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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911439/evidence-for-a-role-of-viruses-in-the-thermal-sensitivity-of-coral-photosymbionts
#1
Rachel Ashley Levin, Christian Robert Voolstra, Karen Dawn Weynberg, Madeleine Josephine Henriette van Oppen
Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905045/differential-response-of-coral-communities-to-caulerpa-spp-bloom-in-the-reefs-of-indian-ocean
#2
B Manikandan, J Ravindran
Coral reef ecosystems are disturbed in tandem by climatic and anthropogenic stressors. A number of factors act synergistically to reduce the live coral cover and threaten the existence of reefs. Continuous monitoring of the coral communities during 2012-2014 captured an unprecedented growth of macroalgae as a bloom at Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) which are protected and unprotected reefs, respectively. The two reefs varying in their protection level enabled to conduct an assessment on the response of coral communities and their recovery potential during and after the macroalgal bloom...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904802/abundance-and-physiology-of-dominant-soft-corals-linked-to-water-quality-in-jakarta-bay-indonesia
#3
Gunilla Baum, Indra Januar, Sebastian C A Ferse, Christian Wild, Andreas Kunzmann
Declining water quality is one of the main reasons of coral reef degradation in the Thousand Islands off the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Shifts in benthic community composition to higher soft coral abundances have been reported for many degraded reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. However, it is not clear to what extent soft coral abundance and physiology are influenced by water quality. In this study, live benthic cover and water quality (i.e. dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN), turbidity (NTU), and sedimentation) were assessed at three sites (< 20 km north of Jakarta) in Jakarta Bay (JB) and five sites along the outer Thousand Islands (20-60 km north of Jakarta)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904505/composition-and-biological-activities-of-the-aqueous-extracts-of-three-scleractinian-corals-from-the-mexican-caribbean-pseudodiploria-strigosa-porites-astreoides-and-siderastrea-siderea
#4
Alejandro García-Arredondo, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903957/medicalisation-smoking-and-e-cigarettes-evidence-and-implications
#5
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903867/in-situ-developmental-responses-of-tropical-sea-urchin-larvae-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-at-naturally-elevated-pco2-vent-sites
#6
Miles D Lamare, Michelle Liddy, Sven Uthicke
Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO2 and ambient pCO2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902715/local-stressors-resilience-and-shifting-baselines-on-coral-reefs
#7
Matthew McLean, Javier Cuetos-Bueno, Osamu Nedlic, Marston Luckymiss, Peter Houk
Understanding how and why coral reefs have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining coral-reef resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and coral assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and coral assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora corals and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902710/aspergillus-sydowii-and-other-potential-fungal-pathogens-in-gorgonian-octocorals-of-the-ecuadorian-pacific
#8
M Mar Soler-Hurtado, José Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Annie Machordom, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898308/emerging-biopharmaceuticals-from-marine-actinobacteria
#9
REVIEW
Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Umber Tasneem
Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896686/blastococcus-colisei-sp-nov-isolated-from-an-archaeological-amphitheatre
#10
Karima Hezbri, Imen Nouioui, Manfred Rohde, Peter Schumann, Maher Gtari, Hans-Peter Klenk, Maria Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari
The taxonomic position of an actinobacterial isolate, designated strain BMG 822(T), isolated from limestone from the Amphitheater of El Jem (Coliseum Thysdrus), Tunisia, was established using a polyphasic approach. Strain BMG 822(T) was found to grow well at 30 °C and pH 6.5-8.0, and to be coral-coloured, Gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative. Whole cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, glucose, galactose and ribose. The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycophospholipid and six unidentified phospholipids...
November 28, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896319/correlation-between-pollution-and-decline-of-scleractinian-cladocora-caespitosa-linnaeus-1758-in-the-gulf-of-gabes
#11
Akram El Kateb, Claudio Stalder, Christoph Neururer, Chiara Pisapia, Silvia Spezzaferri
During an expedition in 2014 in the Gulf of Gabes that aimed to evaluate the impact of the pollution of the phosphate industry on the marine environment, numerous dead coral fragments were retrieved from several stations along a 18 km long transect in front of the industry complex of Gabes. Detailed taxonomy of these coral fragments shows clearly that all fragments belong to the species Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758). Quantitative analysis of the coral fragments indicates a positive correlation with stations characterized by positive bathymetric anomalies...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896036/detecting-sedimentation-impacts-to-coral-reefs-resulting-from-dredging-the-port-of-miami-florida-usa
#12
Margaret W Miller, Jocelyn Karazsia, Carolyn E Groves, Sean Griffin, Tom Moore, Pace Wilber, Kurtis Gregg
The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-assessment monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding coral reefs has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a coral reef feature referred to as the Inner Reef, particularly in the sector north of the channel...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#13
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894882/comparing-biomarker-responses-during-thermal-acclimation-a-lethal-vs-non-lethal-approach-in-a-tropical-reef-clownfish
#14
Carolina Madeira, Diana Madeira, Mário S Diniz, Henrique N Cabral, Catarina Vinagre
Knowledge of thermal stress biology for most tropical fish species in reef ecosystems under climate change is still quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the time-course changes of thermal stress biomarkers in the commercially exploited coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris, during a laboratory simulated event of increased temperature. Heat shock protein 70kDa (Hsp70) and total ubiquitin (Ub) were determined in the muscle (lethal method) and in the fin (non-lethal alternative method) under two temperature treatments (control - 26°C and elevated temperature - 30°C) throughout one month with weekly samplings...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894769/identification-of-molecular-species-of-monoalkyldiacylglycerol-from-the-squid-berryteuthis-magister-using-liquid-chromatography-apci-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#15
Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889948/a-new-sequence-dataset-of-ssu-rrna-gene-for-scleractinia-and-its-phylogenetic-and-ecological-applications
#16
Roberto Arrigoni, Benoît Vacherie, Francesca Benzoni, Fabrizio Stefani, Eric Karsenti, Olivier Jaillon, Fabrice Not, Flavia Nunes, Claude Payri, Patrick Wincker, Valérie Barbe
Scleractinian corals (i.e. hard corals) play a fundamental role in building and maintaining coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, their phylogenies remain largely unresolved and little is known about dispersal and survival of their planktonic larval phase. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a commonly-used gene for DNA barcoding in several metazoans, and small variable regions of SSU rRNA are largely adopted as barcode marker to investigate marine plankton community structure worldwide...
November 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889504/responses-of-the-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-and-zinc-or-nickel-exposure
#17
Christina G Duckworth, Codie R Picariello, Rachel K Thomason, Krina S Patel, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser
Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO2, as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni)...
November 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889241/natural-and-synthetic-coral-biomineralization-for-human-bone-revitalization
#18
REVIEW
David W Green, Besim Ben-Nissan, Kyung Sik Yoon, Bruce Milthorpe, Han-Sung Jung
Coral skeletons can regenerate replacement human bone in nonload-bearing excavated skeletal locations. A combination of multiscale, interconnected pores and channels and highly bioactive surface chemistry has established corals as an important alternative to using healthy host bone replacements. Here, we highlight how coral skeletal systems are being remolded into new calcified structures or synthetic corals by biomimetic processes, as places for the organized permeation of bone tissue cells and blood vessels...
November 23, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889075/abundance-and-composition-of-juvenile-corals-reveals-divergent-trajectories-for-coral-assemblages-across-the-united-arab-emirates
#19
Morgan S Pratchett, Andrew H Baird, Andrew G Bauman, John A Burt
Marked shifts in the composition of coral assemblages are occurring at many locations, but it is unknown whether these are permanent shifts reinforced by patterns of population replenishment. This study examined the composition of juvenile coral assemblages across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Densities of juvenile corals varied significantly among locations, but were highest where coral cover was highest. Juvenile coral assemblages within the Persian Gulf were dominated by Porites, while no Acropora were recorded...
November 23, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889074/compositional-shifts-in-bacterial-communities-associated-with-the-coral-palythoa-caribaeorum-due-to-anthropogenic-effects
#20
Gustavo Vasconcelos Bastos Paulino, Leonardo Broetto, Victor Satler Pylro, Melissa Fontes Landell
Corals harbor abundant and diverse prokaryotic communities that may be strongly influenced by human activities, which in turn compromise the normal functioning of coral species and predispose them to opportunistic infections. In this study, we investigated the effect of sewage dumping on the bacterial communities associated with the soft coral Palythoa caribaeorum at two sites in the Brazilian coast. We observed a dominance of bacterial species classified as human pathogens at sites exposed to untreated sewage discharge...
November 23, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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