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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158988/microsatellite-polymorphisms-associated-with-human-behavioural-and-psychological-phenotypes-including-a-gene-environment-interaction
#1
Andrew T M Bagshaw, L John Horwood, David M Fergusson, Neil J Gemmell, Martin A Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. METHODS: We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance...
February 3, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158247/neuroprotective-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-against-hyperoxia-induced-injury-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#2
Stefanie Endesfelder, Hanan Makki, Clarissa von Haefen, Claudia D Spies, Christoph Bührer, Marco Sifringer
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective agonist of α2-receptors with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine have been reported in various brain injury models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on hippocampal neurogenesis, specifically the proliferation capacity and maturation of neurons and neuronal plasticity following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. Six-day old sex-matched Wistar rats were exposed to 80% oxygen or room air for 24 h and treated with 1, 5 or 10 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine or normal saline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057270/the-roles-of-t-box-genes-in-vertebrate-limb-development
#3
C J Sheeba, M P O Logan
Members of the T-box gene family have diverse roles during embryogenesis and many play critical roles in the developing limb. This is exemplified by the fact that, in humans, mutations in T-box genes are associated with several congenital syndromes that include limb defects as part of their characteristic spectrum of abnormalities. T-box genes encode for evolutionary conserved transcription factors that include both transcriptional activators and repressors. The hallmark of T-box gene members is the presence of the eponymous DNA-binding T-box domain...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#4
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986613/oxygen-flux-reduces-cux1-positive-neurons-and-cortical-growth-in-a-gestational-rodent-model-of-growth-restriction
#5
Elaine Fletcher, Jean Wade, Petrina A Georgala, Trudi L Gillespie, David J Price, Elizabeth Pilley, Julie-Clare Becher
BACKGROUND: The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7...
March 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917473/maternal-deprivation-alters-expression-of-neural-maturation-gene-tbr1-in-the-amygdala-paralaminar-nucleus-in-infant-female-macaques
#6
Danielle M de Campo, Judy L Cameron, Joseph M Miano, David A Lewis, Karoly Mirnics, Julie L Fudge
Early parental loss is associated with social-emotional dysregulation and amygdala physiologic changes. Previously, we examined whole amygdala gene expression in infant monkeys exposed to early maternal deprivation. Here, we focus on an amygdala region with immature neurons at birth: the paralaminar nucleus (PL). We hypothesized that 1) the normal infant PL is enriched in a subset of neural maturation (NM) genes compared to a nearby amygdala subregion; and 2) maternal deprivation would downregulate expression of NM transcripts (mRNA)...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915032/reelin-expression-is-up-regulated-in-mice-colon-in-response-to-acute-colitis-and-provides-resistance-against-colitis
#7
Ana E Carvajal, María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María J Peral, María L Calonge, Anunciación A Ilundain
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein first known for its key role in neuronal migration. Studies in rodent small intestine suggested that reelin protects the organism from intestinal pathology. Here we determined in mice colon, by real time-PCR and immunological assays, the expression of the reelin signalling system; its response to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and the response of wild-type and reeler mice to DSS-treatment. DNA methylation was determined by bisulfite modification and sequencing of genomic DNA...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#8
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581449/a-novel-and-multivalent-role-of-pax6-in-cerebellar-development
#9
Joanna Yeung, Thomas J Ha, Douglas J Swanson, Dan Goldowitz
UNLABELLED: Pax6 is a prominent gene in brain development. The deletion of Pax6 results in devastated development of eye, olfactory bulb, and cortex. However, it has been reported that the Pax6-null Sey cerebellum only has minor defects involving granule cells despite Pax6 being expressed throughout cerebellar development. The present work has uncovered a requirement of Pax6 in the development of all rhombic lip (RL) lineages. A significant downregulation of Tbr1 and Tbr2 expression is found in the Sey cerebellum, these are cell-specific markers of cerebellar nuclear (CN) neurons and unipolar brush cells (UBCs), respectively...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577752/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-impairment-in-lamination-of-ctip2-and-tbr1-expressing-cortical-neurons-in-the-developing-rat-fetal-brain
#10
Ming-Wei Chao, Chie-Pein Chen, Yu-Hsiu Yang, Yu-Chen Chuang, Tzu-Yun Chu, Chia-Yi Tseng
Oxidative stress and inflammatory insults are the major instigating events of bacterial intrauterine infection that lead to fetal brain injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the remedial effects of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) for inflammation-caused deficits in brain development. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by RAW264.7 cells. Macrophage-conditioned medium caused noticeable cortical cell damage, specifically in cortical neurons. LPS at 25 μg/kg caused more than 75% fetal loss in rats...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536221/development-and-maturation-of-embryonic-cortical-neurons-grafted-into-the-damaged-adult-motor-cortex
#11
Nissrine Ballout, Isabelle Frappé, Sophie Péron, Mohamed Jaber, Kazem Zibara, Afsaneh Gaillard
Injury to the human central nervous system can lead to devastating consequences due to its poor ability to self-repair. Neural transplantation aimed at replacing lost neurons and restore functional circuitry has proven to be a promising therapeutical avenue. We previously reported in adult rodent animal models with cortical lesions that grafted fetal cortical neurons could effectively re-establish specific patterns of projections and synapses. The current study was designed to provide a detailed characterization of the spatio-temporal in vivo development of fetal cortical transplanted cells within the lesioned adult motor cortex and their corresponding axonal projections...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478526/an-integrative-microfluidically-supported-in-vitro-model-of-an-endothelial-barrier-combined-with-cortical-spheroids-simulates-effects-of-neuroinflammation-in-neocortex-development
#12
Martin Raasch, Knut Rennert, Tobias Jahn, Claudia Gärtner, Gilbert Schönfelder, Otmar Huber, Andrea E M Seiler, Alexander S Mosig
The development of therapeutic substances to treat diseases of the central nervous system is hampered by the tightness and selectivity of the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, testing of potential drugs is time-consuming and cost-intensive. Here, we established a new microfluidically supported, biochip-based model of the brain endothelial barrier in combination with brain cortical spheroids suitable to detect effects of neuroinflammation upon disruption of the endothelial layer in response to inflammatory signals...
July 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423628/characterization-of-neurons-in-the-cortical-white-matter-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Zsófia Richter, József Janszky, György Sétáló, Réka Horváth, Zsolt Horváth, Tamás Dóczi, László Seress, Hajnalka Ábrahám
The aim of the present work was to characterize neurons in the archi- and neocortical white matter, and to investigate their distribution in mesial temporal sclerosis. Immunohistochemistry and quantification of neurons were performed on surgically resected tissue sections of patients with therapy-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe tissues of patients with tumor but without epilepsy and that from autopsy were used as controls. Neurons were identified with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against NeuN, calcium-binding proteins, transcription factor Tbr1 and neurofilaments...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347347/pai-1-secretion-of-endometrial-and-endometriotic-cells-is-smad2-3-and-erk1-2-dependent-and-influences-cell-adhesion
#14
Cong Sui, Ezekiel Mecha, Charles Oa Omwandho, Anna Starzinski-Powitz, Angelika Stammler, Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg, Lutz Konrad
In the endometrium transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) are involved mainly in menstruation and endometriosis. After binding of the ligands to the high-affinity receptors, TGF-β receptors (TBR1 and TBR2), TGF-βs activate Smad signaling to modulate gene expression and cellular functions. However, recently also Smad-independent pathways have been studied in more details. To evaluate both pathways, we have analyzed TGF-β signaling in human endometrial and endometriotic cells. Although endometrial and endometriotic cells secrete TGF-β1, secretion by stromal cells was higher compared to epithelial cells...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325115/tbr1-regulates-autism-risk-genes-in-the-developing-neocortex
#15
James H Notwell, Whitney E Heavner, Siavash Fazel Darbandi, Sol Katzman, William L McKenna, Christian F Ortiz-Londono, David Tastad, Matthew J Eckler, John L R Rubenstein, Susan K McConnell, Bin Chen, Gill Bejerano
Exome sequencing studies have identified multiple genes harboring de novo loss-of-function (LoF) variants in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including TBR1, a master regulator of cortical development. We performed ChIP-seq for TBR1 during mouse cortical neurogenesis and show that TBR1-bound regions are enriched adjacent to ASD genes. ASD genes were also enriched among genes that are differentially expressed in Tbr1 knockouts, which together with the ChIP-seq data, suggests direct transcriptional regulation...
August 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042238/specific-pattern-of-maturation-and-differentiation-in-the-formation-of-cortical-tubers-in-tuberous-sclerosis-omplex-tsc-evidence-from-layer-specific-marker-expression
#16
Angelika Mühlebner, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Jasper J Anink, Floor E Jansen, Tim J Veersema, Kees P Braun, Wim G M Spliet, Wim van Hecke, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Martha Feucht, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Christian G Bien, Tilman Polster, Roland Coras, Ingmar Blümcke, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, leading to constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Cortical tubers represent typical lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in TSC. The pattern of cortical layering disruption observed in brain tissue of TSC patients is not yet fully understood, and little is known about the origin and phenotype of individual abnormal cell types recognized in tubers...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972684/p2y4-nucleotide-receptor-in-neuronal-precursors-induces-glutamatergic-subtype-markers-in-their-descendant-neurons
#17
Youichi Uda, Shuai Xu, Takafumi Matsumura, Yoshinori Takei
Neural stem cells (NSCs) produce all neuronal subtypes involved in the nervous system. The mechanism regulating their subtype selection is not fully understood. We found that the expression of the nucleotide receptor P2Y4 was transiently augmented in the course of neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which was after loss of pluripotency but prior to terminal differentiation of neurons. The activation of P2Y4 in the differentiating ESCs resulted in an increased proportion of neurons expressing vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT), a marker of glutamatergic subtype...
April 12, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612825/distinct-expression-patterns-for-type-ii-topoisomerases-iia-and-iib-in-the-early-foetal-human-telencephalon
#18
Lauren F Harkin, Dianne Gerrelli, Diana C Gold Diaz, Chloe Santos, Ayman Alzu'bi, Caroline A Austin, Gavin J Clowry
TOP2A and TOP2B are type II topoisomerase enzymes that have important but distinct roles in DNA replication and RNA transcription. Recently, TOP2B has been implicated in the transcription of long genes in particular that play crucial roles in neural development and are susceptible to mutations contributing to neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism and schizophrenia. This study maps their expression in the early foetal human telencephalon between 9 and 12 post-conceptional weeks. TOP2A immunoreactivity was restricted to cell nuclei of the proliferative layers of the cortex and ganglionic eminences (GE), including the ventricular zone and subventricular zone (SVZ) closely matching expression of the proliferation marker KI67...
March 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26578866/brain-specific-transcriptional-regulator-t-brain-1-controls-brain-wiring-and-neuronal-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
T-brain-1 (TBR1) is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1 (-∕-) mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475939/speciation-of-two-gobioid-species-pterogobius-elapoides-and-pterogobius-zonoleucus-revealed-by-multi-locus-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-analyses
#20
Akihito, Fumihito Akishinonomiya, Yuji Ikeda, Masahiro Aizawa, So Nakagawa, Yumi Umehara, Takahiro Yonezawa, Shuhei Mano, Masami Hasegawa, Tetsuji Nakabo, Takashi Gojobori
To understand how geographical differentiation of gobioid fish species led to speciation, two populations of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan for each of the two gobioid species, Pterogobius elapoides and Pterogobius zonoleucus, were studied in both morphological and molecular features. Analyzing mitochondrial genes, Akihito et al. (2008) suggested that P. zonoleucus does not form a monophyletic clade relative to P. elapoides, indicating that "Sea of Japan P. zonoleucus" and P. elapoides form a clade excluding "Pacific P...
February 1, 2016: Gene
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