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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684931/-multiresistant-bacteria-antibiotic-prescription-and-antibiotics-of-last-resort
#1
Winfried V Kern
Ascertaining critical indications for antibiotics and rational prescribing can delay and minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Room for improvement lies in particular in a stricter indication, in shortening antibiotic treatment and in initiating more targeted therapies with narrow-spectrum drugs. Not all infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms require treatment with reserve drugs. Detailed susceptibility testing together with enhanced knowledge of pharmacokinetics and -dynamics are needed for adequate treatment decisions...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684895/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-bearing-a-2-arylbenzo-b-furan-scaffold
#2
Hong-Jin Tang, Wei Li, Mei Zhou, Li-Ying Peng, Jin-Xin Wang, Jia-Huang Li, Jun Chen
Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of discovering novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, a series of 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives (3a-3d, 4a-4o and 6a-6d) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds were evaluated their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by using in vitro enzymatic assay and cellular model. The results showed that a majority of the designed compounds exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities, and compound 4a emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC50  = 4...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684884/multi-temporal-surveys-for-microplastic-particles-enabled-by-a-novel-and-fast-application-of-swir-imaging-spectroscopy-study-of-an-urban-watercourse-traversing-the-city-of-berlin-germany
#3
L Katharina Schmidt, Mathias Bochow, Hannes K Imhof, Sascha E Oswald
Following the widespread assumption that a majority of ubiquitous marine microplastic particles originate from land-based sources, recent studies identify rivers as important pathways for microplastic particles (MPP) to the oceans. Yet a detailed understanding of the underlying processes and dominant sources is difficult to obtain with the existing accurate but extremely time-consuming methods available for the identification of MPP. Thus in the presented study, a novel approach applying short-wave infrared imaging spectroscopy for the quick and semi-automated identification of MPP is applied in combination with a multitemporal survey concept...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684874/treatment-of-an-azo-dye-effluent-by-peroxi-coagulation-and-its-comparison-to-traditional-electrochemical-advanced-processes
#4
Edilson do Vale-Júnior, Djalma R da Silva, Ana S Fajardo, Carlos A Martínez-Huitle
Peroxi-coagulation (PC) is an interesting new process that has not been widely studied in the literature. This work presents the application of this technology to treat an azo dye synthetic effluent, studying the effect of different parameters including initial pH, current density (j), initial dye concentration and supporting electrolyte. The two former variables significantly affected the colour removal of the wastewater, followed by the initial dye concentration and the kind of electrolyte, in a lesser extent...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684819/protein-and-cell-wall-polysaccharide-carbonyl-determination-by-a-neutral-ph-2-4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-based-photometric-assay
#5
Christos D Georgiou, Dimitrios Zisimopoulos, Vasiliki Argyropoulou, Electra Kalaitzopoulou, George Salachas, Tilman Grune
A new 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based photometric assay is developed for the quantification of carbonyls in protein samples from any biological source by protein carbonyl-DNPH hydrazone formation at acidic pH in the presence of denaturing urea, and subsequent hydrazone solubilization in the presence of SDS and stabilization from acid hydrolysis at pH 7.0. At this neutral (ntr) pH, interfering unreacted DNPH is uncharged and its thus increased hydrophobicity permits its 100% effective removal from the solubilizate with ethyl acetate/hexane wash...
April 10, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684743/neuroendocrine-neoplasms-of-rectum-a-management-update
#6
REVIEW
Emilio Bertani, Davide Ravizza, Massimo Milione, Sara Massironi, Chiara Maria Grana, Dario Zerini, Alessandra Nella Piccioli, Giuseppe Spinoglio, Nicola Fazio
The estimated annual incidence of R-NENs is 1.04 per 100,000 persons although the real incidence may be underestimated, as not all R-NEN are systematically reported in registers. Also the prevalence has increased substantially, reflecting the rising incidence and indolent nature of R-NENs, showing the highest prevalence increase among all site of origin of NENs. The size of the tumor reveals the behavior of R-NENs where the risk for metastatic spread increases for lesions > 10 mm. Applying the WHO 2010 grading system to whole NENs originating in the gastroenteropancreatic system, R-NENs are classified as Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors (WD-NET), which contain NET G1 and NET G2, and Poorly-Differentiated Carcinomas (PD-NEC) enclosing only G3 neoplasms for which the term carcinoma is applied...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684740/continuously-declining-incidence-of-hip-fracture-in-finland-analysis-of-nationwide-database-in-1970-2016
#7
Pekka Kannus, Seppo Niemi, Jari Parkkari, Harri Sievänen
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures of older adults are a major public health issue. METHODS: We determined the current trend in the number and incidence (per 100,000 persons) of hip fracture among older adults in Finland by taking into account all persons 50 years of age or older who were admitted to hospitals for primary treatment of such fracture between 1970 and 2016. RESULTS: The number of hip fractures rose sharply till the end of 1990s (from 1857 in 1970 to 7122 in 1997), but since then, the rise has slowed down (7716 fractures in 2016)...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684697/new-arene-ruthenium-ii-complexes-of-4%C3%A2-aryl%C3%A2-4h%C3%A2-naphthopyrans-with-anticancer-and-anti-vascular-activities
#8
Florian Schmitt, Jana Kasparkova, Viktor Brabec, Gerrit Begemann, Rainer Schobert, Bernhard Biersack
A series of four 2‑amino‑3‑cyano‑4‑(3/4‑pyridyl)‑4H‑benzo[h]chromenes 2a-d and their dichlorido(p‑cymene)ruthenium(II) complexes 3a-d were tested for antiproliferative, vascular-disruptive, anti-angiogenic and DNA-binding activity. The coordination of the 4‑pyridyl‑4H‑naphthopyrans 2 to ruthenium led to complexes with pleiotropic effects. Unlike the free ligands 2a-d, their ruthenium complexes 3a-d showed a significant affinity for DNA as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and ethidium bromide assays...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684680/licochalcone-a-an-effective-and-low-toxicity-compound-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Hongfei Si, Chunyan Xu, Jili Zhang, Xukun Zhang, Bing Li, Xuzheng Zhou, Jiyu Zhang
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, which can cause serious public health problems. The current drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis have many limitations. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii activity and potential mechanism of Licochalcone A (Lico A) in vitro and in vivo. The safe concentration of Lico A in HFF cells was determined by MTT cell viability assays. The presence of T. gondii was assessed by qPCR and Giemsa staining. Azithromycin and sulfadiazine, commonly used effective treatments, served as drug controls...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684665/anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-action-of-a-new-benzofuran-derivative-based-on-amiodarone-structure
#10
Andrea Pinto-Martinez, Vanessa Hernández-Rodríguez, Jessica Rodríguez-Durán, Elżbieta Hejchman, Gustavo Benaim
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical affection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. There is no current effective treatment since the only two available drugs have a limited efficacy and produce side effects. Thus, investigation efforts have been directed to the identification of new drug leads. In this context, Ca2+ regulating mechanisms have been postulated as targets for antiparasitic compounds, since they present paramount differences when compared to host cells. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic with demonstrated trypanocidal activity acting through the disruption of the parasite intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis...
April 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684658/caught-in-between-system-for-in-flow-inactivation-of-enzymes-as-an-intermediary-step-in-plug-and-play-microfluidic-platforms
#11
Ana C Fernandes, Benjamin Petersen, Lars Møller, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
The need for fast and comprehensive characterization of biocatalysts has pushed the development of new screening platforms based on microfluidics, capable of monitoring several parameters simultaneously, with new configurations of liquid handling, sample treatment and sensing. Modular microfluidics allows the integration of these newly developed approaches in a more flexible way towards increasing applicability of the microfluidic chips to different types of biocatalysts and reactions. A highly relevant operation in such a system is biocatalyst inactivation, which can enable the precise control of reaction time by avoiding the continuation of the reaction in another module or connecting tubes...
April 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684627/bioadhesives-for-internal-medical-applications-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Wenzhen Zhu, Yon Jin Chuah, Dong-An Wang
Bioadhesives such as tissue adhesives, hemostatic agents, and tissue sealants have gained increasing popularity in different areas of clinical operations during the last three decades. Bioadhesives can be categorized into internal and external ones according to their application conditions. External bioadhesives are generally applied in topical medications such as wound closure and epidermal grafting. Internal bioadhesives are mainly used in intracorporal conditions with direct contact to internal environment including tissues, organs and body fluids, such as chronic organ leak repair and bleeding complication reduction...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684621/setd7-and-its-contribution-to-boron-induced-bone-regeneration-in-b-mbg-scaffolds
#13
Chengcheng Yin, Xiaoshi Jia, Richard J Miron, Qiaoyun Long, Hudi Xu, Yan Wei, Min Wu, Yufeng Zhang, Zubing Li
Boron (B), a trace element found in the human body, plays an important role for health of bone by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Our research group previously fabricated B-mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds, which successfully promoted osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts when compared to pure MBG scaffolds without boron. However, the mechanisms of the positive effect of B-MBG scaffolds on osteogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we performed in-vivo experiments in an OVX rat models with pure MBG scaffolds and compared them to B-MBG scaffold...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684618/everolimus-is-a-new-anti-cancer-molecule-metabolic-side-effects-as-lipid-disorders-and-hyperglycemia
#14
REVIEW
L Morviducci, F Rota, L Rizza, P Di Giacinto, S Ramponi, M R Nardone, C Tubili, A Lenzi, P Zuppi, R Baldelli
In the last few years, molecular targeted therapies have replaced traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy in the fight against many cancers to the extent that our understanding of tumor biology has become more sophisticated. This shift has markedly changed adverse event profiles, compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, affecting a diverse range of organ systems. Everolimus was approved by the FDA in 2011 for the treatment of progressive pancreatic NE tumors (Yao, 2011; Jensenn, 2012). It is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and exhibits antitumor activity via disruption of various signaling pathways and it's used in the treatment of advanced renal cell cancer, breast cancer and neuroendocrine tumors (NET); it's used also as anti-rejection agent for transplantation but with lower doses for anti-rejection (1...
April 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684582/platelet-microparticle-delivered-microrna-let-7a-promotes-the-angiogenic-switch
#15
Chinedu Anene, Anne M Graham, James Boyne, Wayne Roberts
Platelet microparticle (PMP)-induced angiogenesis plays a key role in tumour metastasis and has been proposed to contribute towards cardiovascular disease by enhancing atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. However, the mechanisms underlying PMP induced angiogenesis are ill defined. Recent reports demonstrate that PMPs deliver micro-RNAs (miRNAs) to recipient cells, controlling gene expression. We therefore evaluated whether miRNA transfer was a key regulator of PMP-induced angiogenesis. Co-culturing PMPs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on extracellular matrix gel induced robust capillary like structure formation...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684573/bevacizumab-reduces-s100a9-mdsc-linked-to-intracranial-control-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-lung-adenocarcinoma
#16
Po-Hao Feng, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Yu-Chen Huang, Ching-Shan Luo, Shen Ming Wu, Tzu-Tao Chen, Chun-Nin Lee, Chi-Tai Yeh, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Chia-Li Han, Chiou-Feng Lin, Wei-Hwa Lee, Chih-Hsi Kuo, Kang-Yun Lee
BACKGROUND: In vitro models have demonstrated immune-modulating effects of bevacizumab. Combinations of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with bevacizumab improve progression free survival (PFS) in patients with EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma. How bevacizumab confers this clinical effect and underlying mechanisms are not clear. PATIENT AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with stage 4 EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), T helper cells (Th1/Th2) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were analyzed by flow cytometry...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684526/targeted-gene-silencing-of-braf-to-interrupt-braf-mek-erk-pathway-synergized-photothermal-therapeutics-for-melanoma-using-a-novel-fa-gnr-sibraf-nanosystem
#17
Yujuan Zhang, Xuelin Zhan, Shanshan Peng, Ying Cai, Yu Shrike Zhang, Yanling Liu, Zhigang Wang, Yanrong Yu, Yifan Wang, Qiaofa Shi, Xiaoping Zeng, Keng Yuan, Nanjin Zhou, Rakesh Joshi, Meng Zhang, Zhuxu Zhang, Weiping Min
Melanoma is significantly associated with mutant BRAF gene, a suitable target for siRNA-based anti-melanoma therapy. However, a tumor-specific delivery system is a major hurdle for clinical applications. Here, we developed a novel nano-carrier, FA-GNR-siBRAF for safe topical application, which consists of folic acid (FA) as the tumor-targeting moiety, golden nanorods (GNR) providing photothermal capability to kill tumor cells under laser irradiation, and siRNA specifically silencing BRAF (siBRAF). The in vitro and in vivo results revealed that FA-GNR-siBRAF displayed high transfection rates, and subsequently induced remarkable gene knockdown of BRAF, resulting in suppression of melanoma growth due to the interruption of the MEK/ERK pathway...
April 20, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684443/modified-porcine-surfactant-enriched-by-recombinant-human-superoxide-dismutase-for-experimental-meconium-aspiration-syndrome
#18
Jana Kopincova, Pavol Mikolka, Maros Kolomaznik, Petra Kosutova, Andrea Calkovska, Daniela Mokra
AIMS: Combination of exogenous surfactant with antioxidant enzyme recombinant human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) was tested in the treatment of experimental meconium aspiration syndrome as oxidative processes play key role in its pathogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Young New Zealand rabbits were instilled by saline (Sal group) or by meconium suspension (Mec group). Some of meconium-instilled animals were treated by surfactant alone (Surf group) or surfactant in combination with rhSOD (Surf + SOD group) and oxygen-ventilated for 5 h...
April 20, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684373/racial-disparity-in-utilization-of-high-volume-hospitals-for-surgical-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#19
Sadiq S Rehmani, Bian Liu, Adnan Al-Ayoubi, Wissam Raad, Raja M Flores, Faiz Bhora, Emanuela Taioli
BACKGROUND: Utilization of high-volume hospitals (HVH) for esophagectomy has been associated with improved perioperative outcomes and reduced mortality. We aimed to test the hypothesis that black-white racial disparities exist in HVH utilization, and to identify predictors of in-hospital surgical outcomes of esophageal cancer while adjusting for HVH utilization patterns. METHODS: We queried the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database (1995-2012) for esophageal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection exclusively...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684358/novel-protective-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-in-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#20
Li Qin Zhang, Marianne Nsumu, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Sean M Riordan, Katherine Shortt, Nini Zhang, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Ding-You Li, Craig A Friesen, Leon Van Haandel, J Steven Leeder, Jody Olson, Shui Qing Ye
Acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver injury (ALI) or acute liver failure in the US. Its pathogenetic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Additional studies are warranted to identify new genetic risk factors for more mechanistic insights and new therapeutic target discoveries. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanisms of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) in acetaminophen-induced ALI. C57BL/6 Nampt gene wild-type (Nampt+/+ )-, heterozygous knockout (Nampt+/- )-, and overexpression (NamptOE )-mice were treated with overdose of acetaminophen, followed by histological, biochemical, and transcriptomic evaluation of liver injury...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
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