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Ectopic ossification

Harish Kempegowda, Raveesh Richard, Amrut Borade, Akhil Tawari, Abby M Howenstein, Erik N Kubiak, Michael Suk, Daniel S Horwitz
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role and the necessity of radiographs and office visits obtained during follow-up of intertrochanteric hip injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective study SETTING:: Two level I trauma centers. PATIENTS: 465 elderly patients who were surgically treated for an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur at two level I trauma centers between January 2009 and August 2014 were retrospectively identified from orthopaedic trauma databases...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
F M Elli, V Boldrin, A Pirelli, A Spada, G Mantovani
All tissues and organs derive from stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells able to differentiate into specialized cells and self-renewal. In mammals, there are embryonic stem cells that generate germ layers, and adult stem cells, which act as a repair system for the body and maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic adult multipotent cells, which reside in virtually all postnatal organs and tissues, and, under appropriate in vitro conditions, are capable to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic lineages...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Shailesh Agarwal, Shawn Loder, David Cholok, John Li, Chris Breuler, James Drake, Cameron Brownley, Joshua Peterson, Shuli Li, Benjamin Levi
: : Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs after severe musculoskeletal injuries and burns, and presents a significant barrier to patient rehabilitation. Interestingly, the incidence of HO significantly increases with repeated operations and after resection of previous HO. Treatment of established heterotopic ossification is challenging because surgical excision is often incomplete, with evidence of persistent heterotopic bone. As a result, patients may continue to report the signs or symptoms of HO, including chronic pain, nonhealing wounds, and joint restriction...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Lei Shi, Guodong Cai, Jiangang Shi, Yongfei Guo, Dechun Chen, Deyu Chen, Haisong Yang
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) involves ectopic calcification of the spinal ligament preferentially at the cervical spine. OPLL is associated with different diseases and occurs by endochondral ossification, which is associated with the activity of different transcription factors. However, the pathogenesis of OPLL remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of osterix (Osx), a transcription factor that functions downstream of Runx2 and is an important regulator of osteogenesis, in the process of OPLL in a dexamethasone (Dex)-induced model of spinal ligament ossification...
September 29, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Holly E Weiss-Bilka, Megan E McGann, Matthew J Meagher, Ryan K Roeder, Diane R Wagner
Key aspects of native endochondral bone development and fracture healing can be mimicked in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through standard in vitro chondrogenic induction. Exploiting this phenomenon has recently emerged as an attractive technique to engineer bone tissue, however relatively little is known about the best conditions for doing so. The objective of this study was to compare the bone forming capacity and angiogenic induction of hypertrophic cell constructs containing human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) primed for chondrogenesis in two different culture systems: high-density pellets and alginate bead hydrogels...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Kalliopi Klavdianou, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Lazaros Sakkas, Dimitrios Daoussis
BACKGROUND: Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is a soluble inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway, which plays critical roles in embryonic development. Evidence suggests that this molecule regulates several aspects of both bone biology and fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of our current knowledge of the role of Dkk-1 in joint remodeling and fibrosis. METHODS: We performed an electronic search (Medline) using the following key words: Dickkopf-1 (or Dkk-1), new bone formation, joint remodeling, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic sclerosis (or scleroderma), and fibrosis, supplemented by a manual search of references from retrieved articles...
August 23, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Arkady Rutkovskiy, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Ingvar Jarle Vaage
Ossification is a tightly regulated process, performed by specialized cells called osteoblasts. Dysregulation of this process may cause inadequate or excessive mineralization of bones or ectopic calcification, all of which have grave consequences for human health. Understanding osteoblast biology may help to treat diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, calcific heart valve disease, osteoporosis, and many others. Osteoblasts are bone-building cells of mesenchymal origin; they differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors, either directly or via an osteochondroprogenitor...
September 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Fabian Westhauser, Melanie Höllig, Bruno Reible, Kai Xiao, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam
Stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) leads to superior bone formation in vitro. In this in vivo-study we evaluated the use of BMP-7 in combination with MSC isolated from reaming debris (RIA-MSC) and iliac crest bone marrow (BMSC) with micro-computed tomography (mCT)-analysis. β-Tricalciumphosphate scaffolds coated with BMSC and RIA-MSC were stimulated with three different BMP-7-concentrations and implanted ectopically in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics
Yujiro Hirao, Hirotaka Chikuda, Yasushi Oshima, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Sakae Tanaka
INTRODUCTION: Ectopic ossification of the spinal ligaments is not uncommon in patients with Vitamin D-resistant rickets (VDRR), but the long-term consequences of this condition have not been reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The case was a 65-year-old female with VDRR who reported progressive weakness of the upper extremities, difficulty walking, neck pain, and numbness in the left arm. Imaging studies demonstrated cord compression with ectopic ossification at the rim of the occipital bone and OPLL at C1 level...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Peter Eisenhauer, Natalie Chernets, You Song, Danil Dobrynin, Nancy Pleshko, Marla J Steinbeck, Theresa A Freeman
The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression...
September 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Pei Li, Yuan Xu, Yibo Gan, Lei Song, Chengmin Zhang, Liyuan Wang, Qiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ectopic ossification and increased vascularization are two common phenomena in the chronic tendinopathic tendon. The increased vascularization usually leads to an elevated local oxygen tension which is one of micro-environments that can influence differentiate status of stem cells. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the osteogenesis capacity of rat tendon-derived stem cells TDSCs (rTDSCs) in normoxic and hypoxic cultures, and to study the role of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in this process...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Shailesh Agarwal, James Drake, Ammar T Qureshi, Shawn Loder, Shuli Li, Kay Shigemori, Jonathan Peterson, David Cholok, Jonathan A Forsberg, Yuji Mishina, Thomas A Davis, Benjamin Levi
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic formation of bone separate from the normal skeleton. Although several models exist for studying HO, an understanding of the common in vitro properties of cells isolated from these models is lacking. We studied three separate animal models of HO including two models of trauma-induced HO and one model of genetic HO, and human HO specimens, to characterize the properties of cells derived from tissue containing pre-and mature ectopic bone in relation to analogous mesenchymal cell populations or osteoblasts obtained from normal muscle tissue...
2016: PloS One
Thomas P Lozito, Rocky S Tuan
Lizards are amniotes with the remarkable ability to regenerate amputated tails. The early regenerated lizard tail forms a blastema, and the regenerated skeleton consists of a cartilage tube (CT) surrounding the regenerated spinal cord. The proximal, but not distal, CT undergoes hypertrophy and ossifies. We hypothesized that differences in cell sources and signaling account for divergent cartilage development between proximal and distal CT regions. Exogenous spinal cord implants induced ectopic CT formation in lizard (Anolis carolinensis) blastemas...
August 15, 2016: Development
Masahiro Nakajima, Ikuyo Kou, Hirofumi Ohashi, Shiro Ikegawa
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL) is a common spinal disorder that results from ectopic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and causes intractable myelopathy and radiculopathy. In a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS), we found six loci associated with OPLL; however, susceptibility genes in these loci have not been identified yet. Here, we examined one of the GWAS loci and identified RSPO2 (encoding R-spondin 2) as a susceptibility gene for OPLL...
July 7, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Gabriel J Pavey, Ammar T Qureshi, Allison M Tomasino, Cary L Honnold, Danett K Bishop, Shailesh Agarwal, Shawn Loder, Benjamin Levi, Maurizio Pacifici, Masahiro Iwamoto, Benjamin K Potter, Thomas A Davis, Jonathan A Forsberg
Heterotopic ossification (HO) involves formation of endochondral bone at non-skeletal sites, is prevalent in severely wounded service members, and causes significant complications and delayed rehabilitation. As common prophylactic treatments such as anti-inflammatory drugs and irradiation cannot be used after multi-system combat trauma, there is an urgent need for new remedies. Previously, we showed that the retinoic acid receptor γ agonist Palovarotene inhibited subcutaneous and intramuscular HO in mice, but those models do not mimic complex combat injury...
September 2016: Bone
Rik Osinga, Nunzia Di Maggio, Atanas Todorov, Nima Allafi, Andrea Barbero, Frédéric Laurent, Dirk Johannes Schaefer, Ivan Martin, Arnaud Scherberich
UNLABELLED: : Recapitulation of endochondral ossification (ECO) (i.e., generation of marrow-containing ossicles through a cartilage intermediate) has relevance to develop human organotypic models for bone or hematopoietic cells and to engineer grafts for bone regeneration. Unlike bone marrow-derived stromal cells (also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells), adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) have so far failed to form a bone organ by ECO. The goal of the present study was to assess whether priming human ASC to a defined stage of chondrogenesis in vitro allows their autonomous ECO upon ectopic implantation...
August 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Kenta Uchibe, Jiyeon Son, Colleen Larmour, Maurizio Pacifici, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Masahiro Iwamoto
The nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) play key roles in skeletal development and endochondral ossification. Previously we showed that RARγ regulates chondrogenesis and that pharmacological activation of RARγ blocked heterotopic ossification (HO), pathology in which endochondral bone forms in soft tissues. Thus, we reasoned that pharmacological inhibition of RARγ should enhance endochondral ossification, leading to a potential therapeutic strategy for bone deficiencies. We created surgical bone defects in wild type and RARγ-null mice and monitored bone healing...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Yuanjun Xia, Xiang Yu, Ying Zhang, Qingshui Yin, Hong Xia, Xiaohui Zheng, Huibin Xie, Xianhua Huang
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ectopic osteogenesis of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) loaded chitosan (CS)/dextran sulfate (DS) by micro-CT. METHODS: rhBMP-2/CS/DS microspheres were prepared by the ionic crosslinking and its shape was observed under the scanning electron microscope. The release of rhBMP-2 was determined from resultant microspheres by ELISA assay. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 12), quadriceps muscle bag model was made, gelatin sponge (group A), CS/DS microspheres (group B), rhBMP-2 (group C), and CS/DS/rhBMP-2 microspheres (group D) were implanted into the bags respectively...
March 2016: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Xin Chen, Jun Guo, Tao Cai, Fengshan Zhang, Shengfa Pan, Li Zhang, Shaobo Wang, Feifei Zhou, Yinze Diao, Yanbin Zhao, Zhen Chen, Xiaoguang Liu, Zhongqiang Chen, Zhongjun Liu, Yu Sun, Jie Du
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL), which is characterized by ectopic bone formation in the spinal ligaments, can cause spinal-cord compression. To date, at least 11 susceptibility genes have been genetically linked to OPLL. In order to identify potential deleterious alleles in these OPLL-associated genes, we designed a capture array encompassing all coding regions of the target genes for next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a cohort of 55 unrelated patients with OPLL. By bioinformatics analyses, we successfully identified three novel and five extremely rare variants (MAF < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Masato Nakano, Taketoshi Yasuda, Shoji Seki, Takeshi Hori, Kayo Suzuki, Hiroto Makino, Tomoatsu Kimura
BACKGROUND: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) are characterized by replacement of ligamentous tissue by ectopic new bone formation. Although the background of both diseases might be similar, there are some differences between two diseases. Some patients have both OPLL and OLF. However, the incidence of both OPLL and OLF is still unclear and the precise lesions have not been investigated, yet. This study was conducted to evaluate OLF of the whole spine in patients with cervical OPLL and to analyze the relationship of the ossified lesions between OLF and OPLL...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
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