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Li-Guo Zheng, Yu-Chia Chang, Chiung-Chih Hu, Zhi-Hong Wen, Yang-Chang Wu, Ping-Jyun Sung
Two new briarane metabolites—fragilides K ( 1 ) and L ( 2 )—along with five known analogues—gemmacolide X, praelolide, juncins P and ZI, and gemmacolide V ( 3 ⁻ 7 )—were extracted and purified from Junceella fragilis , a gorgonian coral. Based on data obtained via spectroscopic techniques, the structures of new briaranes 1 and 2 were determined and the cyclohexane rings in 1 and 2 were found to exist in chair and twist boat conformation, respectively. Additionally, anti-inflammatory analysis showed that briaranes 2 , 3 , and 6 inhibited pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and briaranes 3 and 7 suppressed the cyclooxygenase-2 level, in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264...
June 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
G D Raby, J Sundin, F Jutfelt, S J Cooke, T D Clark
Adult bluespotted rockcod Cephalopholis cyanostigma, a coral-reef grouper, were acclimated to either ambient (mean ± S.D. 41.12 ± 2.13 Pa;) or high pCO2 (95.75 ± 11.75 Pa) conditions in a laboratory for 8-9 days, then released at the water surface directly above a reef (depth c. 5 m) and followed on video camera (for 191 ± 21 s) by scuba divers until they sought cover in the reef. No differences were detected between groups in any of the six measured variables, which included the time fish spent immobile after release, tail beat frequency during swimming and the time required to locate and enter the protective shelter of the reef...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Elizabeth C Shaver, Deron E Burkepile, Brian R Silliman
In the version of this Brief Communication originally published, the two instances of 'natural-to-high' in the sixth and seventh paragraphs were incorrect; they should have read 'naturally high'.
June 21, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Narottam Saha, Alberto Rodriguez-Ramirez, Ai Duc Nguyen, Tara R Clark, Jian-Xin Zhao, Gregory E Webb
Extensive catchment modification since European settlement on the eastern coast of Australia results in poor coastal water quality, which poses a major threat for near shore coral communities in the iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Long lived inshore corals have the potential to provide long-term temporal records of changing water quality both pre- and post-anthropogenic modification. However, water quality proxies require more study and validation of the robustness of coral-hosted geochemical proxies for a specific site is critical...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rebecca L Maher, Michelle A Johnston, Marilyn E Brandt, Tyler B Smith, Adrienne M S Correa
Bioerosion, the removal of calcium carbonate from coral frameworks by living organisms, influences a variety of reef features, from their topographic complexity to the net balance of carbonate budgets. Little is known, however, about how macroborers, which bore into reef substrates leaving traces greater than 0.1 mm diameter, are distributed across coral reefs, particularly reef systems with high (>50%) stony coral cover or at mesophotic depths (≥30 m). Here, we present an accurate and efficient method for quantifying macroborer densities from stony coral hosts via image analysis, using the bioeroding barnacle, Lithotrya dorsalis, and its host coral, Orbicella franksi, as a case study...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie B Helber, Dieuwke J J Hoeijmakers, Christopher A Muhando, Sven Rohde, Peter J Schupp
Coral reefs are experiencing increasing anthropogenic impacts that result in substantial declines of reef-building corals and a change of community structure towards other benthic invertebrates or macroalgae. Reefs around Zanzibar are exposed to untreated sewage and runoff from the main city Stonetown. At many of these sites, sponge cover has increased over the last years. Sponges are one of the top spatial competitors on reefs worldwide. Their success is, in part, dependent on their strong chemical defenses against predators, microbial attacks and other sessile benthic competitors...
2018: PloS One
Sarah J Barfield, Galina V Aglyamova, Line K Bay, Mikhail V Matz
Reef-building corals can increase their resistance to heat-induced bleaching through adaptation and acclimatization and/or by associating with a more thermo-tolerant strain of algal symbiont (Symbiodinium sp.). Here, we show that these two adaptive pathways interact. We collected Acropora millepora corals from two contrasting thermal environments on the Great Barrier Reef: cooler, mid-latitude Orpheus Island, where all corals hosted a heat-sensitive clade C Symbiodinium, and warmer, low-latitude Wilkie Island, where corals hosted either a clade C or a more thermotolerant clade D...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Nicolas Cesário Pereira, Evandro Ribeiro Diniz, Ramon Coral Ghanem, Ruy Cunha Filho, Tatiana Moura Prazeres, Walton Nose, Adriana Dos Santos Forseto
PURPOSE: This report describes the use of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty for the management of endothelial decompensation after multifocal intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed and assessed the surgical outcomes of 9 patients (9 eyes) who underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty after multifocal intraocular lens implantation. RESULTS: Corneal edema occurred due to Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (n=3), pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (n=3), Descemet's membrane detachment (n=2), and toxic anterior segment syndrome (n=1)...
June 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Kate M Quigley, Marie E Strader, Mikhail V Matz
Coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is the key biological interaction enabling existence of modern-type coral reefs, but the mechanisms regulating initial host-symbiont attraction, recognition and symbiont proliferation thus far remain largely unclear. A common reef-building coral, Acropora millepora, displays conspicuous fluorescent polymorphism during all phases of its life cycle, due to the differential expression of fluorescent proteins (FPs) of the green fluorescent protein family. In this study, we examine whether fluorescent variation in young coral juveniles exposed to natural sediments is associated with the uptake of disparate Symbiodinium assemblages determined using ITS-2 deep sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Neibla Priego, Lucía Zhu, Cátia Monteiro, Manon Mulders, David Wasilewski, Wendy Bindeman, Laura Doglio, Liliana Martínez, Elena Martínez-Saez, Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Diego Megías, Elena Hernández-Encinas, Carmen Blanco-Aparicio, Lola Martínez, Eduardo Zarzuela, Javier Muñoz, Coral Fustero-Torre, Elena Piñeiro-Yáñez, Aurelio Hernández-Laín, Luca Bertero, Valeria Poli, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Javier A Menendez, Riccardo Soffietti, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Manuel Valiente
In the version of this article originally published, the names of three authors were incorrect. The authors were listed as "Coral Fustero-Torres", "Elena Pineiro" and "Melchor Sánchez-Martínez". Their respective names are "Coral Fustero-Torre", "Elena Piñeiro-Yáñez" and "Melchor Sanchez-Martinez". The errors have been corrected in the print, HTML and PDF versions of this article.
June 19, 2018: Nature Medicine
Mauricio Romero-Torres, Eric A Treml, Alberto Acosta, David A Paz-García
Long-distance dispersal is believed to strongly influence coral reef population dynamics across the Tropical Pacific. However, the spatial scale and strength at which populations are potentially connected by dispersal remains uncertain. To determine the patterns in connectivity between the Eastern (ETP) and Central Tropical Pacific (CTP) ecoregions, we used a biophysical model incorporating ocean currents and larval biology to quantify the seascape-wide dispersal potential among all population. We quantified the likelihood and determined the oceanographic conditions that enable the dispersal of coral larvae across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EP-Barrier) and identified the main connectivity pathways and their conservation value for dominant reef-building corals...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Coral Hanevold, Susan Halbach, Jin Mou, Karyn Yonekawa
BACKGROUND: We have noted a large number of referrals for abnormal kidney imaging and laboratory tests and postulated that such referrals have increased significantly over time. Understanding changes in referral patterns is helpful in tailoring education and communication between specialists and primary providers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of new patient referrals to Mary Bridge Children's Nephrology clinic for early (2002 to 2004) and late (2011 to 2013) cohorts...
June 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Paul W Gabrielson, Jeffery R Hughey, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido
An essential suite of coral reef ecosystem engineers is coralline red algae. Among these, the smooth, encrusting Porolithon onkodes has historically been considered the most important and common reef building species worldwide. We assess P. onkodes biodiversity by performing a genomic analysis of the lectotype specimen collected in 1892 from the Tami Islands, Gulf of Huon, east of New Guinea. Comparisons of DNA sequences from the lectotype specimen to those deposited in GenBank and to newly generated sequences from both field-collected and historical specimens demonstrate that at least 20 distinct species are passing under P...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Blake Ushijima, Gary P Richards, Michael A Watson, Carla B Schubiger, Claudia C Häse
The bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus can threaten vital reef ecosystems by causing disease in a variety of coral genera, and, for some strains, increases in virulence at elevated water temperatures. In addition, strains of V. coralliilyticus (formally identified as V. tubiashii) have been implicated in mass mortalities of shellfish larvae causing significant economic losses to the shellfish industry. Recently, strain BAA-450, a coral pathogen, was demonstrated to be virulent towards larval Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas)...
2018: PloS One
Juan Sebastián Celis, Daniel Wibberg, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Oliver Rupp, Alexander Sczyrba, Anika Winkler, Jörn Kalinowski, Thomas Wilke
Background: Many cnidarians, including stony corals, engage in complex symbiotic associations, comprising the eukaryotic host, photosynthetic algae, and highly diverse microbial communities-together referred to as holobiont. This taxonomic complexity makes sequencing and assembling coral host genomes extremely challenging. Therefore, previous cnidarian genomic projects were based on symbiont-free tissue samples. However, this approach may not be applicable to the majority of cnidarian species for ecological reasons...
June 18, 2018: GigaScience
Hongyue Li, Xiang Zhang, Hao Long, Chaoqun Hu, Yongcan Zhou, Shifeng Wang, Shaowen Ke, Zhenyu Xie
Porites andrewsi white syndrome (PAWS), caused by Vibrio alginolyticus strains XSBZ03 and XSBZ14, poses a serious threat to corals in the South China Sea. To obtain a specific target against which to develop a rapid PCR detection method for the coral pathogenic strain XSBZ03, the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (IGS) region of 4 strains of V. alginolyticus, including the XSBZ03 and XSBZ14 strains, was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Six types of IGS were found: IGS0, IGSG, IGSIA, IGSAG, IGSGLV, and IGSGLAV...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nature
Elizabeth C Shaver, Deron E Burkepile, Brian R Silliman
Recent large-scale analyses suggest that local management actions may not protect coral reefs from climate change, yet most local threat-reduction strategies have not been tested experimentally. We show that removing coral predators is a common local action used by managers across the world, and that removing the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata from Caribbean brain corals (Pseudodiploria and Diploria species) before a major warming event increased coral resilience by reducing bleaching severity (resistance) and post-bleaching tissue mortality (recovery)...
June 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
David Lecchini, Frédéric Bertucci, Camille Gache, Adam Khalife, Marc Besson, Natacha Roux, Cecile Berthe, Shubha Singh, Eric Parmentier, Maggy M Nugues, Rohan M Brooker, Danielle L Dixson, Laetitia Hédouin
Understanding the relationship between coral reef condition and recruitment potential is vital for the development of effective management strategies that maintain coral cover and biodiversity. Coral larvae (planulae) have been shown to use certain sensory cues to orient towards settlement habitats (e.g. the odour of live crustose coralline algae - CCA). However, the influence of auditory cues on coral recruitment, and any effect of anthropogenic noise on this process, remain largely unknown. Here, we determined the effect of protected reef (MPA), exploited reef (non-MPA) soundscapes, and a source of anthropogenic noise (boat) on the habitat preference for live CCA over dead CCA in the planula of two common Indo-Pacific coral species (Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora cytherea)...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joshua E Cinner, Eva Maire, Cindy Huchery, M Aaron MacNeil, Nicholas A J Graham, Camilo Mora, Tim R McClanahan, Michele L Barnes, John N Kittinger, Christina C Hicks, Stephanie D'Agata, Andrew S Hoey, Georgina G Gurney, David A Feary, Ivor D Williams, Michel Kulbicki, Laurent Vigliola, Laurent Wantiez, Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Stuart A Sandin, Alison Green, Marah J Hardt, Maria Beger, Alan M Friedlander, Shaun K Wilson, Eran Brokovich, Andrew J Brooks, Juan J Cruz-Motta, David J Booth, Pascale Chabanet, Charlotte Gough, Mark Tupper, Sebastian C A Ferse, U Rashid Sumaila, Shinta Pardede, David Mouillot
Coral reefs provide ecosystem goods and services for millions of people in the tropics, but reef conditions are declining worldwide. Effective solutions to the crisis facing coral reefs depend in part on understanding the context under which different types of conservation benefits can be maximized. Our global analysis of nearly 1,800 tropical reefs reveals how the intensity of human impacts in the surrounding seascape, measured as a function of human population size and accessibility to reefs ("gravity"), diminishes the effectiveness of marine reserves at sustaining reef fish biomass and the presence of top predators, even where compliance with reserve rules is high...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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