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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733990/dimethyl-fumarate-modulates-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-a-glutathione-and-superoxide-dependent-manner
#1
J H O Hoffmann, K Schaekel, D Hartl, A H Enk, E N Hadaschik
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear) granulocytes (PMN) were shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis by releasing IL-17 and LL-37/ DNA complexes via neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), webs of chromatin strands decorated with antimicrobial peptides, in psoriatic skin. Fumaderm(®) , a fumaric acid ester (FAE) formulation consisting of different FAE salts has been successfully used to treat psoriasis for decades. Most recently, FAE treatment was reported to inhibit NET formation in murine epidermolysis bullosa acquisita...
July 22, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732530/minocycline-modulates-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-phosphorylation-and-enhances-antimicrobial-activity-against-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells
#2
Alberto Daniel Guerra, Warren E Rose, Peiman Hematti, W John Kao
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties due to their anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and even antibacterial properties. We have shown previously that minocycline enhances the wound healing phenotype of MSCs, and MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) and gelatin-based hydrogels with minocycline have antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Here, we investigated the signaling pathway that minocycline modulates in MSCs which results in their enhanced wound healing phenotype and determined whether preconditioning MSCs with minocycline has an effect on antimicrobial activity...
July 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731438/evidence-that-the-human-innate-immune-peptide-ll-37-may-be-a-binding-partner-of%C3%A2-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-inhibitor-of%C3%A2-fibril-assembly
#3
Ersilia De Lorenzi, Marcella Chiari, Raffaella Colombo, Marina Cretich, Laura Sola, Renzo Vanna, Paola Gagni, Federica Bisceglia, Carlo Morasso, Jennifer S Lin, Moonhee Lee, Patrick L McGeer, Annelise E Barron
BACKGROUND: Identifying physiologically relevant binding partners of amyloid-β (Aβ) that modulate in vivo fibril formation may yield new insights into Alzheimer's disease (AD) etiology. Human cathelicidin peptide, LL-37, is an innate immune effector and modulator, ubiquitous in human tissues and expressed in myriad cell types. OBJECTIVE: We present in vitro experimental evidence and discuss findings supporting a novel hypothesis that LL-37 binds to Aβ42 and can modulate Aβ fibril formation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715682/cath-2-and-ll-37-increase-mannose-receptor-expression-antigen-presentation-and-the-endocytic-capacity-of-chicken-mononuclear-phagocytes
#4
Marina D Kraaij, Albert van Dijk, Henk P Haagsman
Cathelicidins display in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities and are part of the innate immune system. Previously, we found that in ovo treatment with chicken cathelicidin CATH-2 partially protects young broilers against respiratory E. coli infection. To determine the cellular aspects of this protection, we investigated immunomodulatory effects of CATH-2 and the human cathelicidin LL-37 on primary chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of chicken PBMCs with L-CATH-2, D-CATH-2 or LL-37 increased the percentage of mononuclear phagocytes, but decreased that of B cells...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712894/antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-host-defense-peptides-clavanins-and-ll-37-in-vitro-an-endodontic-perspective
#5
Stella Maris F Lima, Mirna S Freire, Ana Luisa O Gomes, Ana Paula C Cantuária, Flávia Rodrigues P Dutra, Beatriz S Magalhães, Maurício Gonçalves C Sousa, Ludovico Migliolo, Jeeser A Almeida, Octávio L Franco, Taia Maria B Rezende
Endodontic treatment is mainly based on root canal disinfection and its failure may be motivated by microbial resistance. Endodontic therapy can be benefitted by host defense peptides (HDPs), which are multifunctional molecules that act against persistent infection and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activity of several HDPs, namely clavanin A, clavanin A modified (MO) and LL-37, compared to intracanal medication Ca(OH)2. HDPs and Ca(OH)2 were evaluated by: (1) antimicrobial assays against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis, (2) cytotoxicity assays and (3) cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264...
July 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710799/high-glucose-induces-o-glcnac-glycosylation-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-in-thp1-cells-and-in-human-macrophages-derived-from-monocytes
#6
Fernando Hernandez-Sánchez, Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán, María Teresa Herrera, Yolanda Gonzalez, Manuel Salgado, Guadalupe Fabian, Martha Torres
Chronic hyperglycemia increases the carbon flux through the hexosamine pathway, allowing the accumulation of UDP-GlcNAc. UDP-GlcNAc is the sugar donor for the enzyme-mediated protein glycosylation event known as OGlcNAcylation. This posttranslational modification targets several transcription factors implicated in glucose toxicity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Vitamin D plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion through transcriptional mechanisms mediated by its receptor (VDR)...
July 15, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696208/effects-of-coal-fly-ash-particulate-matter-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-airway-surface-liquid
#7
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Mahmoud H Abou Alaiwa, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Jennifer A Borcherding, Alicia K Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Vicki H Grassian, Alejandro P Comellas
BACKGROUND: Sustained exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is a global cause of mortality. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a byproduct of coal combustion and is a source of anthropogenic PM with worldwide health relevance. The airway epithelia are lined with fluid called airway surface liquid (ASL), which contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs). Cationic AMPs bind negatively charged bacteria to exert their antimicrobial activity. PM arriving in the airways could potentially interact with AMPs in the ASL to affect their antimicrobial activity...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694291/differential-regulation-of-mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-x2-mediated-mast-cell-degranulation-by-antimicrobial-host-defense-peptides-and-p-gingivalis-lps
#8
Kshitij Gupta, Chizobam Idahosa, Saptarshi Roy, Donguk Lee, Hariharan Subramanian, Anuradha Dhingra, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Jonathan Korostoff, Hydar Ali
Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a keystone pathogen that contributes to periodontal pathogenesis by disrupting host-microbe homeostasis and promoting dysbiosis. Virulence of P. gingivalis likely reflects an alteration in the lipid A composition of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the penta-acylated (PgLPS1690) to the tetra-acylated (PgLPS1435/1449) form. Mast cells play an important role in periodontitis but the mechanisms of their activation and regulation remain unknown. The expression of epithelium and neutrophil-derived host defense peptides (HDPs; LL-37, human β-defensin-3), which activate mast cells via Mas-related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2), is increased in periodontitis...
July 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683405/stiffening-of-bacteria-cells-as-a-first-manifestation-of-bactericidal-attack
#9
Katarzyna Pogoda, Ewelina Piktel, Piotr Deptuła, Paul B Savage, Małgorzata Lekka, Robert Bucki
Development of new antibacterial agents requires generation of new methods that will allow characterization of mechanisms of novel antibacterial actions as well as observation of pathogen susceptibility to antibiotics. A family of synthetic cationic lipids, such as ceragenins, which mimic the action of membrane-targeting natural cationic antibacterial peptides, shows promise as a new family of bactericidal agents. Here we report that treatment of Bacillus subtillis cells with human cathelicidin LL-37 and ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 (1-100μg/mL) leads to physicochemical changes of bacterial cells surface...
June 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682360/membrane-interactions-and-antimicrobial-effects-of-layered-double-hydroxide-nanoparticles
#10
S Malekkhaiat Häffner, L Nyström, R Nordström, Z P Xu, M Davoudi, A Schmidtchen, M Malmsten
Membrane interactions are critical for the successful use of inorganic nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents and as carriers of, or co-actives with, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In order to contribute to an increased understanding of these, we here investigate effects of particle size (42-208 nm) on layered double hydroxide (LDH) interactions with both bacteria-mimicking and mammalian-mimicking lipid membranes. LDH binding to bacteria-mimicking membranes, extraction of anionic lipids, as well as resulting membrane destabilization, was found to increase with decreasing particle size, also translating into size-dependent synergistic effects with the antimicrobial peptide LL-37...
July 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680809/antimicrobial-ceragenins-inhibit-biofilms-and-affect-mammalian-cell-viability-and-migration-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Melissa A Olekson, Tao You, Paul B Savage, Kai P Leung
The healing of burn wounds is often hampered by bacterial infection and the formation of biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective in promoting wound healing, but are susceptible to degradation. We have tested the ability of ceragenins (CSAs), mimics of antimicrobial peptides, to mitigate preformed biofilms and stimulate wound healing in vitro. Potent CSAs (MICs < 10 μg·mL(-1)) were tested against biofilms formed from a mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus grown for 22 h and subjected to 20 h treatment...
July 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676673/formulation-and-candidacidal-activity-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-coated-with-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-ceragenin-csa-13
#12
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Bonita Durnaś, Grażyna Tokajuk, Ewelina Piktel, Grzegorz Michalak, Xiaobo Gu, Alina Kułakowska, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Fungal infections caused by Candida spp. represent an emerging problem during treatment of immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious principal diseases. The ever-growing number of fungal strains exhibiting drug resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial therapies including those based on membrane-permeabilizing agents and nanomaterials as drug carriers. In this study, the fungicidal activities of LL-37 peptide, ceragenin CSA-13 and its magnetic derivatives (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) against laboratory and clinical strains of C...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#13
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672990/effects-of-conditioned-medium-from-ll-37-treated-adipose-stem-cells-on-human-fibroblast-migration
#14
Eun-Jung Yang, Sa-Ik Bang
Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672959/antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-promotes-the-viability-and-invasion-of-skin-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-upregulating-yb-1
#15
Wei Wang, Yan Zheng, Jinjing Jia, Changji Li, Qiqi Duan, Ruilian Li, Xin Wang, Yongping Shao, Caifeng Chen, Huling Yan
Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 serves a function in the host defense against microbial invasion, and also regulates cell proliferation, immune activity and angiogenesis. Previous studies have reported that LL-37 participates in the development of numerous tumour types, such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and breast cancer. However, the function of LL-37 in the development of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate how LL-37 promotes the expression of Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) in SCC...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672834/individual-and-combined-effects-of-engineered-peptides-and-antibiotics-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms
#16
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in a variety of difficult-to-treat infections frequently due to biofilm formation. To identify useful antibiofilm strategies, this article evaluated efficacy of two newly engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (17BIPHE2 and DASamP2), traditional antibiotics, and their combinations against biofilms at different stages. 17BIPHE2 is designed based on the 3D structure of human cathelicidin LL-37 and DASamP2 is derived from database screening. While both peptides show effects on bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, and preformed biofilms, select antibiotics only inhibit biofilm formation, probably due to direct bacterial killing...
June 25, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669767/bactericidal-activity-of-cyclotides-where-phosphatidylethanolamine-lipid-selectivity-determines-antimicrobial-spectra
#17
Adam A Strömstedt, Sungkyu Park, Robert Burman, Ulf Göransson
Cyclotides are a family of plant peptides characterized by a cystine knot embedded in a macrocyclic backbone. They bind to and disrupt phospholipid membranes, which explain their lytic activity on cells. In this study, we expose the full antibacterial potency of cyclotides by avoiding its inhibition by rich growth media assay conditions. For that purpose a two-step microdilution assay protocol was developed, using non-growing conditions during initial peptide incubation. A diverse set of cyclotides was tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity, and the results show that most cyclotides are active under these conditions, especially against Gram-negative bacteria...
June 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665988/oxidative-stress-induced-in-e-coli-by-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#18
Heejun Choi, Zhilin Yang, James C Weisshaar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are thought to kill bacterial cells by permeabilizing their membranes. However, some antimicrobial peptides inhibit E. coli growth more efficiently in aerobic than in anaerobic conditions. In the attack of the human cathelicidin LL-37 on E. coli, real-time, single-cell fluorescence imaging reveals the timing of membrane permeabilization and the onset of oxidative stress. For cells growing aerobically, a CellROX Green assay indicates that LL-37 induces rapid formation of oxidative species after entry into the periplasm, but before permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM)...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662432/cathelicidin-augments-vdr-dependent-anti-leishmanial-immune-response-in-indian-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#19
Sushmita Das, Abul Hasan Sardar, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Pradeep Das
OBJECTIVES: Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the cutaneous aftermath of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. Vitamin D-regulated cationic antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) has microbicidal and immunomodulatory role against cutaneous infections, but its role in PKDL remains elusive. METHODS: Skin snips and blood-derived monocytes of PKDL patients (n=46), before (BT) and after (AT) chemotherapy, were used for this study...
June 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653460/dual-anti-inflammatory-and-antiparasitic-action-of-topical-ivermectin-1-in-papulopustular-rosacea
#20
M Schaller, L Gonser, K Belge, C Braunsdorf, R Nordin, A Scheu, C Borelli
BACKGROUND: Recently, therapy of rosacea with inflammatory lesions (papulopustular) has improved substantially with the approval of topical ivermectin 1% cream. It is assumed to have a dual mode of action with anti-inflammatory capacities and anti-parasitic effect against Demodex, which however has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. AIM: To find scientific rationale for the dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action of topical ivermectin 1% cream in patients with rosacea...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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