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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919413/apolipoprotein-a-i-attenuates-ll-37-induced-endothelial-cell-cytotoxicity
#1
Daniel Svensson, Jens O Lagerstedt, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Rita Del Giudice
The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has antimicrobial and anti-biofilm functions, but LL-37 may also damage the host by triggering inflammation and exerting a cytotoxic effect, thereby reducing host cell viability. Human plasma mitigates LL-37-induced host cell cytotoxicity but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a plasma protein endowed with atheroprotective effects. Here, we investigate the interaction between ApoA-I and LL-37 by biochemical techniques, and furthermore assess if ApoA-I protects against LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910167/expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-by-uveal-and-cutaneous-melanoma-cells-and-investigation-of-their-role-in-tumor-cell-migration-and-vasculogenic-mimicry
#2
Joseph C Manarang, Deborah C Otteson, Alison M McDermott
AIMS: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers, although there is also evidence suggesting potential for novel, AMP-based antitumor therapies. Discerning potential roles of AMPs in tumor pathogenesis may provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of novel AMP-based antitumor therapy. METHODS: mRNA expression of the AMPs α defensin (HNP-1); cathelicidin (LL-37); and β defensins (hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3, hBD-4) in human uveal and cutaneous melanoma cell lines, primary human uveal melanocytes, and primary human uveal melanoma cells was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
September 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890511/the-antibacterial-effects-of-antimicrobial-peptides-op-145-against-clinically-isolated-multi-resistant-strains
#3
Liu Ming, Jian-An Huang
OP-145 is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide developed from the human cathelicidin LL-37. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the antimicrobial peptide OP-145 against clinically isolated drug resistant strains. Ten Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were obtained from our hospital's clinical inspection center and the activity of OP-145 on growth and biofilm formation on these strains was evaluated by colony counts and scanning electron microscopy. The antimicrobial peptide OP-145 showed significant antibacterial activity against 9 MRSA strains...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890436/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-ciliated-airway%C3%A2-cells-show-increased-susceptibility-to-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-formation
#4
Woolf T Walker, Claire L Jackson, Raymond N Allan, Samuel A Collins, Michael J Kelso, Ardeshir Rineh, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Ben Nicholas, Laurie Lau, David Johnston, Peter Lackie, Saul N Faust, Jane S A Lucas, Luanne Hall-Stoodley
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common pathogen in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients. We hypothesised that abnormal ciliary motility and low airway nitric oxide (NO) levels on airway epithelial cells from PCD patients might be permissive for NTHi colonisation and biofilm development.We used a primary epithelial cell co-culture model to investigate NTHi infection. Primary airway epithelial cells from PCD and non-PCD patients were differentiated to ciliation using an air-liquid interface culture and then co-cultured with NTHi...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882103/low-serum-vitamin-d-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-are-associated-with-decreased-mycobacterial-activity
#5
María Teresa Herrera, Yolanda Gonzalez, Fernando Hernández-Sánchez, Guadalupe Fabián-San Miguel, Martha Torres
BACKGROUND: Concurrent diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis represent a significant health problem worldwide. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a high risk of tuberculosis, which may be mediated by an abnormal innate immune response due to hyperglycaemia or low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated inactive vitamin D serum levels and the monocyte response to infection with M. tuberculosis, including phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis, antimycobacterial activity, LL-37, human β defensin-2 and IL-10 gene expression and nitric oxide production, between type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 51) and healthy volunteers (n = 38)...
September 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872665/expression-of-human-cathelicidin-peptide-ll-37-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Shoko Kusaka, Atsushi Nishida, Kenichiro Takahashi, Shigeki Bamba, Hiroyuki Yasui, Masahiro Kawahara, Osamu Inatomi, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
Cathelicidin peptide LL-37 plays an important role in the early host response against invading pathogens via its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated LL-37 expression in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of LL-37 induction was investigated in human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs). LL-37 mRNA expression and protein secretion were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864077/phenotype-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-th17-cells-induced-by-propionibacterium-acnes-strains-associated-with-healthy-and-acne-skin
#7
George W Agak, Stephanie Kao, Kelsey Ouyang, Min Qin, David Moon, Ahsan Butt, Jenny Kim
Studies of human skin microbiome suggest that Propionibacterium acnes strains may contribute differently to skin health and disease. However, the immune phenotype and functions of Th17 cells induced by healthy (PH) vs. acne (PA) skin-associated P. acnes strains are currently unknown. We stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors and observed that PA strains induce higher IL-17 levels than PH strains. We next generated PH and PA strain-specific Th17 clones and show that P. acnes strains induce Th17 cells of varied phenotype and function that are stable in the presence of IL-2 and IL-23...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846729/histones-bundle-f-actin-filaments-and-affect-actin-structure
#8
Edna Blotnick, Asaf Sol, Andras Muhlrad
Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844103/the-mla-pathway-is-critical-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-resistance-to-outer-membrane-permeabilization-and-host-innate-immune-clearance
#9
Jason Munguia, Doris L LaRock, Hannah Tsunemoto, Joshua Olson, Ingrid Cornax, Joseph Pogliano, Victor Nizet
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that has become a serious problem due to increased rates of antibiotic resistance. Due to this along with a dearth in novel antibiotic development, especially against Gram-negative pathogens, new therapeutic strategies are needed to prevent a post-antibiotic era. Here, we describe the importance of the vacJ/Mla pathway in resisting bactericidal actions of the host innate immune response. P. aeruginosa tn5 transposon mutants in genes from the VacJ/Mla pathway showed increased susceptibility to killing by the host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, when compared to the wild-type parent strain...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842784/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-may-contribute-to-interstitial-lung-disease-associated-with-anti-mda5-autoantibody-positive-dermatomyositis
#10
Yun Peng, Suhan Zhang, Yi Zhao, Yi Liu, Bing Yan
In dermatomyositis (DM), anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) autoantibody (autoAb) marks a subtype with low grade or absent muscle inflammation but frequent and rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD). The pathogenesis of ILD remains poorly unknown. The aim of the study is to explore whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in the development of ILD in DM patients with anti-MDA5 autoAb. Patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM, n = 20), classic dermatomyositis (cDM, n = 30), polymyositis (PM, n = 20), and healthy controls (HC, n = 20) were enrolled...
August 25, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837619/ll-37-causes-cell-death-of-human-nasal-epithelial-cells-which-is-inhibited-with-a-synthetic-glycosaminoglycan
#11
Andrew J Thomas, Abigail Pulsipher, Brock M Davis, Jeremiah A Alt
LL-37 is an immune peptide that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the upper airways. Elevated levels of LL-37 have been linked to cell death and inflammatory diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharides that are found on respiratory epithelial cells and serve important roles in mucosal surface repair. Recent findings suggest that a synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GM-0111) can protect against LL-37-induced sinonasal mucosal inflammation and cell death in a murine model of acute RS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821865/identification-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-the-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-protease-staphopain-on-the-skin-surface-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#12
Andreas Sonesson, Kornelia Przybyszewska, Sigrid Eriksson, Matthias Mörgelin, Sven Kjellström, Julia Davies, Jan Potempa, Artur Schmidtchen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819175/in-vivo-therapeutic-efficacy-of-frog-skin-derived-peptides-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-pulmonary-infection
#13
Chen Chen, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Y Peter Di
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic and frequently drug-resistant pulmonary pathogen especially in cystic fibrosis sufferers. Recently, the frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c were found to possess potent in vitro antipseudomonal activity. Here, they were first shown to preserve the barrier integrity of airway epithelial cells better than the human AMP LL-37. Furthermore, Esc(1-21)-1c was more efficacious than Esc(1-21) and LL-37 in protecting host from pulmonary bacterial infection after a single intra-tracheal instillation at a very low dosage of 0...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815185/saliva-derived-host-defense-peptides-histatin1-and-ll-37-increase-secretion-of-antimicrobial-skin-and-oral-mucosa-chemokine-ccl20-in-an-il-1%C3%AE-independent-manner
#14
Mireille A Boink, Sanne Roffel, Kamran Nazmi, Jan G M Bolscher, Enno C I Veerman, Susan Gibbs
Even though skin and oral mucosae are continuously in contact with commensal and opportunistic microorganisms, they generally remain healthy and uninflamed. Host defense peptides (HDPs) make up the body's first line of defense against many invading pathogens and are involved in the orchestration of innate immunity and the inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of two salivary HDPs, LL-37 and Hst1, on the inflammatory and antimicrobial response by skin and oral mucosa (gingiva) keratinocytes and fibroblasts...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814602/carbon-nanoparticles-inhibit-the-antimicrobial-activities-of-the-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-through-structural-alteration
#15
Fern Findlay, Jan Pohl, Pavel Svoboda, Priyanka Shakamuri, Kevin McLean, Neil F Inglis, Lorna Proudfoot, Peter G Barlow
Host defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides, are key elements of innate host defense. One host defense peptide with well-characterized antimicrobial activity is the human cathelicidin, LL-37. LL-37 has been shown to be upregulated at sites of infection and inflammation and is regarded as one of the primary innate defense molecules against bacterial and viral infection. Human exposure to combustion-derived or engineered nanoparticles is of increasing concern, and the implications of nanomaterial exposure on the human immune response is poorly understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808155/roca-is-an-accessory-protein-to-the-virulence-regulating-covr-s-two-component-system-in-the-group-a-streptococcus
#16
Ira Jain, Eric W Miller, Jessica L Danger, Kathryn J Pflughoeft, Paul Sumby
Regulating gene expression during infection is critical to the ability of pathogens to circumvent the immune response and cause disease. This is true for the group A Streptococcus (GAS), a pathogen that causes both invasive (e.g. necrotizing fasciitis) and non-invasive (e.g. pharyngitis) diseases. The control of virulence (CovR/S) two-component system has a major role in regulating GAS virulence factor expression. The regulator of cov (RocA) protein, which is a predicted kinase, functions in an undetermined manner through CovR/S to alter gene expression and reduce invasive disease virulence...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764966/cathelicidins-display-conserved-direct-antiviral-activity-towards-rhinovirus
#17
Filipa Henderson Sousa, Victor Casanova, Fern Findlay, Craig Stevens, Pavel Svoboda, Jan Pohl, Lorna Proudfoot, Peter G Barlow
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most common cause of viral respiratory tract infections, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals and patients with pre-existing pulmonary conditions. The therapeutic options available are extremely limited and therefore novel therapeutics for HRV infections are of significant interest. Cathelicidins have been shown to have potent antiviral activity against a range of pathogens and are known to be key immunomodulatory mediators during infection...
September 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747178/anaerobic-bacteria-growth-in-the-presence-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-selected-ceragenins-delivered-as-magnetic-nanoparticles-cargo
#18
Bonita Durnaś, Ewelina Piktel, Marzena Wątek, Tomasz Wollny, Stanisław Góźdź, Jolanta Smok-Kalwat, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
BACKGROUND: Cationic antibacterial peptides (CAPs) and synthetic molecules mimicking the amphiphilic structure of CAPs, such as ceragenins, are promising compounds for the development of new antimicrobials. RESULTS: We tested the in vitro activity of ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 against several anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium difficile. We compared results to the activity of cathelicidin LL-37, metronidazole and nanosystems developed by attachment of CSA-13 and CSA-131 to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
July 26, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733990/dimethyl-fumarate-modulates-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-a-glutathione-and-superoxide-dependent-manner
#19
J H O Hoffmann, K Schaekel, D Hartl, A H Enk, E N Hadaschik
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear) granulocytes (PMN) were shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis by releasing IL-17 and LL-37/ DNA complexes via neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), webs of chromatin strands decorated with antimicrobial peptides, in psoriatic skin. Fumaderm(®) , a fumaric acid ester (FAE) formulation consisting of different FAE salts has been successfully used to treat psoriasis for decades. Most recently, FAE treatment was reported to inhibit NET formation in murine epidermolysis bullosa acquisita...
July 22, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732530/minocycline-modulates-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-phosphorylation-and-enhances-antimicrobial-activity-against-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells
#20
Alberto Daniel Guerra, Warren E Rose, Peiman Hematti, W John Kao
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties due to their anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and even antibacterial properties. We have shown previously that minocycline enhances the wound healing phenotype of MSCs, and MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) and gelatin-based hydrogels with minocycline have antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Here, we investigated the signaling pathway that minocycline modulates in MSCs which results in their enhanced wound healing phenotype and determined whether preconditioning MSCs with minocycline has an effect on antimicrobial activity...
July 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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