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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783117/changes-in-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-caused-by-prescribed-fires-in-dense-gorse-lands-in-sw-pyrenees
#1
Leire Múgica, Rosa M Canals, Leticia San Emeterio
Rural depopulation, abandonment of traditional land uses and decrease of extensive stockfarming is accelerating shrub encroachment in mountain areas. In NW Spain, gorse (Ulex gallii Planch.) is expanding, developing dense shrublands that accumulate high fuel-loads, ignite easily and persist during long periods as alternate stable states. Under this scenario, traditional bush-to-bush farming fires are being replaced by high fuel-load burnings performed by specialised teams to reduce fuels and promote mosaic landscapes...
May 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782873/sleep-divergently-affects-cognitive-and-automatic-emotional-response-in-children
#2
Elaina Bolinger, Jan Born, Katharina Zinke
Sleep enhances memory for emotional experiences, but its influence on the emotional response associated with memories is elusive. Here, we compared the influence of nocturnal sleep on memory for negative and neutral pictures and the associated emotional response in 8-11-year-old children, i.e., an age group with heightened levels of emotional memory-related sleep features. During all sessions, emotional responses as measured by subjective ratings, the late positive potential of the EEG (LPP) and heart rate deceleration (HRD) were recorded...
May 18, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782655/cross-scale-occupancy-dynamics-of-a-post-fire-specialist-in-response-to-variation-across-a-fire-regime
#3
Morgan W Tingley, Andrew N Stillman, Robert L Wilkerson, Christine A Howell, Sarah C Sawyer, Rodney B Siegel
1.Fire creates challenges and opportunities for wildlife through rapid destruction, modification, and creation of habitat. Fire has spatially variable effects on landscapes, however, and for species that benefit from the ephemeral resource patches created by fire, it is critical to understand characteristics of fires that promote post-fire colonization and persistence, and the spatial scales on which they operate. 2.Using a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), we examined how colonization and persistence varied across two spatial scales as a function of four characteristics of fire regimes - fire severity, fire size, fire ignition date, and number of years since fire...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782555/langerin-dcs-regulate-innate-il-17-production-in-the-oral-mucosa-during-candida-albicans-mediated-infection
#4
Florian Sparber, Tamas Dolowschiak, Sarah Mertens, Laura Lauener, Björn E Clausen, Nicole Joller, Patrizia Stoitzner, Roxane Tussiwand, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently causes diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in immunocompromised individuals. Although it is well appreciated that the cytokine IL-17 is crucial for protective immunity against OPC, the cellular source and the regulation of this cytokine during infection are still a matter of debate. Here, we directly visualized IL-17 production in the infected tongue of experimentally infected mice, thereby demonstrating that this key cytokine is expressed by three complementary subsets of CD90+ leukocytes: RAG-dependent αβ and γδ T cells, as well as RAG-independent ILCs...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782540/monte-carlo-simulations-of-microtubule-arrays-the-critical-roles-of-rescue-transitions-the-cell-boundary-and-tubulin-concentration-in-shaping-microtubule-distributions
#5
Lynne Cassimeris, Jessica C Leung, David J Odde
Microtubules are dynamic polymers required for a number of processes, including chromosome movement in mitosis. While regulators of microtubule dynamics have been well characterized, we lack a convenient way to predict how the measured dynamic parameters shape the entire microtubule system within a cell, or how the system responds when specific parameters change in response to internal or external signals. Here we describe a Monte Carlo model to simulate an array of dynamic microtubules from parameters including the cell radius, total tubulin concentration, microtubule nucleation rate from the centrosome, and plus end dynamic instability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782368/tiny-moments-matter-promoting-professionalism-in-everyday-practice
#6
Elizabeth C Bernabeo, Benjamin Chesluk, Lorna Lynn
INTRODUCTION: Professionalism rests upon a number of individual, environmental, and societal level factors, leading to specific professional behavior in specific situations. Focusing on professional lapses to identify and remediate unprofessional physicians is incomplete. We explored professionalism in practicing internal medicine physicians in the context of everyday practice, to highlight how typical experiences contribute to positive, yet often unnoticed, professional behavior. METHODS: In-depth interviews were used to uncover 13 physicians' most meaningful experiences of professionalism...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781479/substrate-mediated-redox-partner-selectivity-of-cytochrome-p450
#7
Katherine A Gentry, Meng Zhang, Sang-Choul Im, Lucy Waskell, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Investigating the interplay between cytochrome-P450 and its redox partners (CPR and cytochrome-b5) is vital for understanding the metabolism of most hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic structural interactions with the ternary complex, with and without substrates, captured by NMR reveal a gating mechanism for redox partners to promote P450 function.
May 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781413/drivers-potentially-influencing-host-bat-fly-interactions-in-anthropogenic-neotropical-landscapes-at-different-spatial-scales
#8
Jacqueline Hernández-Martínez, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Mariana Yolotl Alvarez-Añorve, Sergio Amador-Hernández, Ken Oyama, Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat-parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781355/development-and-biological-validation-of-a-cyclic-stretch-culture-system-for-the-ex-vivo-engineering-of-tendons
#9
Manuela Teresa Raimondi, Matteo Laganà, Claudio Conci, Michele Crestani, Alessia Di Giancamillo, Francesca Gervaso, Daniela Deponti, Federica Boschetti, Michele M Nava, Chiara Scandone, Cinzia Domeneghini, Alessandro Sannino, Giuseppe M Peretti
INTRODUCTION: An innovative approach to the treatment of tendon injury or degeneration is given by engineered grafts, made available through the development of bioreactors that generate tendon tissue in vitro, by replicating in vivo conditions. This work aims at the design of a bioreactor capable of applying a stimulation of cyclic strain on cell constructs to promote the production of bioartificial tissue with mechanical and biochemical properties resembling those of the native tissue...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781207/modelling-the-impact-of-a-national-scale-up-of-interventions-on-hepatitis-c-virus-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-scotland
#10
H Fraser, C Mukandavire, N K Martin, D Goldberg, N Palmateer, A Munro, A Taylor, M Hickman, S Hutchinson, P Vickerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID), Scottish Government-funded national strategies, launched in 2008, promoted scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe provision (NSP), with some increases in HCV treatment. We test whether observed decreases in HCV incidence post-2008 can be attributed to this intervention scale-up. DESIGN: A dynamic HCV transmission model amongst PWID incorporating intervention scale-up and observed decreases in behavioural risk, calibrated to Scottish HCV prevalence and incidence data for 2008/09...
May 20, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780989/a-long-chain-protic-ionic-liquid-inside-silica-nanopores-enhanced-proton-mobility-due-to-efficient-self-assembly-and-decoupled-proton-transport
#11
Mounesha N Garaga, Vassilios Dracopoulos, Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger, Josef W Zwanziger, Manuel Maréchal, Michael Persson, Lars Nordstierna, Anna Martinelli
We report enhanced protonic and ionic dynamics in an imidazole/protic ionic liquid mixture confined within the nanopores of silica particles. The ionic liquid is 1-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([HC8Im][TFSI]), while the silica particles are microsized and characterized by internal well connected nanopores. We demonstrate that the addition of imidazole is crucial to promote a proton motion decoupled from molecular diffusion, which occurs due to the establishment of new N-HN hydrogen bonds and fast proton exchange events in the ionic domains, as evidenced by both infrared and 1H NMR spectroscopy...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780677/the-2016-southeastern-us-drought-an-extreme-departure-from-centennial-wetting-and-cooling
#12
A Park Williams, Benjamin I Cook, Jason E Smerdon, Daniel A Bishop, Richard Seager, Justin S Mankin
The fall 2016 drought in the southeastern United States (SE US) appeared exceptional based on its widespread impacts, but the current monitoring framework that only extends from 1979-present does not readily facilitate evaluation of soil-moisture anomalies in a centennial context. A new method to extend monthly gridded soil-moisture estimates back to 1895 is developed, indicating that since 1895, October-November 2016 soil moisture (0-200 cm) in the SE US was likely the second lowest on record, behind 1954...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779947/intermittent-pili-mediated-forces-fluidize-neisseria-meningitidis-aggregates-promoting-vascular-colonization
#13
Daria Bonazzi, Valentina Lo Schiavo, Silke Machata, Ilyas Djafer-Cherif, Pierre Nivoit, Valeria Manriquez, Hirokazu Tanimoto, Julien Husson, Nelly Henry, Hugues Chaté, Raphael Voituriez, Guillaume Duménil
Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium responsible for meningitis and septicemia, proliferates and eventually fills the lumen of blood capillaries with multicellular aggregates. The impact of this aggregation process and its specific properties are unknown. We first show that aggregative properties are necessary for efficient infection and study their underlying physical mechanisms. Micropipette aspiration and single-cell tracking unravel unique features of an atypical fluidized phase, with single-cell diffusion exceeding that of isolated cells...
May 15, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779941/the-epigenetic-state-of-prdm16-regulated-enhancers-in-radial-glia-controls-cortical-neuron-position
#14
José-Manuel Baizabal, Meeta Mistry, Miguel Turrero García, Nicolás Gómez, Olubusola Olukoya, Diana Tran, Matthew B Johnson, Christopher A Walsh, Corey C Harwell
The epigenetic landscape is dynamically remodeled during neurogenesis. However, it is not understood how chromatin modifications in neural stem cells instruct the formation of complex structures in the brain. We report that the histone methyltransferase PRDM16 is required in radial glia to regulate lineage-autonomous and stage-specific gene expression programs that control number and position of upper layer cortical projection neurons. PRDM16 regulates the epigenetic state of transcriptional enhancers to activate genes involved in intermediate progenitor cell production and repress genes involved in cell migration...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779879/the-xmap215-ortholog-alp14-promotes-microtubule-nucleation-in-fission-yeast
#15
Ignacio Flor-Parra, Ana Belén Iglesias-Romero, Fred Chang
The organization and number of microtubules (MTs) in a cell depend on the proper regulation of MT nucleation. Currently, the mechanism of nucleation is the most poorly understood aspect of MT dynamics. XMAP215/chTOG/Alp14/Stu2 proteins are MT polymerases that stimulate MT polymerization at MT plus ends by binding and releasing tubulin dimers. Although these proteins also localize to MT organizing centers and have nucleating activity in vitro, it is not yet clear whether these proteins participate in MT nucleation in vivo...
May 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779054/dietary-modifications-and-lipid-accumulation-product-are-associated-with-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressures-in-the-women-s-health-trial-feasibility-study-in-minority-populations
#16
REVIEW
Alok Bhargava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 65% of adults over 60 years in the USA are hypertensive. Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are fueling the hypertension epidemic. The effects of higher intakes of fruits and vegetables and whole-grain products on systolic and diastolic blood pressures were analyzed using data at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months on 349 and 573 subjects, respectively, in the control and intervention groups of the Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779032/kidney-disease-in-women-is-associated-with-disadvantaged-childhood-socioeconomic-position
#17
Mark Canney, Siobhan Leahy, Siobhan Scarlett, Rose Anne Kenny, Mark A Little, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cathal McCrory
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic position (SEP) is an important determinant of health and it is dynamic across the entire lifespan. We sought to investigate the relationship between life-course SEP and chronic kidney disease (CKD) using 3 conceptual models: critical period, pathway and accumulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 4,996 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a nationally representative cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778644/a-trichostatin-a-tsa-sp1-mediated-mechanism-for-the-regulation-of-sall2-tumor-suppressor-in-jurkat-t-cells
#18
Matías I Hepp, David Escobar, Carlos Farkas, Viviana Hermosilla, Claudia Álvarez, Roberto Amigo, José L Gutiérrez, Ariel F Castro, Roxana Pincheira
SALL2 is a transcription factor involved in development and disease. Deregulation of SALL2 has been associated with cancer, suggesting that it plays a role in the disease. However, how SALL2 is regulated and why is deregulated in cancer remain poorly understood. We previously showed that the p53 tumor suppressor represses SALL2 under acute genotoxic stress. Here, we investigated the effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA), and involvement of Sp1 on expression and function of SALL2 in Jurkat T cells...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778505/novel-peptide-nanoparticle-biased-antagonist-of-ccr3-blocks-eosinophil-recruitment-and-airway-hyperresponsiveness
#19
Milica Grozdanovic, Kimberly G Laffey, Hazem Abdelkarim, Ben Hitchinson, Anantha Harijith, Hyung-Geon Moon, Gye Young Park, Lee K Rousslang, Joanne C Masterson, Glenn T Furuta, Nadya I Tarasova, Vadim Gaponenko, Steven J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Chemokine signaling through CCR3 is a key regulatory pathway for eosinophil recruitment into tissues associated with allergic inflammation and asthma. To date, none of the CCR3 antagonists have shown efficacy in clinical trials. One reason may be their unbiased mode of inhibition that prevents receptor internalization, leading to drug tolerance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a novel peptide nanoparticle CCR3 inhibitor (R321) with a biased mode of inhibition that would block G-protein signaling, but enable or promote receptor internalization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778081/molecular-aspect-of-silver-nanoparticles-regulated-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-by-oct-4-expression
#20
Biplab Sarkar, Suresh K Verma, Javed Akhtar, Surya Prakash Netam, Sanjay Kr Gupta, Pritam Kumar Panda, Koel Mukherjee
With the enhancement of commercial manifestation of silver nanoparticles, concerned has risen on their accumulation in aquatic system and consequent effects on fish development and metabolism. In this study, experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of silver nanoparticles on early life cycles of fish considering Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as experimental model. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical reduction method and characterized through UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and HR-TEM...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
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