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Thangadurai Thinesh, Ramu Meenatchi, Ramasamy Pasiyappazham, Polpass Arul Jose, Muthamizh Selvan, George Seghal Kiran, Joseph Selvin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182365.].
2017: PloS One
Yi-Zhe Sun, Tibor Kurtán, Attila Mándi, Hua Tang, Yalan Chou, Keryea Soong, Li Su, Peng Sun, Chun-Lin Zhuang, Wen Zhang
Fourteen new polyketides with a trans-fused decalin ring system, libertalides A-N (3-16), together with two known analogues, aspermytin A and its acetate (1, 2), were isolated from the fermentation extract of a coral-derived Libertasomyces sp. fungus. Their relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined by TDDFT-ECD and optical rotation (OR) calculations. The OR of 1 and 2 were found to have opposite signs in CH3CN and CHCl3, which was in agreement with the OR calculations producing alternating signs for the optical rotation depending on the applied conditions...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Xin Wang, Guénola Drillon, Taewoo Ryu, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
Scleractinian corals are the foundation species of the coral-reef ecosystem. Their calcium carbonate skeletons form extensive structures that are home to millions of species, making coral reefs one of the most diverse ecosystems of our planet. However, our understanding of how reef-building corals have evolved the ability to calcify and become the ecosystem builders they are today is hampered by uncertain relationships within their subclass Hexacorallia. Corallimorpharians have been proposed to originate from a complex scleractinian ancestor that lost the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification, suggesting the possibility for corals to lose and gain the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Lei Huang, Wen-Jian Lan, Hou-Jin Li
The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in glucose-peptone-yeast (GPY) medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. By the method of (1)H NMR pre-screening and tracing the diagnostic proton signals of the methyl groups, two new hirsutane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins N and O (1 and 2) were isolated from the metabolite extracts. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR data...
October 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
Jacob L Johansen, Bridie J M Allan, Jodie L Rummer, Andrew J Esbaugh
Global demand for energy and oil-based products is progressively introducing petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into sensitive marine environments, primarily from fossil-fuel exploration, transport, and urban and industrial runoff. These toxic pollutants are found worldwide, yet the long-term ecological effects on coral reef ecosystems are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that oil exposure spanning PAH concentrations that are environmentally relevant for many coastal marine ecosystems (≤5.7 μg l(-1)), including parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Red Sea, Asia and the Caribbean, causes elevated mortality and stunted growth rates in six species of pre-settlement coral reef fishes, spanning two evolutionarily distinct families (Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Jacob L Johansen, Bridie J M Allan, Jodie L Rummer, Andrew J Esbaugh
In the version of this Article originally published, a statistic relating to the northern Great Barrier Reef was attributed to the Great Barrier Reef as a whole. The sentence should have read 'In 2016 alone, more than 35% of corals on the northern Great Barrier Reef are estimated to have died following the worst bleaching event ever recorded'. This has been corrected in all versions of the Article.
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov, S Begum, P G R Achary
BACKGROUND: Blood brain barrier and Alzheimer's disease are interrelated. This interrelation is detected by physicochemical methods, pharmacological and electrophysiological analyses. Nature of the phenomenon is extremely complex. The description of this interrelation in mathematical terms is very important task. OBJECTIVE: The systematization of facts, which are described in the literature and related to interaction between processes, which influence on Alzheimer's disease and blood brain barrier is object of this work...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
Eslam O Osman, David J Smith, Maren Ziegler, Benjamin Kürten, Constanze Conrad, Khaled M El-Haddad, Christian R Voolstra, David J Suggett
Tropical reefs have been impacted by thermal anomalies caused by global warming that induced coral bleaching and mortality events globally. However, there have only been very few recordings of bleaching within the Red Sea despite covering a latitudinal range of 15° and consequently it has been considered a region that is less sensitive to thermal anomalies. We therefore examined historical patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and associated anomalies (1982-2012) and compared warming trends with a unique compilation of corresponding coral bleaching records from throughout the region...
October 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
S J Hennige, H L Burdett, G Perna, A W Tudhope, N A Kamenos
Corals thrive in a variety of environments, from low wave and tidal energy lagoons, to high energy tidal reef flats, but remain dependent upon suitable substrate. Herein we reviewed the phenomenon of free-living corals (coralliths), examined whether they have the capacity to create their own stable habitat in otherwise uninhabitable, poor substrate environments through 'free-living stabilization', and explore their potential ecological role on coral reefs. This stabilization could be achieved by coral settlement and survival on mobile substrate, with subsequent growth into free-living coralliths until a critical mass is reached that prevents further movement...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
R P Coral, M Constant-Neto, I S Silva, S Barros, L C Côrrea da Silva, A T K Lau, A E M DeBem
Although the use of the posterior mediastinum and the stomach as a reconstruction option after esophagectomy has large acceptance all over the world, there are concerns about the potential respiratory impairment it could cause. We prospectively studied 35 patients regarding the forced expiratory volume and vital capacity. The patients were studied preoperatively and between the 45th and 60th postoperative days. The value of both parameters decreased, although they were still within normal clinical ranges. We concluded that this type of reconstruction does not harm the patients regarding the respiratory flow rates...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Hideki Abe, Yuta Ogura, Toyoharu Kobayashi, Hisanaka Ito
The first total synthesis of tricyclic bisnorsesquiterpene paralemnolide A, isolated from the soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides, was achieved. This synthesis features the lactonization of the cyclohexene derivative having a tert-butyl ester via stereoselective epoxidation followed by treatment with a Brønsted acid and construction of the novel tricyclic skeleton by an intramolecular Reformatsky-Honda reaction.
October 17, 2017: Organic Letters
Arjen Tilstra, Tim Wijgerde, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Joana Falcão Salles, Ido Pen, Ronald Osinga, Christian Wild
Recent research suggests that prior exposure of several months to elevated irradiance induces enhanced thermal tolerance in scleractinian corals. While this tolerance has been reported at the species level, individual coral colonies may react differently due to individual variability in thermal tolerance. As thermal anomalies are predicted to become common in the upcoming future, intraspecific variation may be key to the survival of coral populations. In order to study light-history based thermal stress responses on individual colonies, we developed a preliminary microcosm experiment where three randomly chosen, aquacultured colonies of the model coral Stylophora pistillata were exposed to two irradiance treatments (200 and 400 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) for 31 days, followed by artificially induced heat stress (∼33...
2017: PeerJ
N K Ahila, S Prakash, B Manikandan, J Ravindran, N M Prabhu, E Kannapiran
Coral mucus is one of the key localization in the coral holobiont, as this serves as an energy rich substrate for a wide range of abundant, diverse and multifunctional microbiota. However, very little is known about the functional role of bacterial communities in their associations with corals. In the present study, a total of 48 isolates were obtained from Porites lutea wherein the genus of Bacillus sp. and Vibrio sp. were predominant. Bio-prospecting the coral mucus revealed the existence of (10.42%) antagonistic bacteria against the tested bacterial pathogens...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mengli Chen, Edward A Boyle, Jong-Mi Lee, Intan Nurhati, Cheryl Zurbrick, Adam D Switzer, Gonzalo Carrasco
Atmospheric aerosols are the dominant source of Pb to the modern marine environment, and as a result, in most regions of the ocean the Pb isotopic composition of dissolved Pb in the surface ocean (and in corals) matches that of the regional aerosols. In the Singapore Strait, however, there is a large offset between seawater dissolved and coral Pb isotopes and that of the regional aerosols. We propose that this difference results from isotope exchange between dissolved Pb supplied by anthropogenic aerosol deposition and adsorbed natural crustal Pb on weathered particles delivered to the ocean by coastal rivers...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, Andrew S Hoey, Shaun K Wilson
Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterised as substantially different in form and function to pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterised by a change in the benthic composition from coral- to macroalgal-dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions...
October 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Emanuele Amata, Agostino Marrazzo, Maria Dichiara, Maria N Modica, Loredana Salerno, Orazio Prezzavento, Giovanni Nastasi, Antonio Rescifina, Giuseppe Romeo, Valeria Pittalà
The data have been obtained from the Heme Oxygenase Database (HemeOxDB) and refined according to the 2D-QSAR requirements. These data provide information about a set of more than 380 Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitors. The development of the 2D-QSAR model has been undertaken with the use of CORAL software using SMILES, molecular graphs and hybrid descriptors (SMILES and graph together). The 2D-QSAR model regressions for HO-1 half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) expressed as pIC50 (pIC50=-LogIC50) are here included...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Takahiro Ishigaki, Hitoshi Matsuda, Soichiro Henmi, Masato Yoshida, Nobuhiko Mukohara
An 82-year-old man suffering from lower back pain and dyspnea presented to our institute in a state of shock. Computed tomography showed subtotal occlusion of the descending aorta with massive atherosclerotic calcification. As the proximal portion of the superior mesenteric artery was obstructed, emergency bypass from the right axillary artery to the bilateral external iliac arteries was performed, but the patient died 2 days later. Autopsy revealed that reddish-brown and verrucous masses obstructed the descending aorta, and high-grade thickening of the intima and extensive deposits of calcium in the lumina and medial layer were detected in the descending aorta histologically...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Tali Mass, Jeana L Drake, John M Heddleston, Paul G Falkowski
Calcium carbonate platforms produced by reef-building stony corals over geologic time are pervasive features around the world [1]; however, the mechanism by which these organisms produce the mineral is poorly understood (see review by [2]). It is generally assumed that stony corals precipitate calcium carbonate extracellularly as aragonite in a calcifying medium between the calicoblastic ectoderm and pre-existing skeleton, separated from the overlying seawater [2]. The calicoblastic ectoderm produces extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, secreted to the calcifying medium [3-6], which appear to provide the nucleation, alteration, elongation, and inhibition mechanisms of the biomineral [7] and remain occluded and preserved in the skeleton [8-10]...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Mariya A Toropova
Metabolism of therapeutic agents in organism is extremely important from a point of view of drug discovery. Unfortunately, experimental estimation of phenomena related to metabolism is available for the limited number of substances. Under such circumstances, the development of computational method to predict endpoints related to metabolism of therapeutic agents becomes attractive alternative for expensive and time-consuming experiments. There are a group of semi-empirical calculations, which are a convenient compromise between a necessity to carry out experiments and the desire to involve in the practical analysis a bigger amount of molecular features related to the impact of different substances on metabolism...
October 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
J S Shima, E G Noonburg, S E Swearer, S H Alonzo, C W Osenberg
Parents are expected to make decisions about reproductive timing and investment that maximize their own fitness, even if this does not maximize the fitness of each individual offspring. When offspring survival is uncertain, selection typically favors iteroparity, which means that offspring born at some times can be disadvantaged, while others get lucky. The eventual fate of offspring may be further modified by their own decisions. Are fates of offspring set by birthdates (i.e., determined by parents), or can offspring improve upon the cards they've been dealt? If so, do we see adaptive plasticity in the developmental timing of offspring? We evaluate these questions for a coral reef fish (the sixbar wrasse, Thalassoma hardwicke) that is characterized by extreme iteroparity and flexible larval development...
October 14, 2017: Ecology
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