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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447373/avoiding-a-crisis-of-motivation-for-ocean-management-under-global-environmental-change
#1
REVIEW
Peter J Mumby, James N Sanchirico, Kenneth Broad, Michael W Beck, Peter Tyedmers, Megan Morikawa, Thomas A Okey, Larry B Crowder, Elizabeth A Fulton, Denny Kelso, Joanie A Kleypas, Stephan B Munch, Polita Glynn, Kathryn Matthews, Jane Lubchenco
Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447372/rapid-thermal-adaptation-in-photosymbionts-of-reef-building-corals
#2
Leela J Chakravarti, Victor H Beltran, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Climate warming is occurring at a rate not experienced by life on Earth for 10 s of millions of years, and it is unknown whether the coral-dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium spp.) symbiosis can evolve fast enough to ensure coral reef persistence. Coral thermal tolerance is partly dependent on the Symbiodinium hosted. Therefore, directed laboratory evolution in Symbiodinium has been proposed as a strategy to enhance coral holobiont thermal tolerance. Using a reciprocal transplant design, we show that the upper temperature tolerance and temperature tolerance range of Symbiodinium C1 increased after ~80 asexual generations (2...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446838/visual-functions-of-workers-exposed-to-organic-solvents-in-petrochemical-industries
#3
R Indhushree, R Monica, K Coral, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni, R Punitham, B M Subburathinam, R Krishnakumar, P P Santanam
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty workers from the petroleum refinery and 30 age-matched controls (mean age) were recruited. Visual functions and occupational exposure levels were assessed among both the groups. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual fields were evaluated at the workplace. The biological samples, namely blood and urine, were collected at the workplace and transported to the laboratory for analysis...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446693/lipid-consumption-in-coral-larvae-differs-among-sites-a-consideration-of-environmental-history-in-a-global-ocean-change-scenario
#4
Emily B Rivest, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Tung-Yung Fan, Hsing-Hui Li, Gretchen E Hofmann
The success of early life-history stages is an environmentally sensitive bottleneck for many marine invertebrates. Responses of larvae to environmental stress may vary due to differences in maternal investment of energy stores and acclimatization/adaptation of a population to local environmental conditions. In this study, we compared two populations from sites with different environmental regimes (Moorea and Taiwan). We assessed the responses of Pocillopora damicornis larvae to two future co-occurring environmental stressors: elevated temperature and ocean acidification...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446691/key-functional-role-of-the-optical-properties-of-coral-skeletons-in-coral-ecology-and-evolution
#5
Susana Enríquez, Eugenio R Méndez, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto
Multiple scattering of light on coral skeleton enhances light absorption efficiency of coral symbionts and plays a key role in the regulation of their internal diffuse light field. To understand the dependence of this enhancement on skeleton meso- and macrostructure, we analysed the scattering abilities of naked coral skeletons for 74 Indo-Pacific species. Sensitive morphotypes to thermal and light stress, flat-extraplanate and branching corals, showed the most efficient structures, while massive-robust species were less efficient...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445546/a-coral-algal-phase-shift-in-mesoamerica-not-driven-by-changes-in-herbivorous-fish-abundance
#6
Jesús Ernesto Arias-González, Tak Fung, Robert M Seymour, Joaquín Rodrigo Garza-Pérez, Gilberto Acosta-González, Yves-Marie Bozec, Craig R Johnson
Coral-algal phase shifts in which coral cover declines to low levels and is replaced by algae have often been documented on coral reefs worldwide. This has motivated coral reef management responses that include restriction and regulation of fishing, e.g. herbivorous fish species. However, there is evidence that eutrophication and sedimentation can be at least as important as a reduction in herbivory in causing phase shifts. These threats arise from coastal development leading to increased nutrient and sediment loads, which stimulate algal growth and negatively impact corals respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445534/a-new-high-resolution-global-mass-coral-bleaching-database
#7
Simon D Donner, Gregory J M Rickbeil, Scott F Heron
Episodes of mass coral bleaching have been reported in recent decades and have raised concerns about the future of coral reefs on a warming planet. Despite the efforts to enhance and coordinate coral reef monitoring within and across countries, our knowledge of the geographic extent of mass coral bleaching over the past few decades is incomplete. Existing databases, like ReefBase, are limited by the voluntary nature of contributions, geographical biases in data collection, and the variations in the spatial scale of bleaching reports...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444302/draft-genome-of-the-lined-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus
#8
Qiang Lin, Ying Qiu, Ruobo Gu, Meng Xu, Jia Li, Chao Bian, Huixian Zhang, Geng Qin, Yanhong Zhang, Wei Luo, Jieming Chen, Xinxin You, Mingjun Fan, Min Sun, Pao Xu, Byrappa Venkatesh, Junming Xu, Hongtuo Fu, Qiong Shi
Background: The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus , is an Atlantic species and mainly inhabits shallow sea-beds or coral reefs. It has become very popular in China for its wide use in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to improve the aquaculture yield of this valuable fish species, we are trying to develop genomic resources for assistant selection in genetic breeding. Here, we provide whole genome sequencing, assembly and gene annotation of the lined seahorse, which can enrich genome resource and further application for its molecular breeding...
April 22, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432155/interactive-effects-of-oxygen-carbon-dioxide-and-flow-on-photosynthesis-and-respiration-in-the-scleractinian-coral-galaxea-fascicularis
#9
Ronald Osinga, Marlous Derksen-Hooijberg, Tim Wijgerde, Johan A J Verreth
Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured on six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under twelve different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and 19.1 μmol L(-1)) and water flow (1-1.6 cm s(-1) versus 4-13 cm s(-1)) in a repeated measures design. Dark respiration was enhanced by increased flow and increased oxygen saturation in an interactive way, which relates to improved oxygen influx into the coral tissue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432153/comparison-of-functional-and-anatomical-estimations-of-visual-acuity-in-two-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#10
Amira N Parker, Kerstin A Fritsches, Cait Newport, Guy Wallis, Ulrike E Siebeck
The high contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. In this study, we study the visual acuity of two species of reef fish using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species in question share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator vs...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#11
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430780/the-importance-of-standardization-for-biodiversity-comparisons-a-case-study-using-autonomous-reef-monitoring-structures-arms-and-metabarcoding-to-measure-cryptic-diversity-on-mo-orea-coral-reefs-french-polynesia
#12
Emma Ransome, Jonathan B Geller, Molly Timmers, Matthieu Leray, Angka Mahardini, Andrianus Sembiring, Allen G Collins, Christopher P Meyer
The advancement of metabarcoding techniques, declining costs of high-throughput sequencing and development of systematic sampling devices, such as autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS), have provided the means to gather a vast amount of diversity data from cryptic marine communities. However, such increased capability could also lead to analytical challenges if the methods used to examine these communities across local and global scales are not standardized. Here we compare and assess the underlying biases of four ARMS field processing methods, preservation media, and current bioinformatic pipelines in evaluating diversity from cytochrome c oxidase I metabarcoding data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429730/new-bicyclic-cembranoids-from-the-south-china-sea-soft-coral-sarcophyton-trocheliophorum
#13
Lin-Fu Liang, Wen-Ting Chen, Xu-Wen Li, He-Yao Wang, Yue-Wei Guo
Nine new bicyclic cembranoids, sarcophytrols M-U(1-9), were isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum as minor components, along with one known related cembranoid 10. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. The chemical structures of these metabolites are characterized by the different patterns of the additional cyclization within the 14-member skeleton, which leading to the formation of furan, pyran, oxepane, and peroxyl rings, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429531/sugar-enrichment-provides-evidence-for-a-role-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-coral-bleaching
#14
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra, Christian Wild
The disruption of the coral-algae symbiosis (coral bleaching) due to rising sea surface temperatures has become an unprecedented global threat to coral reefs. Despite decades of research, our ability to manage mass bleaching events remains hampered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we induced a coral bleaching phenotype in the absence of heat and light stress by adding sugars. The sugar addition resulted in coral symbiotic breakdown accompanied by a fourfold increase of coral-associated microbial nitrogen fixation...
April 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428853/coral-reef-mesopredators-switch-prey-shortening-food-chains-in-response-to-habitat-degradation
#15
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones, Glenn R Almany
Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427567/benthic-dinoflagellate-integrator-bedi-a-new-method-for-the-quantification-of-benthic-harmful-algal-blooms
#16
Luisa Mangialajo, Anna Fricke, Gala Perez-Gutierrez, Daniela Catania, Cécile Jauzein, Rodolphe Lemee
Despite the potential negative human health, ecological and economic impact, the ecology of harmful benthic dinoflagellate blooms remains largely unknown. This is probably due to the complex interactions among biotic and abiotic drivers that influence blooms, but also to the difficulty in quantifying cell abundance in a comparable way over large spatial and temporal scales. One of the recognized priorities for bHABs (benthic Harmful Algal Blooms) assessment is developing and standardizing methods that can provide comparable data...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426136/differentiating-signals-to-make-biological-sense-a-guide-through-databases-for-ms-based-non-targeted-metabolomics
#17
REVIEW
Alberto Gil de la Fuente, Emily Grace Armitage, Abraham Otero, Coral Barbas, Joanna Godzien
Metabolite identification is one of the most challenging steps in metabolomics studies and reflects one of the greatest bottlenecks in the entire workflow. The success of this step determines the success of the entire research, therefore the quality at which annotations are given requires special attention. A variety of tools and resources are available to aid metabolite identification or annotation, offering different and often complementary functionalities. In preparation for this article, almost 50 databases were reviewed, from which 17 were selected for discussion, chosen for their on-line ESI-MS functionality...
April 20, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425179/resilience-of-the-prokaryotic-microbial-community-of-acropora-digitifera-to-elevated-temperature
#18
Andrian P Gajigan, Leomir A Diaz, Cecilia Conaco
The coral is a holobiont formed by the close interaction between the coral animal and a diverse community of microorganisms, including dinoflagellates, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. The prokaryotic symbionts of corals are important for host fitness but are also highly sensitive to changes in the environment. In this study, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing to examine the response of the microbial community associated with the coral, Acropora digitifera, to elevated temperature. The A. digitifera microbial community is dominated by operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) affiliated with classes Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria...
April 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425157/geographic-variation-in-mimetic-precision-among-different-species-of-coral-snake-mimics
#19
Christopher K Akcali, David W Pfennig
Batesian mimicry is widespread, but whether and why different species of mimics vary geographically in resemblance to their model is unclear. We characterized geographic variation in mimetic precision among four Batesian mimics of coral snakes. Each mimic occurs where its model is abundant (i.e., in "deep sympatry"), rare (i.e., at the sympatry/allopatry boundary or "edge sympatry"), and absent (i.e., in allopatry). Geographic variation in mimetic precision was qualitatively different among these mimics. In one mimic, the most precise individuals occurred in edge sympatry; in another, they occurred in deep sympatry; in the third, they occurred in allopatry; and in the fourth, precise mimics were not concentrated anywhere throughout their range...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425096/influence-of-coral-cover-and-structural-complexity-on-the-accuracy-of-visual-surveys-of-coral-reef-fish-communities
#20
D J Coker, J P Nowicki, N A J Graham
Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
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