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One Health Initiative

Tim Doran
The creation of the National Health Service (NHS) marked a radical break with the past, making health care universally available on the basis of need rather than means. The NHS was conceived during wartime emergency and has had to survive further regular crises to reach its 70th year, but it now faces challenges that are unprecedented in scale and there are doubts about its ability to continue in its present form. Resources have not increased with need, and the NHS can no longer function as a comprehensive service during periods of peak demand...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
Bernardo Costa-Pinel, Santiago Mestre-Miravet, Francisco Barrio-Torrell, Joan-Josep Cabré-Vila, Xavier Cos-Claramunt, Sofía Aguilar-Sanz, Claustre Solé-Brichs, Conxa Castell-Abat, Victoria Arija-Val, Jaana Lindström
BACKGROUND: The DE-PLAN-CAT project (Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using lifestyle, physical activity and nutritional intervention-Catalonia) has shown that an intensive lifestyle intervention is feasible in the primary care setting and substantially reduces the incidence of diabetes among high-risk Mediterranean participants. The DP-TRANSFERS project (Diabetes Prevention-Transferring findings from European research to society) is a large-scale national programme aimed at implementing this intervention in primary care centres whenever feasible...
2018: PloS One
Mary M Alleman, Rohit Chitale, Cara C Burns, Jane Iber, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Qi Chen, Djo-Roy Van Koko, Raimi Ewetola, Yogolelo Riziki, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Cheikh Dah, Rija Andriamihantanirina
The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
K Kragelund Nielsen, L Groth Grunnet, H Terkildsen Maindal
In this review, we aim to summarize knowledge about gestational diabetes (GDM) after delivery; with special focus on the potential of preventing Type 2 diabetes in a family context. The review expands on the key messages from a symposium held in Copenhagen in May 2017 and highlights avenues for future research. A narrative review of the symposium presentations and related literature is given. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term adverse outcomes including Type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring...
March 15, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Monica Guo, Kathleen O'Connor Duffany, Fatma M Shebl, Alycia Santilli, Danya E Keene
Perceptions of neighborhood safety shape the well-being of individuals and communities, affecting neighborhood walkability, associated physical activity behaviors, and health conditions. However, less is known about the factors that determine perceptions of safety. One factor that may affect perceptions of neighborhood safety is the length of time someone has lived in their neighborhood. We use a representative, adult sample of urban low-income residents from the 2015 New Haven Health Survey (n = 1189) to investigate the associations between length of residence (new residents of < 1 year in neighborhood versus longer-term residents of 1 or more years in neighborhood) and perceptions of neighborhood safety (whether feeling unsafe to walk at night)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Pei-Hsun Sung, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yao-Hsu Yang, John Y Chiang, Chi-Jen Chen, Hon-Kan Yip, Mel S Lee
PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction is a risk factor for osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) [defined as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE)]. However, the risk of unprovoked VTE in non-traumatic ONFH patients remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between ONFH and VTE using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Between 1997 and 2010, a total of 1514 non-traumatic ONFH patients were identified from 1,000,000 general populations after excluding initially concomitant diagnoses of DVT and PE, and subjects undergoing lower limb surgery within one year since enrollment...
March 14, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Yangming Gong, Peng Peng, Pingping Bao, Weijian Zhong, Yan Shi, Kai Gu, Ying Zheng, Chunxiao Wu, Sanjun Cai, Ye Xu, Jun Sheng, Fan Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) have increased dramatically over the past 3 decades in China due to changes in lifestyle factors. Early detection and treatment guidelines for asymptomatic cases have shown to improve CRC control in developed countries. In response to these challenges, the Shanghai Municipal Government launched a community-based CRC screening program in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free initial screening, inclusive of immunochemical fecal occult blood and risk assessment (questionnaire), was provided by community health centers in Shanghai...
March 14, 2018: Oncologist
Aimilia Exarchakou, Bernard Rachet, Aurélien Belot, Camille Maringe, Michel P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Shoshannah Eggers, Anna K Barker, Susan Valentine, Timothy Hess, Megan Duster, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Infection by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Colonization by S. aureus increases the risk of infection. Little is known about decolonization strategies for S. aureus beyond antibiotics, however probiotics represent a promising alternative. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) HN001 in reducing carriage of S. aureus at multiple body sites. METHODS: One hundred thirteen subjects, positive for S...
March 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Noam Steinberg, Amihai Gottlieb, Itzhak Siev-Ner, Meir Plotnik
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to estimate fall incidence and describe associated risk factors among people with a lower limb amputation (LLA) during various stages of recovery: the surgical ward, in-patient rehabilitation and return to community life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of relevant English language articles was performed using PubMed and EMBASE. Out of 310 initial "hits," six retrospective cohort studies, one prospective cohort study and eleven cross-sectional studies from which fall incidence and risk factors could be extracted, were selected for critical review...
March 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Thomas J Whitaker, Charles S Mayo, Daniel J Ma, Michael G Haddock, Robert C Miller, Kimberly S Corbin, Michelle Neben-Wittich, James L Leenstra, Nadia N Laack, Mirek Fatyga, Steven E Schild, Carlos E Vargas, Katherine S Tzou, Austin R Hadley, Steven J Buskirk, Robert L Foote
Patient- and provider-reported outcomes are recognized as important in evaluating quality of care, guiding health care policy, comparative effectiveness research, and decision-making in radiation oncology. Combining patient and provider outcome data with a detailed description of disease and therapy is the basis for these analyses. We report on the combination of technical solutions and clinical process changes at our institution that were used in the collection and dissemination of this data. This initiative has resulted in the collection of treatment data for 23 541 patients, 20 465 patients with provider-based adverse event records, and patient-reported outcome surveys submitted by 5622 patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Na Jia, Yuan-Chun Zheng, Jia-Fu Jiang, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Bao-Gui Jiang, Ran Wei, Hong-Bo Liu, Qiu-Bo Huo, Yi Sun, Yan-Li Chu, Hang Fan, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Nan-Nan Yao, Wen-Hui Zhang, Hong Wang, Dong-Hui Guo, Xue Fu, Ya-Wei Wang, Peter J Krause, Ju-Liang Song, Wu-Chun Cao
Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China. Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. We evaluated them for Babesia infection using history; physical examination; and blood smear, PCR, and genetic sequencing...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Antonio Ernstberger, Michael Koller, Florian Zeman, Maximilian Kerschbaum, Franz Hilber, Eva Diepold, Julika Loss, Tanja Herbst, Michael Nerlich
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a global burden of disease and one of the main causes of death worldwide. Therefore, many countries around the world have implemented a wide range of different initiatives to minimize mortality rates after trauma. One of these initiatives is the bundling of treatment expertise in trauma centers and the establishment of trauma networks. Germany has a decentralized system of trauma care medical centers. Severely injured patients ought to receive adequate treatment in both level I and level II centers...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
Saad Chahine, Kulamakan Mahan Kulasegaram, Sarah Wright, Sandra Monteiro, Lawrence E M Grierson, Cassandra Barber, Stefanie S Sebok-Syer, Meghan McConnell, Wendy Yen, Andre De Champlain, Claire Touchie
There exists an assumption that improving medical education will improve patient care. While seemingly logical, this premise has rarely been investigated. In this Invited Commentary, the authors propose the use of big data to test this assumption. The authors present a few example research studies linking education and patient care outcomes and argue that using big data may more easily facilitate the process needed to investigate this assumption. The authors also propose that collaboration is needed to link educational and health care data...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
C W C Gomes, G Funkler, I Andretta, M O Gonçalves, H F Santos, C E F Cruz
The breeding of wild birds in captivity assumes an increasingly important role in conservation due to the loss of species and their habitats. Providing the environmental and nutritional needs of species kept in captivity is the key for achieving success in such initiatives. Among the flock health practices, we highlight here wild bird vaccination, a scarcely studied subject. This study clinically and serologically evaluates the effect of applying a vaccination protocol against Newcastle disease in three groups of ornamental wild birds...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mackensie A Yore, Matthew C Strehlow, Lily D Yan, Elizabeth A Pirrotta, Joan L Woods, Koy Somontha, Yim Sovannra, Lauren Auerbach, Rebecca Backer, Christophe Grundmann, Swaminatha V Mahadevan
BACKGROUND: Emergency medicine is a young specialty in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although many patients seeking emergency or acute care are children, little information is available about the needs and current treatment of this group in LMICs. In this observational study, we sought to describe characteristics, chief complaints, management, and outcomes of children presenting for unscheduled visits to two Cambodian public hospitals. METHODS: Children enrolled in the study presented without appointment for treatment at one of two Cambodian public referral hospitals during a 4-week period in 2012...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hannah Padda, Amy Niedbalski, Erin Tate, Sharon L Deem
Zoological institutions play an important role in promoting the goals of the One Health movement. We launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) at the Saint Louis Zoo in 2011 to advance the goals of One Health. In 2016, we distributed a survey to Zoo members to evaluate member awareness and understanding of One Health and to provide direction for future communication and actions from the ICM. We hypothesized that Zoo members would be aware of One Health and care about infectious disease issues. Survey results showed Zoo members primarily cared about chronic, non-infectious diseases and their associated economic costs, with participants ranking their top three health issues of concern for humans as nutrition/obesity/diet (49%), costs of health care (48%), and cancer (37%)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Parvene Farhoody, Indika Mallawaarachchi, Patrick M Tarwater, James A Serpell, Deborah L Duffy, Chris Zink
Gonadectomy is widely used to treat and prevent behavior problems including the aggressive behavior of dogs. The aim of this study was to determine whether aggressive behavior toward familiar people, strangers, or other dogs was significantly different in dogs gonadectomized at various ages vs. intact dogs using the Canine Behavioral Assessment Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) with multivariate analysis. Of 15,370 initial surveys, those for dogs reported to have been gonadectomized at less than 6 weeks of age or to correct a behavior problem, and those with incomplete answers to questions regarding independent or dependent variables were excluded, leaving 13,795 for the analysis of aggressive behavior toward familiar people: 13,498 for aggressive behavior toward strangers and 13,237 for aggressive behavior toward dogs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Koji Otani, Shin-Ichi Kikuchi, Shoji Yabuki, Akira Onda, Takuya Nikaido, Kazuyuki Watanabe, Shin-Ichi Konno
Purpose: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common condition in the aging population. However, limited information exists on discrepancies between LSS symptoms and imaging findings and/or prognostic factors of LSS, as well as the relationship between changes in LSS symptoms and quality of life (QoL) during the natural course of LSS. The purpose of the current study was to clarify any changes in clinically diagnosed LSS at a one-year follow-up, and identify its prognostic factors, using a community-dwelling cohort...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
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