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Yanna C F Teles, Maria Sallett R Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza
The great diversity of enzymatic reactions in plant secondary metabolism allows the continuous discovery of new natural compounds and derivatives. Flavonoids, for example, can be found as aglycone or as several sorts of glycosylated, acetylated, methylated, and sulphated derivatives. This review focuses on sulphated flavonoids, an uncommon group of flavonoid derivatives found in some plant families. This work presents a compilation of sulphated flavonoids and their natural sources reported in the literature...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marie J Zwetsloot, André Kessler, Taryn L Bauerle
Root-soil interactions fundamentally affect the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and thereby ecosystem feedbacks to climate change. This study addressed the question of whether the secondary metabolism of different temperate forest tree species can affect soil microbial respiration. We hypothesized that phenolics can both increase and decrease respiration depending on their function as food source, mobilizer of other soil resources, signaling compound, or toxin. We analyzed the phenolic compounds from root exudates and root tissue extracts of six tree species grown in a glasshouse using high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Mohamed Eddouks, Morad Hebi
INTRODUCTION: Anvillea radiata Coss. &Durieu (Asteraceae) is an endemic plant from North Africa (Morocco and Algeria).This plant has many traditional uses including treatment of obesity and diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: the study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of Anvillea radiata (A. radiata) leaves on both normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for fifteen days. In addition, a preliminary pytochemical screening for various components was realized...
February 22, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Rita Celano, Luca Campone, Imma Pagano, Sonia Carabetta, Rosa Di Sanzo, Luca Rastrelli, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Mariateresa Russo
Consumers are aware of diet causing health problems and therefore there is an increased demand for natural ingredients that are expected to be safe and health-promoting. Many of these compounds belong to the class of flavonoids and can be divided into these five groups: flavanones, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, isoflavones and anthocyanidins. Extracts from citrus fruits are usually used as functional ingredients for several products. The aim of this paper was to develop an UHPLC-UV-ESI-HRMS method to define the metabolite profile of different parts of citrus fruit, of a particular cultivar called 'Ovale Calabrese', and in its main by-products...
February 23, 2018: Natural Product Research
Yongjian Xiong, Juanjuan Qiu, Changyi Li, Yang Qiu, Li Guo, Yuejian Liu, Jiajia Wan, Yuchun Li, Guokai Wu, Liang Wang, Zijuan Zhou, Jianyi Dong, Chunhua Du, Dapeng Chen, Huishu Guo
Activation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is known to induce cell apoptosis. MicroRNA-374a (miR-374a), which can suppress PTEN expression, has been found abnormally expressed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fortunellin is a citrus flavonoid that is a potential anti-inflammation agent in inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms underlying fortunellin-induced inhibition of PTEN in IBD. Colitis was established in rats by the intracolonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to mimic human ulcerative colitis, which is the main type of IBD...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jiao Zhu, Mengbuo Guo, Liping Ban, Li-Mei Song, Yang Liu, Paolo Pelosi, Guirong Wang
Niemann-Pick proteins type C2 (NPC2) are carriers of cholesterol in vertebrates, with a single member in each species. The high sequence conservation between mammals and across vertebrates is related to their common function. In contrast, NPC2 proteins in arthropods have undergone extensive duplication and differentiation, probably under environmental pressure, and are likely to have different functions. Recent studies have suggested that in arthropods these proteins might act as carriers for semiochemicals and other hydrophobic compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chikara Hirayama, Keisuke Mase, Tetsuya Iizuka, Yoko Takasu, Eiji Okada, Kimiko Yamamoto
The silkworm cocoon colour has attracted researchers involved in genetics, physiology and ecology for a long time. 'Ryokuken' cocoons are yellowish green in colour due to unusual flavonoids, prolinylflavonols, while 'Sasamayu' cocoons are light green and contain only simple flavonol glucosides. We found a novel gene associated with the cocoon colour change resulting from a change in flavonoid composition and named it Lg (light green cocoon). In the middle silk glands of the +Lg /+Lg larvae, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) was found to accumulate due to a decrease in the activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), an enzyme reducing P5C to proline...
February 23, 2018: Heredity
Andrana Karla Calgarotto, Victor Maso, Gilberto Carlos Franchi Junior, Alexandre Eduardo Nowill, Paulo Latuf Filho, José Vassallo, Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad
Quercetin is one of the most abundant flavonoids, present in fruits and vegetables and has been shown to have multiple properties capable of reducing cell growth in cancer cells. Green tea is a widely consumed beverage, known for a potential source of free radical scavenging and anti-cancer activities. Herein, we investigate the in vivo antitumor efficacy of quercetin and green tea in human leukemia. Human tumors were xenografted into NOD/SCID mice. Quercetin and green tea reduced tumor growth in HL-60 xenografts accompanied by decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1 and increased expression of BAX, a pro-apoptotic protein...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fan-Chun Meng, Jun-Kai Lin
Inhibition of tumor metastasis is one of the most important purposes in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. This study aimed to explore the effects of liquiritigenin, one of flavonoids extracted from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch , on HCT116 cell proliferation, invasion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that liquiritigenin significantly inhibited HCT116 cell proliferation, invasion and EMT process but had no influence on cell apoptosis. Moreover, liquiritigenin remarkably reduced the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in HCT116 cells...
February 22, 2018: Oncology Research
B N Smith, R N Dilger
In this review, the potential for use of soy-derived bioactive compounds as immunomodulatory feed additives in pigs is discussed. Soy is a major component of the modern U.S. swine diet in today's commercial industry, providing the bulk of dietary AA necessary for growth and production. However, soy use has generally been limited in early growth phases, during which the risks of immunological insult and disease are among the highest. Improvements of soybean processing and development of soy protein products with little to no antinutritional factors have made soy more appropriate for use in young pigs but additional processing may impact bioactive compound levels in the feed...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Si-Wei Wang, Yi Xu, Yuan-Yuan Weng, Xue-Yu Fan, Yong-Feng Bai, Xiao-Yan Zheng, Li-Jun Lou, Feng Zhang
Oxidative stress and inflammation are considered to be the main pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Astilbin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation function, has been used to treat heavy metal induced kidney injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of astilbin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that astilbin markedly inhibited cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis and recovered cell growth. Astilbin significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and alleviated ROS-induced activation of p53, MAPKs and AKT signaling cascades, which in turn attenuated cisplatin-induced HEK-293 cell apoptosis...
February 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hong-Il Kim, Yong-Un Jeong, Jong-Hyeon Kim, Young-Jin Park
Citrus fruits contain various types of flavonoids with powerful anti-aging and photoprotective effects on the skin, and have thus been attracting attention as potential, efficacious skincare agents. Here, we aimed to investigate the chemical composition of Citrus unshiu and its protective effects on photoaging. We isolated and identified a bioactive compound, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), from C. unshiu peels using ethanol extraction and hexane fractionation. HMF inhibited collagenase activity and increased type I procollagen content in UV-induced human dermal fibroblast neonatal (HDFn) cells...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yong-Deok Jeon, Sa-Haeng Kang, Kwang-Hyun Moon, Jeong-Ho Lee, Dae-Geun Kim, Wook Kim, Jong-Sung Kim, Byung-Yong Ahn, Jong-Sik Jin
The number of diabetic patients worldwide is increasing, and complications such as stroke and cardiovascular disease are becoming a serious cause of death. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two types according to the etiopathogenic mechanism and insulin dependence. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is caused by damage and destruction of pancreatic β cells that produce insulin. It is a disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Aronia berry has been used as a medicinal food in Europe...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Tahereh Farkhondeh, Hanieh Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Saeed Samarghandian
The therapeutic strategies to manage neurodegenerative diseases remain limited and it is necessary to discover new agents for their prevention and control. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a main role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Catechins, the major flavonoids in green tea, are powerful antioxidants and radical scavengers that possess the potential roles in the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Catechins modulate the cellular and molecular mechanisms through the inflammation-related NF-кB and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways...
February 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Joseph Gbenga Omole, Oladele Abiodun Ayoka, Quadri Kunle Alabi, Modinat Adebukola Adefisayo, Muritala Abiola Asafa, Babalola Olusegun Olubunmi, Benson Akinloye Fadeyi
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating drug used for the treatment of chronic and acute malignant lymphomas, myeloma, leukemia, neuroblastoma, adenocarcinoma, retinoblastoma, breast carcinoma, and immunosuppressive therapy. Despite its vast therapeutic uses, it is known to cause severe cardiac toxicity. Kolaviron (KV), a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of flavonoids, is reputed for its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the protective effect of KV on CP-induced cardiotoxicity in rats...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
Katharina J Penczynski, Christian Herder, Danika Krupp, Johanna Rienks, Sarah Egert, Stefan A Wudy, Michael Roden, Thomas Remer, Anette E Buyken
PURPOSE: Flavonoid consumption during adolescence could contribute to preventing adult onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the prospective association between habitual intake of flavonoids from fruit and vegetables (FlavFV) during adolescence and risk markers of type 2 diabetes in early adulthood. METHODS: This analysis included participants of the DONALD Study, who had provided a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years), data on FlavFV-intake during adolescence (females: 9-15 years, males: 10-16 years) and relevant covariates...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Xiaoxiao Qin, Yanfen Lu, Zhen Peng, Shuangxi Fan, Yuncong Yao
The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL) and ever-green leaves (GL) of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Junjian Wang, Shaoxiang Huang
Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro . MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wipawee Chanthasri, Nuntitporn Puangkeaw, Nongluk Kunworarath, Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Surasak Limsuwan, Katesarin Maneenoon, Piyapong Choochana, Sasitorn Chusri
BACKGROUND: Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty documented polyherbal mixtures, used as nourishing tonics by the folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces in southern Thailand, are targeted. Despite traditional health claims, there is no scientific evidence to support the utilization of polyherbal formulations...
February 21, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ewa Witkowska-Banaszczak
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the flavonoid composition of the flowers of Trollius europaeus and the method of isolation thereof and provides an attempt at investigating the antioxidant activity of the isolated flavonoids and the antityrosinase activity of the extracts from the investigated material. METHODS: The compositional data were acquired by combining results of nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet spectroscopy, electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses and those of an analysis of the products of acid hydrolysis of the compounds...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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