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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650928/circulating-exosomes-isolated-from-septic-mice-induce-cardiovascular-hyperpermeability-through-promoting-podosome-cluster-formation
#1
Xingjiang Mu, Xiaohong Wang, Wei Huang, Rui-Tao Wang, Kobina Essandoh, Yutian Li, Amanda M Pugh, Jiangtong Peng, Shan Deng, Yigang Wang, Charles C Caldwell, Tianqing Peng, Kai-Jiang Yu, Guo-Chang Fan
Septic shock increases vascular permeability, leading to multiple organ failure including cardiac dysfunction, a major contributor to septic death. Podosome, an actin-based dynamic membrane structure, plays critical roles in extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. However, whether podosome contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. In this study, we found that the endothelial hyperpermeability, stimulated by PMA and thrombin, was accompanied by increased formation of podosome clusters at the cell periphery, indicating a positive correlation between podosome clusters and endothelial leakage...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650429/acetate-mediated-novel-survival-strategy-against-drought-in-plants
#2
Jong-Myong Kim, Taiko Kim To, Akihiro Matsui, Keitaro Tanoi, Natsuko I Kobayashi, Fumio Matsuda, Yoshiki Habu, Daisuke Ogawa, Takuya Sakamoto, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Khurram Bashir, Sultana Rasheed, Marina Ando, Hiroko Takeda, Kanako Kawaura, Miyako Kusano, Atsushi Fukushima, Takaho A Endo, Takashi Kuromori, Junko Ishida, Taeko Morosawa, Maho Tanaka, Chieko Torii, Yumiko Takebayashi, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Yasunari Ogihara, Kazuki Saito, Kazuo Shinozaki, Alessandra Devoto, Motoaki Seki
Water deficit caused by global climate changes seriously endangers the survival of organisms and crop productivity, and increases environmental deterioration(1,2). Plants' resistance to drought involves global reprogramming of transcription, cellular metabolism, hormone signalling and chromatin modification(3-8). However, how these regulatory responses are coordinated via the various pathways, and the underlying mechanisms, are largely unknown. Herein, we report an essential drought-responsive network in which plants trigger a dynamic metabolic flux conversion from glycolysis into acetate synthesis to stimulate the jasmonate (JA) signalling pathway to confer drought tolerance...
June 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649967/structural-perturbations-on-huntingtin-n17-domain-during-its-folding-on-2d-nanomaterials
#3
Leili Zhang, Mei Feng, Ruhong Zhou, Binquan Luan
A globular protein's folded structure in its physiological environment is largely determined by its amino acid sequence. Recently, newly discovered transformer proteins as well as intrinsically disordered proteins may adopt the folding-upon-binding mechanism where their secondary structures are highly dependent on their binding partners. Due to the various applications of nanomaterials in biological sensors and potential wearable devices, it is important to discover possible conformational changes of proteins on nanomaterials...
June 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649883/middle-down-proteomics-a-still-unexploited-resource-for-chromatin-biology
#4
Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia
Introduction Analysis of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) by mass spectrometry (MS) has become a fundamental tool for the characterization of chromatin composition and dynamics. Histone PTMs benchmark several biological states of chromatin, including regions of active enhancers, active/repressed gene promoters and damaged DNA. These complex regulatory mechanisms are often defined by combinatorial histone PTMs; for instance, active enhancers are commonly occupied by both marks H3K4me1 and H3K27ac...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649800/revisiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-metastasis-the-connection-between-epithelial-plasticity-and-stemness
#5
REVIEW
Tsai-Tsen Liao, Muh-Hwa Yang
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in embryonic development, fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. During cancer progression, the activation of EMT permits cancer cells to acquire migratory, invasive, and stem-like properties. A growing body of evidence supports the critical link between EMT and cancer stemness. However, contradictory results have indicated that the inhibition of EMT also promotes cancer stemness, and that mesenchymal-epithelial transition, the reverse process of EMT, is associated with the tumor-initiating ability required for metastatic colonization...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648994/dynamic-and-differential-expression-of-the-gonadal-aromatase-during-the-process-of-sexual-differentiation-in-a-novel-transgenic-cyp19a1a-egfp-zebrafish-line
#6
Nathalie Hinfray, Frédéric Sohm, Morgane Caulier, Edith Chadili, Benjamin Piccini, Camille Torchy, Jean-Marc Porcher, Yann Guiguen, François Brion
In zebrafish, there exists a clear need for new tools to study sex differentiation dynamic and its perturbation by endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this context, we developed and characterized a novel transgenic zebrafish line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1a (gonadal aromatase) promoter. In most gonochoristic fish species including zebrafish, cyp19a1a, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens, has been shown to play a critical role in the processes of reproduction and sexual differentiation...
June 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648900/tet-catalyzed-5-hydroxymethylation-precedes-hnf4a-promoter-choice-during-differentiation-of-bipotent-liver-progenitors
#7
Pierre-Benoit Ancey, Szilvia Ecsedi, Marie-Pierre Lambert, Fazlur Rahman Talukdar, Marie-Pierre Cros, Denise Glaise, Diana Maria Narvaez, Veronique Chauvet, Zdenko Herceg, Anne Corlu, Hector Hernandez-Vargas
Understanding the processes that govern liver progenitor cell differentiation has important implications for the design of strategies targeting chronic liver diseases, whereby regeneration of liver tissue is critical. Although DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) are highly dynamic during early embryonic development, less is known about their roles at later stages of differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hepatocyte differentiation, we show here that 5hmC precedes the expression of promoter 1 (P1)-dependent isoforms of HNF4A, a master transcription factor of hepatocyte identity...
June 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648006/-0-5-gy-x-ray-radiation-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
M Chen, Q R Dong, Q Huang, C She, W Xu
Objective: To investigate the important roles of Wnt signaling in the processes of 0.5Gy X-ray promoting osteoblast differentiation, and make clear the molecular mechanisms involved. Methods: Flow cytometry was employed to detect the apoptosis after osteoblast exposure to 0.5 Gy X-ray radiation.The protein level of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as collagen Iα (Col1α), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), were detected by Western-blot and ALP activity staining was performed. Real-time PCR and Western-blot were utilized to evaluate the variations of key factors in Wnt signaling pathways, while specific inhibitor of Wnt/β-Catenin, XAV939 was used to block the Wnt signaling...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647409/a-residue-specific-insight-into-the-arkadia-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-activity-and-conformational-plasticity
#9
Maria Birkou, Christos T Chasapis, Konstantinos D Marousis, Ariadni K Loutsidou, Detlef Bentrop, Moreno Lelli, Torsten Herrmann, Jonathon M Carthy, Vasso Episkopou, Georgios A Spyroulias
Arkadia (Rnf111) is an E3 Ubiquitin ligase that plays a central role in the amplification of TGF-β signaling responses by targeting for degradation the negative regulators of the pathway, Smad6 and Smad7 and the nuclear co-repressors Ski and Skil (SnoN). Arkadia's function in vivo depends on the RING-H2 interaction with the E2 enzyme UbcH5b in order to ligate ubiquitin chains on its substrates. A conserved tryptophan (W972) in the C-terminal α-helix is widely accepted as essential for E2 recruitment and interaction and thus also for E3 enzymatic activity...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647363/cadps2-gene-expression-is-oppositely-regulated-by-lrrk2-and-alpha-synuclein
#10
Julia Obergasteiger, Christa Überbacher, Peter P Pramstaller, Andrew A Hicks, Corrado Corti, Mattia Volta
The Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2) is a member of the CAPS/CADPS protein family that play crucial roles in synaptic vesicle dynamics. Genomic variability in the CADPS2 gene has been associated to autism spectrum disorders and Alzheimer's disease, both characterized by altered neurotransmission. Biological evidence also linked CADPS2 to Parkinson's disease (PD), as a disease-causing mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) was reported to increase CADPS2 gene and protein expression...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646234/electroporation-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-and-a-natural-adjuvant-to-intradermal-administration-of-plasmid-dna-in-macaques
#11
Biliana Todorova, Lucille Adam, Slobodan Culina, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Mart Ustav, Thierry Kortulewski, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
In vivo electroporation (EP) is used to enhance the uptake of nucleic acids and its association with DNA vaccination greatly stimulates immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered through the skin. However, the effect of EP on cutaneous cell behavior, the dynamics of immune cell recruitment and local inflammatory factors, have not been fully described. Here, we show that intradermal DNA vaccination combined with EP extends antigen expression to the epidermis and the subcutaneous skin muscle in non-human primates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646182/high-intensity-interval-training-improves-mitochondrial-function-and-suppresses-thrombin-generation-in-platelets-undergoing-hypoxic-stress
#12
Li-Hua Wu, Shao-Chiang Chang, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Ching-Hui Huang, Jong-Shyan Wang
This study elucidates how high-intensity interval training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) affect mitochondrial functionality and thrombin generation (TG) in platelets following hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min). Forty-five healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage either HIT (3-minute intervals at 40% and 80%VO2max, n = 15) or MCT (sustained 60%VO2max, n = 15) for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL, n = 15) that did not received exercise intervention...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646090/cellular-functions-of-wasp-family-proteins-at-a-glance
#13
REVIEW
Olga Alekhina, Ezra Burstein, Daniel D Billadeau
Proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family function as nucleation-promoting factors for the ubiquitously expressed Arp2/3 complex, which drives the generation of branched actin filaments. Arp2/3-generated actin regulates diverse cellular processes, including the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, endocytosis and/or phagocytosis at the plasma membrane, and the generation of cargo-laden vesicles from organelles including the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the endo-lysosomal network...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645916/structures-and-dynamics-of-hibernating-ribosomes-from-staphylococcus-aureus-mediated-by-intermolecular-interactions-of-hpf
#14
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Rustam Ayupov, Konstantin Usachev, Alexander Myasnikov, Angelita Simonetti, Shamil Validov, Bruno Kieffer, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
In bacteria, ribosomal hibernation shuts down translation as a response to stress, through reversible binding of stress-induced proteins to ribosomes. This process typically involves the formation of 100S ribosome dimers. Here, we present the structures of hibernating ribosomes from human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus containing a long variant of the hibernation-promoting factor (SaHPF) that we solved using cryo-electron microscopy. Our reconstructions reveal that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SaHPF binds to the 30S subunit as observed for shorter variants of HPF in other species...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645857/exploring-the-effect-of-end-binding-proteins-and-microtubule-targeting-chemotherapy-drugs-on-microtubule-dynamic-instability
#15
Diana White, Stéphane Honoré, Florence Hubert
Microtubules (MTs) play a key role in normal cell development and are a primary target for many cancer chemotherapy MT targeting agents (MTAs). As such, understanding MT dynamics in the presence of such agents, as well as other proteins that alter MT dynamics, is extremely important. In general, MTs grow relatively slowly and shorten very fast (almost instantaneously), an event referred to as a catastrophe. These dynamics, referred to as dynamic instability, have been studied in both experimental and theoretical settings...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645841/how-do-self-interest-and-other-need-interact-in-the-brain-to-determine-altruistic-behavior
#16
Jie Hu, Yue Li, Yunlu Yin, Philip R Blue, Hongbo Yu, Xiaolin Zhou
Altruistic behavior, i.e., promoting the welfare of others at a cost to oneself, is subserved by the integration of various social, affective, and economic factors represented in extensive brain regions. However, it is unclear how different regions interact to process/integrate information regarding the helper's interest and recipient's need when deciding whether to behave altruistically. Here we combined an interactive game with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to characterize the neural network underlying the processing/integration of self-interest and other-need...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645772/increased-of-the-hepatocytes-and-splenocytes-apoptosis-accompanies-clinical-improvement-and-higher-survival-in-mice-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-treated-with-highly-diluted-lycopodium-clavatum
#17
Gislaine Janaina Falkowski-Temporini, Carina Ribeiro Lopes, Paula Fernanda Massini, Camila Fernanda Brustolin, Fabiana Nabarro Ferraz, Patricia Flora Sandri, Luzmarina Hernandes, Denise Lessa Aleixo, Terezinha Fátima Barion, Luiz Gilson Esper, Silvana Marques de Araújo
Recent evidence includes apoptosis as a defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which promotes an immune response in the host induced by T cells, type 1, 2 and 17. Currently, there is no medicine completely preventing the progression of this disease. We investigated the immunological and apoptotic effects, morbidity and survival of mice infected with T. cruzi and treated with dynamized homeopathic compounds 13c: Kalium causticum (GCaus), Conium maculatum, (GCon), Lycopodium clavatum (GLy) and 7% alcohol solution (control, vehicle compounds, GCI)...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645634/hormonal-behavior-correlates-with-follicular-recruitment-at-mid-gestation-in-the-south-american-plains-vizcacha-lagostomus-maximus-rodentia-caviomorpha
#18
Nicolas Alejandro Fraunhoffer, Federico Jensen, Noelia Leopardo, Pablo Ignacio Felipe Inserra, Analía Meilerman Abuelafia, María Beatriz Espinosa, Santiago Elías Charif, Verónica Berta Dorfman, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
In mammals, hormonal regulation during gestation is crucial for embryo implantation and pregnancy success. This regulation is controlled through the level of progesterone (P4) that blocks the activity of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. Previous studies in the pregnant South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, have shown that the HHG axis activates around mid-gestation, promoting pre-ovulatory follicle formation. However, the characterization of the hormonal dynamics throughout gestation and its ovarian correlation has not been studied in depth...
June 20, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644148/5-azacytidine-promotes-invadopodia-formation-and-tumor-metastasis-through-the-upregulation-of-pi3k-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#19
Dan Cao, Dan Li, Yong Huang, Yu Ma, Binglan Zhang, Chengjian Zhao, Senyi Deng, Min Luo, Tao Yin, Yu-Quan Wei, Wei Wang
The high incidence of metastasis accounts for most of the lethality of ovarian cancer. Invadopodia are small, specialized types of machinery that degrade the extracellular matrix and are thus involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The formation of invadopodia is regulated by both genetic and epigenetic factors. However, the ways by which methylation/demethylation regulates the dynamics of invadopodia in ovarian cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the inhibition of methylation by 5-AZ (5-Azacytidine) increased the formation of invadopodia and enhanced degradation of the extracellular matrix in ovarian cancer cells...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643802/optogenetic-rewiring-of-thalamocortical-circuits-to-restore-function-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#20
Kelly A Tennant, Stephanie L Taylor, Emily R White, Craig E Brown
To regain sensorimotor functions after stroke, surviving neural circuits must reorganize and form new connections. Although the thalamus is critical for processing and relaying sensory information to the cortex, little is known about how stroke affects the structure and function of these connections, or whether a therapeutic approach targeting these circuits can improve recovery. Here we reveal with in vivo calcium imaging that stroke in somatosensory cortex dampens the excitability of surviving thalamocortical circuits...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
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