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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351417/zinc-regulates-vascular-endothelial-activities-through-zinc-sensing-receptor-znr-gpr39
#1
Donghui Zhu, Yingchao Su, Yufeng Zheng, Bingmei M Fu, Liping Tang, Yi-Xian Qin
Zn2+ is an essential element for cell survival/growth, and its deficiency is linked to many disorders. Extracellular Zn2+ concentration changes participate in modulating fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, secretion, ion transport, and cell signal transduction in a mechanism that is not well understood. Here, we hypothesize that the Zn-sensing receptor ZnR/GPR39, found in tissues where dynamic Zn2+ homeostasis takes place, enables extracellular Zn2+ to trigger intracellular signaling pathways regulating key cell functions in vascular cells...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351238/telomeres-implications-for-cancer-development
#2
REVIEW
Aina Bernal, Laura Tusell
Telomeres facilitate the protection of natural ends of chromosomes from constitutive exposure to the DNA damage response (DDR). This is most likely achieved by a lariat structure that hides the linear telomeric DNA through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The telomere shortening associated with DNA replication in the absence of a compensatory mechanism culminates in unmasked telomeres. Then, the subsequent activation of the DDR will define the fate of cells according to the functionality of cell cycle checkpoints...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350321/sliding-to-predict-vision-based-beating-heart-motion-estimation-by-modeling-temporal-interactions
#3
Angelica I Aviles-Rivero, Samar M Alsaleh, Alicia Casals
PURPOSE: Technical advancements have been part of modern medical solutions as they promote better surgical alternatives that serve to the benefit of patients. Particularly with cardiovascular surgeries, robotic surgical systems enable surgeons to perform delicate procedures on a beating heart, avoiding the complications of cardiac arrest. This advantage comes with the price of having to deal with a dynamic target which presents technical challenges for the surgical system. In this work, we propose a solution for cardiac motion estimation...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348663/enhancer-associated-long-non-coding-rna-leene-regulates-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-endothelial-function
#4
Yifei Miao, Nassim E Ajami, Tse-Shun Huang, Feng-Mao Lin, Chih-Hong Lou, Yun-Ting Wang, Shuai Li, Jian Kang, Hannah Munkacsi, Mano R Maurya, Shakti Gupta, Shu Chien, Shankar Subramaniam, Zhen Chen
The optimal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the hallmark of endothelial homeostasis, is vital to vascular function. Dynamically regulated by various stimuli, eNOS expression is modulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. However, epigenetic modulations of eNOS, particularly through long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and chromatin remodeling, remain to be explored. Here we identify an enhancer-associated lncRNA that enhances eNOS expression (LEENE)...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348325/low-level-global-transcription-during-mitosis-and-dynamic-gene-reactivation-during-mitotic-exit
#5
Katherine C Palozola, Hong Liu, Dario Nicetto, Kenneth S Zaret
Mitosis is thought to be a period of transcriptional silence due to the compact nature of mitotic chromosomes and the apparent exclusion of RNA Pol II and many transcription factors from mitotic chromatin. Yet accurate reactivation of a cell's specific gene expression program is needed to reestablish functional cell identity after mitosis. The majority of studies on protein regulation and localization during mitosis have relied extensively on antibodies and cross-linking-based approaches that are known to artifactually exclude proteins from mitotic chromatin...
January 18, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348189/cancer-stem-cell-phenotypes-in-er-breast-cancer-models-are-promoted-by-pelp1-aib1-complexes
#6
Thu H Truong, Hsiangyu Hu, Nuri A Temiz, Kyla Hagen, Brian J Girard, Nicholas J Brady, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, Carol A Lange, Julie H Ostrander
Proline, glutamic acid, and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) is overexpressed in approximately 80% of invasive breast tumors. PELP1 dynamically shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but is primarily nuclear in normal breast tissue. However, altered localization of PELP1 to the cytoplasm is an oncogenic event that promotes breast cancer initiation and progression. Herein, interacting partners unique to cytoplasmic PELP1 and the mechanisms by which these interactions promote oncogenic PELP1 signaling were sought...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347652/role-of-red-cells-and-plasma-composition-on-blood-sessile-droplet-evaporation
#7
Luca Lanotte, Didier Laux, Benoît Charlot, Manouk Abkarian
The morphology of dried blood droplets derives from the deposition of red cells, the main components of their solute phase. Up to now, evaporation-induced convective flows were supposed to be at the base of red cell distribution in blood samples. Here, we present a direct visualization by videomicroscopy of the internal dynamics in desiccating blood droplets, focusing on the role of cell concentration and plasma composition. We show that in diluted suspensions, the convection is promoted by the rich molecular composition of plasma, whereas it is replaced by an outward red blood cell displacement front at higher hematocrits...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347632/dynamics-of-a-thermally-driven-film-climbing-the-outside-of-a-vertical-cylinder
#8
Linda B Smolka
The dynamics of a film climbing the outside of a vertical cylinder under the competing effects of a thermally driven surface tension gradient and gravity is examined through numerical simulations of a thin-film model for the film height. The model, including boundary conditions, depends on three parameters, the scaled cylinder radius R[over ̂], the upstream film height h_{∞}, and the downstream precursor film thickness b, and reduces to the model for Marangoni driven film climbing a vertical plate in the limit R[over ̂]→∞...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347540/compliant-contact-versus-rigid-contact-a-comparison-in-the-context-of-granular-dynamics
#9
Arman Pazouki, Michał Kwarta, Kyle Williams, William Likos, Radu Serban, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Dan Negrut
We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979)GTNQA80016-850510.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347394/linking-biological-and-physical-aging-dynamical-scaling-of-multicellular-regeneration
#10
Yuting Lou, Jufeng Xia, Wei Tang, Yu Chen
The fight against biological aging (bio-aging) is long-standing, with the focus of intense research aimed at maintaining high rates of tissue regeneration to promote health and longevity. Nevertheless, there are overwhelming complexities associated with the quantitative analysis of aging. In this study, we sought to quantify bio-aging based on physical aging, by mapping instances of multicellular regeneration to the relaxation of physical systems. An experiment of delayed wound healing assays was devised to obtain delay-dependent healing data...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347330/lagrangian-formulation-and-symmetrical-description-of-liquid-dynamics
#11
K Trachenko
Theoretical description of liquids has been primarily based on the hydrodynamic approach and its generalization to the solid-like regime. We show that the same liquid properties can be derived starting from solid-like equations and generalizing them to account for the hydrodynamic flow. Both approaches predict propagating shear waves with the notable gap in k-space. This gives an important symmetry of liquids regarding their description. We subsequently construct a two-field Lagrangian of liquid dynamics where the dissipative hydrodynamic and solid-like terms are treated on equal footing...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347170/information-propagation-in-a-noisy-gene-cascade
#12
D Monteoliva, L Diambra
We use information theory to study the information transmission through a simple gene cascade where the product of an unregulated gene regulates the expression activity of a cooperative genetic switch. While the input signal is provided by the upstream gene with two states, we consider that the expression of downstream gene is controlled by a cis-regulatory system with three binding sites for the regulator product, which can bind cooperatively. By computing exactly the associated probability distributions, we estimate information transmission thought the mutual information measure...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346939/promoting-information-diffusion-through-interlayer-recovery-processes-in-multiplex-networks
#13
Xin Wang, Weihua Li, Longzhao Liu, Sen Pei, Shaoting Tang, Zhiming Zheng
For information diffusion in multiplex networks, the effect of interlayer contagion on spreading dynamics has been explored in different settings. Nevertheless, the impact of interlayer recovery processes, i.e., the transition of nodes to stiflers in all layers after they become stiflers in any layer, still remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a modified ignorant-spreader-stifler model of rumor spreading equipped with an interlayer recovery mechanism. We find that the information diffusion can be effectively promoted for a range of interlayer recovery rates...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346767/functional-principles-of-posterior-septal-inputs-to-the-medial-habenula
#14
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346758/size-dependent-axonal-bouton-dynamics-following-visual-deprivation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#15
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346752/epitranscriptomic-m6a-regulation-of-axon-regeneration-in-the-adult-mammalian-nervous-system
#16
Yi-Lan Weng, Xu Wang, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Caroline Vissers, Yuanyuan Liu, Yajing Liu, Tianlei Xu, Xinyuan Wang, Samuel Zheng Hao Wong, Jessica Joseph, Louis C Dore, Qiang Dong, Wei Zheng, Peng Jin, Hao Wu, Bin Shen, Xiaoxi Zhuang, Chuan He, Kai Liu, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects multiple aspects of mRNA metabolism and regulates developmental transitions by promoting mRNA decay. Little is known about the role of m6A in the adult mammalian nervous system. Here we report that sciatic nerve lesion elevates levels of m6A-tagged transcripts encoding many regeneration-associated genes and protein translation machinery components in the adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Single-base resolution m6A-CLIP mapping further reveals a dynamic m6A landscape in the adult DRG upon injury...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346745/the-thik-and-thin-of-microglia-dynamics
#17
Jennifer Shih, Chris G Dulla
Madry et al. (2018) show that the two-pore potassium channel TWIK-1 is tonically active in microglia and promotes microglial ramification and surveillance of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, THIK-1 is not essential to damage-induced outgrowth of microglial processes but is critical to microglial IL-1β release.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345390/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-promotes-early-engraftment-of-fetal-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#18
Edward O Kwarteng, Roxann Hétu-Arbour, Krista M Heinonen
The switch from fetal to adult hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is associated with profound changes in several genetic programs. Although HSPC ageing corresponds to alterations in Wnt signaling, relatively little is known about the relative roles of different Wnt signaling pathways in HSPC ontogeny. We hypothesized that proliferating fetal HSPCs would be more dependent on canonical β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling when compared to quiescent adult bone marrow HSPCs. We have compared here Wnt signaling activities in murine fetal and adult HSPCs and demonstrate a shift from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent signaling in fetal liver HSPCs to more predominantly noncanonical Wnt/polarity signaling in adult HSPCs...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345322/effect-of-substrate-stiffness-on-hepatocyte-migration-and-cellular-young-s-modulus
#19
Tingting Xia, Runze Zhao, Wanqian Liu, Qiping Huang, Peixing Chen, Yasinta Ningsih Waju, Mohanad Kh Al-Ani, Yonggang Lv, Li Yang
Hepatic fibrosis progress accompanied by an unbalanced extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and deposition leads to an increased tissue stiffness. Hepatocytes interplay with all intrahepatic cell populations inside the liver. However, how hepatocytes migration and cellular Young's modulus influenced by the substrate stiffness are not well understood. Here, we established a stiffness-controllable in vitro cell culture model by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel that mimicked the same physical stiffness as a fibrotic liver...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345285/the-epitranscriptome-m6a-writer-mettl3-promotes-chemo-and-radioresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#20
Kosuke Taketo, Masamitsu Konno, Ayumu Asai, Jun Koseki, Masayasu Toratani, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii, Kazuhiko Ogawa
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant epitranscriptome modification in mammalian mRNA. Recent years have seen substantial progress in m6A epitranscriptomics, indicating its crucial roles in the initiation and progression of cancer through regulation of RNA stabilities, mRNA splicing, microRNA processing and mRNA translation. However, by what means m6A is dynamically regulated or written by enzymatic components represented by methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) and how m6A is significant for each of the numerous genes remain unclear...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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