 28 CD patients...
May 12, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476579/cubosomes-post-loaded-with-antimicrobial-peptides-characterization-bactericidal-effect-and-proteolytic-stability
#14
Lukas Boge, Anita Umerska, Nada Matougui, Helena Bysell, Lovisa Ringstad, Mina Davoudi, Jonny Eriksson, Katarina Edwards, Martin Andersson
Novel antibiotics, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have recently attended more and more attraction. In this work, dispersed cubic liquid crystalline gel (cubosomes) was used as drug delivery vehicles for three AMPs (AP114, DPK-060 and LL-37). Association of peptides onto cubosomes was studied at two cubosome/peptide ratios using high performance liquid chromatography, ζ-potential and circular dichroism measurements. AMPs impact on the cubosome structure was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459130/identification-and-characterization-of-multifunctional-cationic-and-amphipathic-peptides-from-soybean-proteins
#15
Masayuki Taniguchi, Kengo Saito, Takafumi Nomoto, Toshiki Namae, Akihito Ochiai, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In the present study, we identified and chemically synthesized three cationic and amphipathic peptides (Glycinin-17, BCAS-16, and BCBS-11) from soybean proteins. These peptides had high isoelectric points, high positive net charges, and included multiple hydrophobic amino acids. Subsequently, we identified multiple functions of these peptides, including antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities, and examined their cytotoxic activities against mammalian red blood cells. Glycinin-17, BCAS-16, and BCBS-11 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans whereas Glycinin-17 did not possess antimicrobial effects on Propionibacterium acnes and Streptococcus mutans...
April 29, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450045/arginine-lysine-positional-swap-of-the-ll-37-peptides-reveals-evolutional-advantages-of-the-native-sequence-and-leads-to-bacterial-probes
#16
Xiuqing Wang, José Carlos Bozelli Junior, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Richard M Epand, Guangshun Wang
Antimicrobial peptides are essential components of the innate immune system of multicellular organisms. Although cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are known determinants of these amphipathic molecules for bacterial killing, it is not clear how lysine-arginine (K-R) positional swaps influence peptide structure and activity. This study addresses this question by investigating two groups of peptides (GF-17 and 17BIPHE2) derived from human cathelicidin LL-37. K-R positional swap showed little effect on minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peptides...
April 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427192/dna-methylation-directly-downregulates-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-gene-camp-promoter-activity
#17
Xi Chen, Guangying Qi, Mingqun Qin, Yantao Zou, Kanghua Zhong, Ying Tang, Yong Guo, Xinxiang Jiang, Lihua Liang, Xianqiong Zou
LL-37, the active product of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. LL-37 also has important physiological functions in immune regulation, angiogenesis and in modulating apoptosis. The roles of LL-37 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still not clear. The correlation between DNA methylation and human CAMP expression is also unknown. Here human CAMP/LL-37 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and OSCC tissues. The results indicated that low expression of CAMP/LL-37 correlated with histological differentiation and lymph node metastasis and also promoted tumor progression...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420069/cathelicidin-ll-37-and-its-correlation-with-pro-oxidant-antioxidant-balance-and-disease-activity-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-human-study
#18
M Sahebari, G Roshandel, N Saadati, M Saghafi, N Abdolahi, Z Rezaieyazdi
Background Cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether LL-37 reflects disease activity, we measured serum levels of it in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active and inactive disease compared to healthy controls. LL-37 was also compared between new and old cases. Moreover, the correlation of LL-37 and pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance (PAB) was measured. Methods The study population consisted of 50 SLE patients and 28 healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408902/the-naturally-occurring-host-defense-peptide-ll-37-and-its-truncated-mimetics-ke-18-and-kr-12-have-selected-biocidal-and-antibiofilm-activities-against-candida-albicans-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#19
Yu Luo, Denise T F McLean, Gerard J Linden, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Fionnuala T Lundy
Amongst the recognized classes of naturally occurring antimicrobials, human host defense peptides are an important group with an advantage (given their source) that they should be readily translatable to medicinal products. It is also plausible that truncated versions will display some of the biological activities of the parent peptide, with the benefit that they are less costly to synthesize using solid-phase chemistry. The host defense peptide, LL-37, and two truncated mimetics, KE-18 and KR-12, were tested for their inhibitory effects and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, microorganisms commonly implicated in biofilm-related infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401804/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-improve-survival-and-bacterial-clearance-in-neonatal-sepsis-in-rats
#20
Yueniu Zhu, Liqun Xu, Jennifer J P Collins, Arul Vadivel, Chanèle Cyr-Depauw, Shumei Zhong, Lars Mense, Marius A Möbius, Bernard Thébaud
Sepsis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are potent immune-modulatory cells. Their effect in neonatal sepsis has never been explored. We hypothesized that human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) improve survival in experimental neonatal sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 3-day-old rats by intravenous injection of Escherichia coli (5 × 10(5)/rat). One hour after infection, rats were treated intravenously with normal saline, hUC-MSCs, or with interferon-γ preconditioned hUC-MSCs (10(7) cells/kg)...
May 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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