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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645199/do-neurobiological-understandings-of-smoking-influence-quitting-self-efficacy-or-treatment-intentions
#1
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Jayne Lucke, Brad Partridge, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Addiction is increasingly defined as a "brain disease" caused by changes to neurochemistry. While nicotine addiction has historically been excluded in the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), it is beginning to be labelled a chronic brain disease. We investigated whether Australian smokers endorse brain-based explanations of smoking, and whether these beliefs are associated with quitting self-efficacy or treatment intentions. Method: Cross-sectional study of Australian smokers (N=1,538) who completed a survey measuring their agreement with statements on the brain's role in smoking...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644890/drivers-of-coral-reef-marine-protected-area-performance
#2
Venetia Alexa Hargreaves-Allen, Susana Mourato, Eleanor Jane Milner-Gulland
Coral reefs are severely threatened and a principal strategy for their conservation is marine protected areas (MPAs). However the drivers of MPA performance are complex and there are likely to be trade-offs between different types of performance (e.g. conservation or welfare related outcomes). We compiled a global dataset from expert knowledge for 76 coral reef MPAs in 33 countries and identified a set of performance measures reflecting ecological and socio-economic outcomes, achievement of aims and reduction of threats, using spatial or temporal comparisons wherever possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644427/mental-diseases-and-criminal-offences-committed-by-persons-placed-at-the-forensic-department-of-the-penitentiary-in-zenica-federation-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#3
Edin Bjelošević, Adisa Krehmić, Halima Hadžikapetanović, Sanel Čoralić, Sonja Bjelošević
Aim To investigate an impact of various biological, psychological and social factors on perpetration of criminal offences by persons with mental disorders and to examine legal requirements for placement of persons with mental disorders, who committed criminal offences. Methods This retrospective, descriptive study based on the analysis of data collected from records of the Zenica Penitentiary, Forensic Department (age, qualifications, employment status, marital status, mental disorders, information related to earlier treatments, type of committed criminal offense, duration of the security measure of mandatory psychiatric treatment and custody) included 154 examinees...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642986/viridiuvalis-adhaerens-gen-et-sp-nov-a-novel-colony-forming-chlorarachniophyte
#4
Takashi Shiratori, Sakuya Fujita, Tenma Shimizu, Takeshi Nakayama, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
A new chlorarachniophyte, Viridiuvalis adhaerens gen. et sp. nov. was isolated from the mucus on a coral reef from Zanpa Beach, Okinawa, Japan. The main vegetative stage of V. adhaerens consisted of unicellular coccoid cells with cell walls, although sarcinoid colonies and uniflagellate zoospores were also observed. V. adhaerens had chloroplasts with nucleomorphs and pyrenoids that were completely embedded in the chloroplast. A deep plate-like invagination of the periplastidal compartment (PPC) almost partitioned the pyrenoid and chloroplast components, which were surrounded by two membranes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642738/distinct-bacterial-communities-associated-with-massive-and-branching-scleractinian-corals-and-potential-linkages-to-coral-susceptibility-to-thermal-or-cold-stress
#5
Jiayuan Liang, Kefu Yu, Yinghui Wang, Xueyong Huang, Wen Huang, Zhenjun Qin, Ziliang Pan, Qiucui Yao, Wenhuan Wang, Zhengchao Wu
It is well known that different coral species have different tolerances to thermal or cold stress, which is presumed to be related to the density of Symbiodinium. However, the intrinsic factors between stress-tolerant characteristics and coral-associated bacteria are rarely studied. In this study, 16 massive coral and 9 branching coral colonies from 6 families, 10 genera, and 18 species were collected at the same time and location (Xinyi Reef) in the South China Sea to investigate the bacterial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641017/nanpdb-a-resource-for-natural-products-from-northern-african-sources
#6
Fidele Ntie-Kang, Kiran K Telukunta, Kersten Döring, Conrad V Simoben, Aurélien F A Moumbock, Yvette I Malange, Leonel E Njume, Joseph N Yong, Wolfgang Sippl, Stefan Günther
Natural products (NPs) are often regarded as sources of drugs or drug leads or simply as a "source of inspiration" for the discovery of novel drugs. We have built the Northern African Natural Products Database (NANPDB) by collecting information on ∼4500 NPs, covering literature data for the period from 1962 to 2016. The data cover compounds isolated mainly from plants, with contributions from some endophyte, animal (e.g., coral), fungal, and bacterial sources. The compounds were identified from 617 source species, belonging to 146 families...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638369/diversity-and-activity-of-diazotrophs-in-great-barrier-reef-surface-waters
#7
Lauren F Messer, Mark V Brown, Miles J Furnas, Richard L Carney, A D McKinnon, Justin R Seymour
Discrepancies between bioavailable nitrogen (N) concentrations and phytoplankton growth rates in the oligotrophic waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) suggest that undetermined N sources must play a significant role in supporting primary productivity. One such source could be biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation through the activity of "diazotrophic" bacterioplankton. Here, we investigated N2 fixation and diazotroph community composition over 10° S of latitude within GBR surface waters. Qualitative N2 fixation rates were found to be variable across the GBR but were relatively high in coastal, inner and outer GBR waters, reaching 68 nmol L(-1) d(-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637338/complex-interactions-between-potentially-pathogenic-opportunistic-and-resident-bacteria-emerge-during-infection-on-a-reef-building-coral
#8
Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Felicia M Aronson, Steven V Vollmer
Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637120/is-tutobone-an-efficient-alternative-to-other-implants-used-in-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-surgeries
#9
Savithru Kumar Prakash, Nitin Mukerji, Fredrik Prem Nath
BACKGROUND: The graft site morbidity following iliac crest harvesting is significant. To overcome this, different bone substitutes like coral dowels, solvent dissolved bovine/human bone substitutes, and carbon fiber/titanium cages have been used. This study was undertaken to assess the postoperative radiological fusion rates and symptom relief in patients who had Tutobone used as an interbody spacer compared to autologous bone graft (ABG), cages, surgibone and coral dowels. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635645/cembrene-diterpenoids-with-ether-linkages-from-sarcophyton-ehrenbergi-an-anti-proliferation-and-molecular-docking-assessment
#10
Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Abdelsamed I Elshamy, Tarik A Mohamed, Ahmed R Hamed, Mahmoud A A Ibrahim, Shinji Ohta, Paul W Paré
Three new cembrene diterpenoids, sarcoehrenbergilid A-C (1-3), along with four known diterpenoids, sarcophine (4), (+)-7α,8β-dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine (5), sinulolide A (6), and sinulolide B (7), and one steroid, sardisterol (8), were isolated and characterized from a solvent extract of the Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi. Chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses with absolute stereochemistry determined by X-ray analysis. Since these isolated cembrene diterpenes contained 10 or more carbons in a large flexible ring, conformer stabilities were examined based on density functional theory calculations...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634373/an-assessment-of-mobile-predator-populations-along-shallow-and-mesophotic-depth-gradients-in-the-hawaiian-archipelago
#11
Jacob Asher, Ivor D Williams, Euan S Harvey
Large-bodied coral reef roving predators (sharks, jacks, snappers) are largely considered to be depleted around human population centers. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, supporting evidence is primarily derived from underwater visual censuses in shallow waters (≤30 m). However, while many roving predators are present or potentially more abundant in deeper strata (30-100 m+), distributional information remains sparse. To partially fill that knowledge gap, we conducted surveys in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) from 2012-2014 using baited remote underwater stereo-video...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634029/discovery-of-scors-anciently-derived-highly-conserved-gene-associated-repeats-in-stony-corals
#12
Huan Qiu, Ehud Zelzion, Hollie M Putnam, Ruth D Gates, Nicole E Wagner, Diane K Adams, Debashish Bhattacharya
Stony coral (Scleractinia) genomes are still poorly explored and many questions remain about their evolution and contribution to the success and longevity of reefs. We analyzed transcriptome and genome data from Montipora capitata, Acropora digitifera, and transcriptome data from 20 other coral species. To our surprise, we found highly conserved, anciently derived, Scleractinia COral-specific Repeat families (SCORs) that are abundant in all the studied lineages. SCORs form complex secondary structures and are located in untranslated regions and introns, but most abundant in intergenic DNA...
June 17, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633573/should-we-encourage-smokers-with-severe-mental-illness-to-switch-to-electronic-cigarettes
#13
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, David J Castle, Colin P Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631911/-the-study-of-mineral-composition-and-structure-of-uroliths-in-the-residents-of-tomsk-district-tomsk
#14
O A Sevostyanova, V S Boshchenko, V K Osadchii, V P Parnachev, A K Polienko
AIM: To successfully treat and prevent urolithiasis, the composition and structure of uroliths should be examined using modern analytical techniques. For a long time, studies of the biomineral formation in the human body have been conducted exclusively in the field of medicine. The main attention has been paid to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases leading to the occurrence of pathogenic formations. At the same time, it is quite obvious that it is important to have a clear idea about the causes of pathogenic formations, the mechanisms for their further formation, composition and structure...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631353/microbiome-dynamics-in-early-life-stages-of-the-scleractinian-coral-acropora-gemmifera-in-response-to-elevated-pco2
#15
Guowei Zhou, Lin Cai, Tao Yuan, Renmao Tian, Haoya Tong, Weipeng Zhang, Lei Jiang, Minglan Guo, Sheng Liu, Pei-Yuan Qian, Hui Huang
Reef-building coral is a complex holobiont, harbouring diverse microorganisms that play essential roles in maintaining coral health. However, microbiome development in early life stages of coral remains poorly understood. Here, microbiomes of Acropora gemmifera were analysed during spawning and early developmental stages, and also under different seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) conditions, using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and archaea and of ITS2 for Symbiodinium. No remarkable microbiome shift was observed in adults before and after spawning...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630800/taxonomic-richness-and-abundance-of-cryptic-peracarid-crustaceans-in-the-puerto-morelos-reef-national-park-mexico
#16
Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez, Rosa Elisa Rodríguez-Martínez, Fernando Alvarez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP), and their relationship with depth. METHODS: Three reef sites were selected: (1) Bonanza, (2) Bocana, and (3) Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef), 6-8 m (fore-reef), and 10-12 m (fore-reef)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629813/recruitment-failure-of-scleractinian-corals-in-a-subtropical-marginal-environment-three-year-monitoring-in-a-hong-kong-marine-park
#17
Apple Pui Yi Chui, Put Ang
Coral recruitment was monitored for three years, using terracotta tiles, in two core coral areas in Tung Ping Chau Marine Park where coral coverage is one of the richest in Hong Kong. Results revealed an extremely low recruitment success of corals, with only 10 recruits recorded on 384 tile pairs, equivalent to 0.19 recruits m(-2)yr(-1) throughout the study period. Recruits of Platygyra acuta pre-seeded on tiles that were subsequently grown in situ experienced very high mortality following settlement, with average mortality of 80% within half a month and <0...
June 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626617/doc-concentrations-across-a-depth-dependent-light-gradient-on-a-caribbean-coral-reef
#18
Benjamin Mueller, Erik H Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl
Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626613/modelling-environmental-drivers-of-black-band-disease-outbreaks-in-populations-of-foliose-corals-in-the-genus-montipora
#19
Carla C M Chen, David G Bourne, Christopher C Drovandi, Kerrie Mengersen, Bette L Willis, M Julian Caley, Yui Sato
Seawater temperature anomalies associated with warming climate have been linked to increases in coral disease outbreaks that have contributed to coral reef declines globally. However, little is known about how seasonal scale variations in environmental factors influence disease dynamics at the level of individual coral colonies. In this study, we applied a multi-state Markov model (MSM) to investigate the dynamics of black band disease (BBD) developing from apparently healthy corals and/or a precursor-stage, termed 'cyanobacterial patches' (CP), in relation to seasonal variation in light and seawater temperature at two reef sites around Pelorus Island in the central sector of the Great Barrier Reef...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624504/proinsulin-protects-against-age-related-cognitive-loss-through-anti-inflammatory-convergent-pathways
#20
Rubén Corpas, Alberto M Hernández-Pinto, David Porquet, Catalina Hernández-Sánchez, Fatima Bosch, Arantxa Ortega-Aznar, Francesc Comellas, Enrique J de la Rosa, Coral Sanfeliu
Brain inflammaging is increasingly considered as contributing to age-related cognitive loss and neurodegeneration. Despite intensive research in multiple models, no clinically effective pharmacological treatment has been found yet. Here, in the mouse model of brain senescence SAMP8, we tested the effects of proinsulin, a promising neuroprotective agent that was previously proven to be effective in mouse models of retinal neurodegeneration. Proinsulin is the precursor of the hormone insulin but also upholds developmental physiological effects, particularly as a survival factor for neural cells...
June 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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