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Nausea and vomitting

Benjamin Assouline, Martin R Tramèr, Lukas Kreienbühl, Nadia Elia
Ketamine is often added to opioids in patient-controlled analgesia devices. We tested whether in surgical patients, ketamine added to an opioid patient-controlled analgesia decreased pain intensity by ≥25%, cumulative opioid consumption by ≥30%, the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting by ≥30%, the risk of respiratory adverse effects by ≥50%, and increased the risk of hallucination not more than 2-fold. In addition, we searched for evidence of dose-responsiveness. Nineteen randomized trials (1349 adults, 104 children) testing different ketamine regimens added to various opioids were identified through searches in databases and bibliographies (to 04...
August 29, 2016: Pain
Zhang Chao, Huang Gui Jin, Yu Cong
BACKGROUND: The incidence of early childhood caries shows a significant increasing trend. Often, children younger than 6 years need additional help to finish the dental treatment. Therefore, general anesthesia (GA) could help to provide a successful environment for pediatric dental treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dental treatment under general anesthesia (DGA) on the patients' oral health in Chongqing, Southwest China using the P-CPQ and the FIS questionnaires...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
M Rieck, A F Schumacher-Schuh, V Altmann, S M Callegari-Jacques, C R M Rieder, M H Hutz
Levodopa is the most used drug to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, dopaminergic side effects such as nausea and vomiting may occur. Several evidences indicate a major role for dopamine receptors D2 (DRD2) and D3 (DRD3) in emetic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of DRD2 rs1799732 and DRD3 rs6280 gene polymorphisms with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms induced by levodopa in PD patients. Two hundred and seventeen PD patients on levodopa therapy were investigated...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Ralf D Hofheinz, Claudia Pauligk, Hans-Georg Kopp, Georg Martin Haag, Kim Barbara Luley, Johannes Meiler, Nils Homann, Sylvie Lorenzen, Harald Schmalenberg, Stephan Probst, Michael Koenigsmann, Matthias Egger, Nicole Prasnikar, Karel Caca, Jörg Trojan, Uwe M Martens, Andreas Block, Wolfgang Fischbach, Rolf Mahlberg, Michael Clemens, Gerald Illerhaus, Katja Zirlik, Dirk M Behringer, Wolff Schmiegel, Michael Pohl, Michael Heike, Ulrich Ronellenfitsch, Martin Schuler, Wolf O Bechstein, Alfred Königsrainer, Timo Gaiser, Peter Schirmacher, Wael Hozaeel, Alexander Reichart, Thorsten O Goetze, Mark Sievert, Elke Jäger, Stefan Mönig, Andrea Tannapfel
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is effective in metastatic gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, but has not yet been evaluated in the context of resectable patients. Here we report findings from the phase 2 part of the phase 2/3 FLOT4 trial, which compared histopathological regression in patients treated with a docetaxel-based triplet chemotherapy versus an anthracycline-based triplet chemotherapy before surgical resection. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, phase 2/3 study, eligible participants were recruited from 28 German oncology centres...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Vera Lucia Rasera Zotelli, Cássia Maria Grillo, Maria da Luz Rosário de Sousa
When nausea, an extremely unpleasant symptom, is experienced during dental treatment, it generates disorders and obstacles for both the patient and the professional, compromising the good quality of dental care. Clinical studies have confirmed the antiemetic action of acupuncture and shown its use for the treatment of nausea and vomiting. In the scientific literature there are several recent studies that address the placebo effect of acupuncture. The aim of this manuscript is to present a case report of a 46-year-old Caucasian male patient, who had severe symptoms of nausea while undergoing dental care...
October 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Sahoo Swapnajeet, Subodh Bn, Gupta Gourav
Apart from sleep wake disorders, nowadays, modafinil is being prescribed for several psychiatric disorders including depression. Despite being reported as to be having very low abuse potential, cases of modafinil dependence had come to the limelight. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man with bipolar affective disorder while in remission who developed modafinil dependence and later on, had hypersexuality when he increased the dose of modafinil from 400 to 1,000 mg/day. Existing literature suggests that modafinil when taken above prescribed doses can cause many side effects ranging from nausea, vomiting to psychotic exacerbation and mania...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Silvia Beatriz Gorban de Lapertosa, Gustavo Frechtel, Elise Hardy, Leobardo Sauque-Reyna
AIMS: Socioeconomic changes in Latin American countries have led to an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin lispro, each added to insulin glargine, in Latin American patients with T2D. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis of patients from Argentina and Mexico in the 4B study (N=114). Patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0-10.0% (53-86mmol/mol) after 12weeks of intensive basal insulin optimization were randomized to exenatide BID or thrice-daily insulin lispro added to insulin glargine and metformin...
October 8, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Brian E Lacy, Michael D Crowell, Carole Mathis, David Bauer, Leslie J Heinberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastroparesis (GP) patients suffer from recurrent symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The impact of GP on quality of life (QoL), health care utilization and daily activities is not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Part 1: 398 adult patients (≥18 y) with documented GP (symptoms >6 mo) were surveyed to assess QoL and pain using the Short Form 36 and McGill pain questionnaires. Part 2: 491 adult GP patients were surveyed to evaluate employment status, work and daily activities, medication use, physician visits, diagnostic testing, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations related to their GP symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Charles C Horn, Bill J Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Clarice L S Lopes, Paula Pitta Pinheiro, Luzia S Barberena, Guilherme U Eckert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and compare the following outcomes between children with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and children without prior diagnosis of DM1: length of hospital stay, severity on admission, insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume of fluids infused during treatment, and complications. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study with review of medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a referral hospital from June 2013 to July 2015...
October 19, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
T Meng, Z Zhong, L Meng
Lumbar spinal surgery is most commonly performed under general anaesthesia. However, spinal anaesthesia has also been used. We aimed to systematically review the comparative evidence. We only included randomised, controlled trials in this meta-analysis and calculated the risk ratio or standardised mean difference for haemodynamics, blood loss, surgical time, analgesic requirement, nausea and/or vomiting, and length of hospital stay. Eight studies with a total of 625 patients were included. These were considered to be at high risk of bias...
October 22, 2016: Anaesthesia
Samina Ismail, Aliya Ahmed, Muhammad Qamarul Hoda, Muhammad Sohaib, Zia-Ur-Rehman
All laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) patients in our hospital setting are admitted overnight. This article assesses the contribution of factors like postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), postoperative pain and surgical complications to overnight stay after elective LC. This 1-year observational study included patients having normal liver functions undergoing elective LC before 1400 h. The collected data included patient demographics, co-morbidities, PONV, pain scores, complications, surgical time, anesthesia technique, use of prophylactic antiemetics, analgesics, patient satisfaction and desire to have this surgery as day case or in-patient procedure...
October 20, 2016: Updates in Surgery
Matt Shirley, Lesley J Scott
Isavuconazole is a second-generation triazole with activity against a broad spectrum of clinically important fungi. Its water-soluble prodrug, isavuconazonium sulfate (Cresemba(®)), available in interchangeable intravenous and oral formulations, is approved in the USA and EU for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. In international phase III clinical trials, isavuconazole was efficacious and generally well tolerated in the treatment of these life-threatening diseases. In the phase III SECURE trial, isavuconazole was non-inferior to voriconazole for the primary treatment of invasive mould disease (primarily aspergillosis) and was associated with fewer drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) than voriconazole...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
Jacopo Celli, Gudrun Rappold, Beate Niesler
Serotonin type 3 (5-HT3 ) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels formed by five subunits (5-HT3 A-E), which are encoded by the HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D and HTR3E genes. Functional receptors are pentameric complexes of diverse composition. Different receptor subtypes confer a predisposition to nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, pregnancy, and following surgery. In addition, different subtypes contribute to neurogastroenterologic disorders such irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and eating disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric conditions...
October 20, 2016: Human Mutation
F Creamer, A Balfour, S Nimmo, I Foo, J D Norrie, L J Williams, K C Fearon, H M Paterson
BACKGROUND: Combined oral modified-release oxycodone-naloxone may reduce opioid-induced postoperative gut dysfunction. This study examined the feasibility of a randomized trial of oxycodone-naloxone within the context of enhanced recovery for laparoscopic colorectal resection. METHODS: In a single-centre open-label phase II feasibility study, patients received analgesia based on either oxycodone-naloxone or oxycodone. Primary endpoints were recruitment, retention and protocol compliance...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Mohammad Haghighi, Abbas Sedighinejad, Bahram Naderi Nabi, Cyrus Emiralavi, Gelareh Biazar, Kaveh Mirmozaffari, Cyrus Zahedan, Mehdi Jafari
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective mode of therapy for a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. However, it is associated with some disturbing side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, dental and tongue injury, confusion, dizziness, headache, and myalgia. OBJECTIVES: The present study focused on the evaluation of myalgia and headache and their predictors after ECT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective analytical descriptive study was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015, in an academic hospital in northern Iran...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Junji Kawada, Masaya Nishino, Yohei Hosoda, Hiromitsu Hoshino, Miho Okano, Kenichi Nagai, Masaki Okuyama, Yongkook Kim, Toshimasa Tsujinaka
BACKGROUND: Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy(PPG)has long been used for the treatment of early gastric cancer, and its survival benefits, postoperative symptoms, and functional outcomes have already been reported in several studies. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes after LAPPG in our hospital. METHODS: Ten patients with early gastric cancer underwent LAPPG from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital. Their short-term outcomes after LAPPG were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Dong-Liang Chen, Yu-Hong Li, Zhi-Juan Wang, Ye-Ke Zhu
Gabapentin has been used as an adjuvant for treatment of cancer pain. Previous studies showed that opioids combined with gabapentin for management of cancer pain reduced the dosage of opioids.The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effect and patients' satisfaction of oxycontin combined with gabapentin in treatment of severe cancer pain. After titration of morphine, 60 severe cancer patients with visual analog score (VAS) more than 7 were randomly divided into trial group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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