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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774111/ceragenin-csa-13-as-free-molecules-and-attached-to-magnetic-nanoparticle-surfaces-induce-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-via-disruption-of-cell-oxidative-balance
#1
Ewelina Piktel, Izabela Prokop, Urszula Wnorowska, Grzegorz Król, Mateusz Cieśluk, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Natural antimicrobial peptides and ceragenins, as non-peptide amphipathic mimics, have been proposed as anti-cancer agents. To date, it has been confirmed that cathelicidin LL-37 and ceragenin CSA-13, both in free form and immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Nevertheless, the question remains whether ceragenins, as synthetic analogs of LL-37 peptide and mimicking a number of its properties, act as antineoplastic agents in breast cancer cells, where LL-37 peptide stimulates oncogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737589/ll-37-fragments-have-antimicrobial-activity-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilms-and-wound-healing-potential-in-hacat-cell-line
#2
Paola Saporito, Michelle Vang Mouritzen, Anders Løbner-Olesen, Håvard Jenssen
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common nosocomial pathogen able to form biofilms in indwelling devices, resulting in chronic infections, which are refractory to antibiotics treatment. Staphylococcal biofilms are also associated with the delayed reepithelization and healing of chronic wounds. The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been proven active against S. epidermidis biofilms in vitro and to promote wound healing. As previous studies have demonstrated that fragments of LL-37 could possess an equal antibacterial activity as the parent peptide, we tested whether shorter (12-mer) synthetic fragments of LL-37 maintained the antibiofilm and/or immune modulating activity, aiming at the identification of essential regions within the LL-37 parent sequence...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729269/ll-37-induced-human-osteoblast-cytotoxicity-and-permeability-occurs-independently-of-cellular-ll-37-uptake-through-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#3
Emma Anders, Sara Dahl, Daniel Svensson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson
The host defense peptide LL-37 is cytotoxic for bacteria but it has also been reported to reduce host cell viability through an intracellular mechanism. LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity may be involved in the loss of bone tissue in periodontitis which is an inflammatory disease characterized by high concentrations of LL-37 observed locally in the periodontal tissue at the inflammation process. Here, we showed that LL-37 reduced human osteoblast-like MG63 cell viability assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and increased plasma membrane permeability determined by measuring intracellular Ca2+ levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release...
May 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712727/the-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-promotes-the-growth-of-the-pulmonary-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#4
Gerard Sheehan, Gudmundur Bergsson, Noel G McElvaney, Emer P Reeves, Kevin Kavanagh
The pulmonary mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients displays elevated levels of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the aim of this work was to assess the effect of LL-37 on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus , a common pathogen of CF patients. Exposure of A. fumigatus to LL-37 and its derived fragment RK-31 (1.95 μg/ml) for 24 hours had a positive effect on growth (199.94 ± 6.172%, p < 0.05) and (218.20 ± 4.63%, p < 0.05) respectively, whereas scrambled LL-37 peptide did not (85.12 ± 2...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709624/the-antimicrobial-and-anti-endotoxic-peptide-amyi-1-18-from-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-and-its-n3l-analog-promote-angiogenesis-and-cell-migration
#5
Masayuki Taniguchi, Akihito Ochiai, Toshiki Namae, Kazuki Saito, Tetsuo Kato, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In our previous studies, we showed that AmyI-1-18 and its single amino acid-substituted analogs have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-endotoxic activities and cause little or no hemolysis or cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the potential of these peptides to promote proliferation, angiogenesis (tube formation), and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among five single amino acid-substituted analogs, [N3L]AmyI-1-18 induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner with similar efficacy to AmyI-1-18...
April 27, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706289/urinary-antimicrobial-peptides-potential-novel-biomarkers-of-obstructive-uropathy
#6
S Gupta, A R Jackson, D G DaJusta, D J McLeod, S A Alpert, V R Jayanthi, K McHugh, A R Schwaderer, B Becknell, C B Ching
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have historically been evaluated for their role in protecting against uropathogens. However, there is mounting evidence to support their expression in noninfectious injury, with unclear meaning as to their function. It is possible that AMPs represent urothelial injury. Urinary tract obstruction is known to alter the urothelium; however, AMPs have not been evaluated for expression in this noninfectious injury. OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to compare urinary AMP expression in children undergoing surgical intervention for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with nonobstructed controls...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705276/biophysical-evaluation-of-cardiolipin-content-as-a-regulator-of-the-membrane-lytic-effect-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#7
Laura Hernández-Villa, Marcela Manrique-Moreno, Chad Leidy, Małgorzata Jemioła-Rzemińska, Claudia Ortíz, Kazimierz Strzałka
Cardiolipin is an anionic tetra-acyl chained glycerophospholipid that increases lipid packing levels and induces intrinsic negative curvature in membranes. Cardiolipin is found in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) membranes, where increased levels of this lipid are induced at the expense of diacyl phosphatidylglycerol in response to stress. We investigate cardiolipin as an inhibitor of the lytic activity of the cationic antimicrobial peptides LL-37 and ∆M2 in model systems with varying phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin ratios...
April 13, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693177/the-therapeutic-effect-of-artesunate-on-rosacea-through-the-inhibition-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway
#8
Ting Li, Qingwen Zeng, Xingming Chen, Guojiang Wang, Haiqing Zhang, Aihua Yu, Hairui Wang, Yang Hu
Acne rosacea is a type of chronic dermatosis with the characteristics of erubescence, angiotelectasis and pustule formation. However, current treatment methods are limited due to the side effects. Artesunate demonstrated a promising therapeutic efficacy with a high safety margin. HaCaT cells were treated with antibacterial peptide LL‑37 to simulate rosacea caused by Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) infection. Cell Counting kit 8 and flow cytometry assays were performed to measure cellular proliferation, apoptosis, the stage of the cell cycle and reactive oxygen species generation in order to determine the level of cell damage...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689490/penetration-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-a-lung-surfactant-model
#9
L M P Souza, J B Nascimento, A L Romeu, E D Estrada-López, A S Pimentel
Molecular dynamics simulations were successfully performed to understand the absorption mechanism of antimicrobial peptides LL-37, CATH-2, and SMAP-29 in a lung surfactant model. The antimicrobial peptides quickly penetrate in the lung surfactant model in dozens or hundreds nanoseconds, but they electrostatically interact with the lipid polar heads during the simulation time of 2 μs. This electrostatic interaction should be the explanation for the inactivation of the antimicrobial peptides when co-administrated with lung surfactant...
April 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685013/status-of-cathelicidin-il-37-cytokine-tnf-and-vitamin-d-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
K Majewski, J Agier, E Kozłowska, E Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
Development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection depends on the ability of the host to elicit the protective immune response to the pathogen. Cathelicidin plays a role in antibacterial innate immunity mechanisms. This peptide contributes to the barrier function of respiratory epithelium and takes part in controlling pulmonary bacterial infections. LL-37 (leucine-leucine-37) is involved in host defense and innate immune response to mycobacterial infections, as well. This study aims to evaluate the serum concentrations of LL-37 in individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to determine whether any correlations between peptide LL-37, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and vitamin D serum levels exist...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672953/astragalus-polysaccharides-exerts-anti-infective-activity-by-inducing-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#11
Lin Zhao, Shuai Tan, Hai Zhang, Peng Liu, Yu-Zhu Tan, Jia-Chuan Li, Da Jia, Xiao-Fei Shen
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), one of the major active components in Astragalus membranaceus, is an effective immunomodulator used in the treatment of immunological diseases in China. However, the anti-infective action and mechanism of APS is not fully known. In the present study, we found that APS induced the expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a key host anti-infective molecule, in both mRNA and protein levels in respiratory epithelial cells HBE16 and A549. Furthermore, the lysate and supernatant from APS-treated HBE16 cells both exhibited an obvious antibacterial action, which was partially neutralizated by LL-37 monoclonal antibody...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671721/the-bceabrs-four-component-system-that-is-essential-for-cell-envelope-stress-response-is-involved-in-sensing-and-response-to-host-defence-peptides-and-is-required-for-the-biofilm-formation-and-fitness-of-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Xiao-Lin Tian, Hasan Salim, Gaofeng Dong, Madison Parcells, Yung-Hua Li
PURPOSE: Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic pathogen worldwide. In dental biofilms, S. mutans often faces life-threatening insults, such as killing by antimicrobial compounds from competing species and from the host. How such insults affect the physiology and virulence of S. mutans is poorly understood. In this study, we explored this question by investigating the responses of S. mutans strains to several host defence peptides and bacitracin. METHODOLOGY: S...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670923/cathelicidin-ll-37-affects-surface-and-intracellular-toll-like-receptor-expression-in-tissue-mast-cells
#13
Justyna Agier, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Paulina Żelechowska, Magdalena Wiktorska, Jacek Pietrzak, Sylwia Różalska
Undoubtedly, mast cells take part in host defense against microorganisms as they are numerous at the portal of infection, they release many proinflammatory and antimicrobial mediators, and they express pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs. These receptors play a key role in recognition and binding molecules associated with microorganisms and molecules associated with damage. Cathelicidins exhibit direct antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microbes by perturbing their cell membranes. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for these molecules in supporting cell activation...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670076/cathelicidins-prime-platelets-to-mediate-arterial-thrombosis-and-tissue-inflammation
#14
Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Andreas Ehrlich, Clemens Eberle, Erik Gaitzsch, Andreas Margraf, Jochen Grommes, Prakash Saha, Anna Titova, Hellen Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Konstantin Stark, Tobias Petzold, Thomas Stocker, Ludwig T Weckbach, Julia Novotny, Markus Sperandio, Bernhard Nieswandt, Alberto Smith, Hanna Mannell, Barbara Walzog, David Horst, Oliver Soehnlein, Steffen Massberg, Christian Schulz
Leukocyte-released antimicrobial peptides contribute to pathogen elimination and activation of the immune system. Their role in thrombosis is incompletely understood. Here we show that the cathelicidin LL-37 is abundant in thrombi from patients with acute myocardial infarction. Its mouse homologue, CRAMP, is present in mouse arterial thrombi following vascular injury, and derives mainly from circulating neutrophils. Absence of hematopoietic CRAMP in bone marrow chimeric mice reduces platelet recruitment and thrombus formation...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665030/dermatologic-toxicity-from-novel-therapy-using-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-melanoma-a-detailed-examination-of-the-clinicopathologic-features
#15
Tsetan Dolkar, Celestine M Trinidad, Kelly C Nelson, Rodabe N Amaria, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Doina Ivan, Victor G Prieto, Michael T Tetzlaff, Jonathan L Curry, Phyu P Aung
LL-37 is a naturally occurring 37-amino acid that is part of innate immunity in human skin. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that intra-tumoral injections of LL-37 stimulate the innate immune system by activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which mediate tumor destruction. LL-37 intra-tumoral injections have been utilized in a Phase 1 clinical trial for melanoma patients with cutaneous metastases. We report dermatologic toxicity in a 63-year-old woman with stage IIIC melanoma of the right calf and inguinal lymph nodes...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652823/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-model-popc-and-popg-lipid-bilayers
#16
Liling Zhao, Zanxia Cao, Yunqiang Bian, Guodong Hu, Jihua Wang, Yaoqi Zhou
Cathelicidins are a large family of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in mammals with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. LL-37 is the sole amphipathic α-helical AMP from human Cathelicidins family. In addition to its bactericidal capability, LL-37 has antiviral, anti-tumor, and immunoregulatory activity. Despite many experimental studies, its molecular mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Here, we performed three independent molecular dynamics simulations (600 ns or more) of a LL-37 peptide in the presence of 256 lipid bilayers with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) mimicking bacterial and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) mimicking mammalian membranes...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644526/upregulated-expression-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-in-hypercholesterolemia-and-its-relationship-with-serum-lipid-levels
#17
Yun-Xi Li, Bao-Zhen Li, Da-Zun Yan
Dyslipidemia in patients with hypercholesterolemia has been recently linked to increased human cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) serum concentration. We tested a hypothesis that upregulated expression of LL-37 gene in peripheral blood leucocytes is involved in dyslipidemia in patients with hypercholesteremia. Patients with hypercholesterolemia were used in the study. Expression of LL-37 and human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in peripheral blood leucocytes were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Serum LL-37 concentration was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
April 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627483/effects-of-fluticasone-propionate-and-budesonide-on-the-expression-of-immune-defense-genes-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#18
M van den Berge, M R Jonker, A Miller-Larsson, D S Postma, I H Heijink
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have increased risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP), whereas this is generally not the case with budesonide (BUD) treatment. We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the expression of immune defense genes. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were pre-treated with clinically equipotent concentrations of BUD or FP (0...
April 5, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621584/amaranthus-caudatus-extract-inhibits-the-invasion-of-e-coli-into-uroepithelial-cells
#19
Soumitra Mohanty, Silvia Zambrana, Soizic Dieulouard, Witchuda Kamolvit, Vera Nilsén, Eduardo Gonzales, Claes-Göran Östenson, Annelie Brauner
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amaranthus caudatus is traditionally used to treat infections. Based on its traditional usage, we investigated the effect of A. caudatus on the bladder epithelial cells in the protection of E. coli infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The direct antimicrobial effects of A. caudatus on uropathogenic bacteria were investigated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Bladder epithelial cell lines T24 and 5637 and uropathogenic E...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599675/activity-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-conventional-antibiotics-against-superantigen-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#20
Izabela Błażewicz, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Lidia Piechowicz, Damian Neubauer, Roman J Nowicki, Wojciech Kamysz, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. It secretes toxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. Aim: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) colonization among patients with atopic dermatitis and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility to conventional antibiotics and selected antimicrobial peptides among toxin-producing strains and nonproducing strains...
February 2018: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
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