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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457222/extreme-dentition-does-not-prevent-diet-and-tooth-diversification-within-combtooth-blennies-ovalentaria-blenniidae
#1
Peter J Hundt, Andrew M Simons
The dentition of fishes can be quite striking and is often correlated with a specific diet. Combtooth blennies have long incisiform oral teeth, unlike most actinopterygians. It has been suggested that the long tooth morphology is an adaptation for detritivory, but given the diversity of diets (detritus, coral polyps, polychaetes, and pieces of other fishes), are blenny teeth indeed monomorphic? Or does tooth variation associated with diet still exist at this extreme? To explore tooth and diet diversification, we used a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Blenniidae, measured tooth shape, number, and mode of attachment, and quantified blenniid diet...
February 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455459/first-draft-genome-of-an-iconic-clownfish-species-amphiprion-frenatus
#2
Anna Marcionetti, Victor Rossier, Joris A M Bertrand, Glenn Litsios, Nicolas Salamin
Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life-history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare group to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453423/unexpected-mixed-mode-transmission-and-moderate-genetic-regulation-of-symbiodinium-communities-in-a-brooding-coral
#3
Kate M Quigley, Patricia A Warner, Line K Bay, Bette L Willis
Determining the extent to which Symbiodinium communities in corals are inherited versus environmentally acquired is fundamental to understanding coral resilience and to predicting coral responses to stressors like warming oceans that disrupt this critical endosymbiosis. We examined the fidelity with which Symbiodinium communities in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix are vertically transmitted and the extent to which communities are genetically regulated, by genotyping the symbiont communities within 60 larvae and their parents (9 maternal and 45 paternal colonies) using high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 locus...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453266/the-gills-of-reef-fish-support-a-distinct-microbiome-influenced-by-host-specific-factors
#4
Zoe A Pratte, Marc Besson, Rebecca D Hollman, Frank J Stewart
Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the gill microbiome. We focus on ecologically diverse taxa from coral reefs around Moorea, sampling the gill and intestines of adults and juveniles representing 15 families...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453252/ecology-and-biotechnological-potential-of-bacteria-belonging-to-the-pseudovibrio-genus
#5
Stefano Romano
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated worldwide from a great variety of marines sources as both free living and host associated. So far, the available data depict a group of Alphaproteobacteria characterized by a versatile metabolism, which allows them to use a variety of substrates to meet their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous requirements. Additionally, Pseudovibrio -related bacteria have been shown to proliferate under extreme oligotrophic conditions, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and metabolize potentially toxic compounds...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452767/uptake-and-distribution-of-organo-iodine-in-deep-sea-corals
#6
Nancy G Prouty, E Brendan Roark, Leslye M Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452642/the-yeast-ino80-complex-operates-as-a-tunable-dna-length-sensitive-switch-to-regulate-nucleosome-sliding
#7
Coral Y Zhou, Stephanie L Johnson, Laura J Lee, Adam D Longhurst, Sean L Beckwith, Matthew J Johnson, Ashby J Morrison, Geeta J Narlikar
The yeast INO80 chromatin remodeling complex plays essential roles in regulating DNA damage repair, replication, and promoter architecture. INO80's role in these processes is likely related to its ability to slide nucleosomes, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we use ensemble and single-molecule enzymology to study INO80-catalyzed nucleosome sliding. We find that the rate of nucleosome sliding by INO80 increases ∼100-fold when the flanking DNA length is increased from 40 to 60 bp. Furthermore, once sliding is initiated, INO80 moves the nucleosome rapidly at least 20 bp without pausing to re-assess flanking DNA length, and it can change the direction of nucleosome sliding without dissociation...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445219/comparative-toxicity-of-five-dispersants-to-coral-larvae
#8
A P Negri, H M Luter, R Fisher, D L Brinkman, P Irving
Oil spill responders require information on the absolute and relative toxicities of chemical dispersants to relevant receptor species to assess their use in spill response. However, little toxicity data are available for tropical marine species including reef-building corals. In this study, we experimentally assessed the sub-lethal toxicity of five dispersants to larvae of the coral Acropora millepora over three short exposure periods (2, 6 and 24 h) reflecting real-world spill response scenario durations. Inhibition of larval settlement increased rapidly between 2 and 6 h, and was highest at 24 h: EC 50 Corexit EC9500A = 4...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442315/cnidarian-zic-genes
#9
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440588/implementing-lung-cancer-screening-baseline-results-from-a-community-based-lung-health-check-pilot-in-deprived-areas-of-manchester
#10
Phil A Crosbie, Haval Balata, Matthew Evison, Melanie Atack, Val Bayliss-Brideaux, Denis Colligan, Rebecca Duerden, Josephine Eaglesfield, Timothy Edwards, Peter Elton, Julie Foster, Melanie Greaves, Graham Hayler, Coral Higgins, John Howells, Klaus Irion, Devinda Karunaratne, Jodie Kelly, Zoe King, Sarah Manson, Stuart Mellor, Donna Miller, Amanda Myerscough, Tom Newton, Michelle O'Leary, Rachel Pearson, Julie Pickford, Richard Sawyer, Nick J Screaton, Anna Sharman, Maggi Simmons, Elaine Smith, Ben Taylor, Sarah Taylor, Anna Walsham, Angela Watts, James Whittaker, Laura Yarnell, Anthony Threlfall, Phil V Barber, Janet Tonge, Richard Booton
We report baseline results of a community-based, targeted, low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening pilot in deprived areas of Manchester. Ever smokers, aged 55-74 years, were invited to 'lung health checks' (LHCs) next to local shopping centres, with immediate access to LDCT for those at high risk (6-year risk ≥1.51%, PLCO M2012 calculator). 75% of attendees (n=1893/2541) were ranked in the lowest deprivation quintile; 56% were high risk and of 1384 individuals screened, 3% (95% CI 2.3% to 4.1%) had lung cancer (80% early stage) of whom 65% had surgical resection...
February 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440191/torso-like-is-a-component-of-the-hemolymph-and-regulates-the-insulin-signalling-pathway-in-drosophila
#11
Michelle A Henstridge, Lucinda Aulsebrook, Takashi Koyama, Travis K Johnson, James C Whisstock, Tony Tiganis, Christen K Mirth, Coral G Warr
In Drosophila key developmental transitions are governed by the steroid hormone ecdysone. A number of neuropeptide-activated signalling pathways control ecdysone production in response to environmental signals, including the insulin signalling pathway, which regulates ecdysone production in response to nutrition. Here, we find that the Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin-like protein Torso-like, best characterised for its role in activating the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase in early embryo patterning, also regulates the insulin signalling pathway in Drosophila We previously reported that the small body size and developmental delay phenotypes of torso-like null mutants resemble those observed when insulin signalling is reduced...
February 13, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439565/quasi-smiles-based-nano-qsar-model-to-predict-the-cytotoxicity-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-to-human-lung-cells
#12
Tung Xuan Trinh, Jang-Sik Choi, Hyunpyo Jeon, Hyung-Gi Byun, Tae Hyun Yoon, Jongwoon Kim
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for nanomaterials (nano-QSAR) were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of 20 different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to human lung cells by using quasi-SMILES. The optimal descriptors, recorded as quasi-SMILES, were encoded to represent the physicochemical properties and experimental conditions for the MWCNTs from 276 data records collected from previously published studies. The qua-si-SMILES used to build the optimal descriptors were (i) diameter, (ii) length, (iii) surface area, (iv) in vitro toxicity assay, (v) cell line, (vi) exposure time, and (vii) dose...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435724/transcriptome-expression-and-activity-analyses-reveal-a-vital-heat-shock-protein-70-in-the-stress-response-of-stony-coral-pocillopora-damicornis
#13
Yidan Zhang, Zhi Zhou, Lingui Wang, Bo Huang
Coral bleaching occurs worldwide with increasing frequencies and intensities, which is caused by the stress response of stony coral to environmental change, especially increased sea surface temperature. In the present study, transcriptome, expression, and activity analyses were employed to illustrate the underlying molecular mechanisms of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the stress response of coral to environmental changes. The domain analyses of assembled transcripts revealed 30 HSP70 gene contigs in stony coral Pocillopora damicornis...
February 12, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435392/moving-to-3d-relationships-between-coral-planar-area-surface-area-and-volume
#14
Jenny E House, Viviana Brambilla, Luc M Bidaut, Alec P Christie, Oscar Pizarro, Joshua S Madin, Maria Dornelas
Coral reefs are a valuable and vulnerable marine ecosystem. The structure of coral reefs influences their health and ability to fulfill ecosystem functions and services. However, monitoring reef corals largely relies on 1D or 2D estimates of coral cover and abundance that overlook change in ecologically significant aspects of the reefs because they do not incorporate vertical or volumetric information. This study explores the relationship between 2D and 3D metrics of coral size. We show that surface area and volume scale consistently with planar area, albeit with morphotype specific conversion parameters...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435264/climatic-forcing-and-larval-dispersal-capabilities-shape-the-replenishment-of-fishes-and-their-habitat-forming-biota-on-a-tropical-coral-reef
#15
Shaun K Wilson, Martial Depcyznski, Rebecca Fisher, Thomas H Holmes, Mae M Noble, Ben T Radford, Michael Rule, George Shedrawi, Paul Tinkler, Christopher J Fulton
Fluctuations in marine populations often relate to the supply of recruits by oceanic currents. Variation in these currents is typically driven by large-scale changes in climate, in particular ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation). The dependence on large-scale climatic changes may, however, be modified by early life history traits of marine taxa. Based on eight years of annual surveys, along 150 km of coastline, we examined how ENSO influenced abundance of juvenile fish, coral spat, and canopy-forming macroalgae...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435256/specific-plasmid-patterns-and-high-rates-of-bacterial-co-occurrence-within-the-coral-holobiont
#16
Deborah C A Leite, Joana F Salles, Emiliano N Calderon, Jan D van Elsas, Raquel S Peixoto
Despite the importance of coral microbiomes for holobiont persistence, the interactions among these are not well understood. In particular, knowledge of the co-occurrence and taxonomic importance of specific members of the microbial core, as well as patterns of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs), is lacking. We used seawater and mucus samples collected from Mussismilia hispida colonies on two reefs located in Bahia, Brazil, to disentangle their associated bacterial communities, intertaxa correlations, and plasmid patterns...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434364/elevated-co2-delays-the-early-development-of-scleractinian-coral-acropora-gemmifera
#17
Xiangcheng Yuan, Tao Yuan, Hui Huang, Lei Jiang, Weihua Zhou, Sheng Liu
The effects of elevated CO2 on the early life stages of coral were investigated by culturing the pelagic larvae and new recruits of Acropora gemmifera at three concentrations of CO2 (corresponding to pH = 8.1, 7.8 and 7.5, respectively). Acidified seawater resulted in fewer A. gemmifera larvae settling, and led to the production of smaller new recruits by slowing the development of the skeleton. The delayed development of new recruits due to elevated CO2 was consistent with the downregulation of calcification related genes...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433125/meridional-overturning-circulation-conveys-fast-acidification-to-the-deep-atlantic-ocean
#18
Fiz F Perez, Marcos Fontela, Maribel I García-Ibáñez, Herlé Mercier, Anton Velo, Pascale Lherminier, Patricia Zunino, Mercedes de la Paz, Fernando Alonso-Pérez, Elisa F Guallart, Xose A Padin
Since the Industrial Revolution, the North Atlantic Ocean has been accumulating anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and experiencing ocean acidification, that is, an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (a reduction in pH) and a reduction in the concentration of carbonate ions. The latter causes the 'aragonite saturation horizon'-below which waters are undersaturated with respect to a particular calcium carbonate, aragonite-to move to shallower depths (to shoal), exposing corals to corrosive waters...
February 12, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431439/marine-invertebrate-natural-products-that-target-microtubules
#19
John H Miller, Jessica J Field, Arun Kanakkanthara, Jeremy G Owen, A Jonathan Singh, Peter T Northcote
Marine natural products as secondary metabolites are a potential major source of new drugs for treating disease. In some cases, cytotoxic marine metabolites target the microtubules of the eukaryote cytoskeleton for reasons that will be discussed. This review covers the microtubule-targeting agents reported from sponges, corals, tunicates, and molluscs and the evidence that many of these secondary metabolites are produced by bacterial symbionts. The review finishes by discussing the directions for future development and production of clinically relevant amounts of these natural products and their analogues through aquaculture, chemical synthesis, and biosynthesis by bacterial symbionts...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429906/suicide-risk-temperament-traits-and-sleep-quality-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#20
Sayra Catalina Coral Castro, Gislaine Verginia Baroni, William Alves Martins, André Luis Fernandes Palmini, Luísa Weber Bisol
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to access the suicide risk (SR) in patients with refractory epilepsy and its association with temperament and sleep quality. METHODS: A total of 50 consecutive patients referred for epilepsy surgery evaluation in the Porto Alegre Epilepsy Surgery Program were included. All patients had a detailed neurologic and psychiatric evaluation, including video-electroencephalogram (VEEG), high-resolution magnetic ressonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychologic assessment...
February 8, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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