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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128818/comparison-of-2d-and-3d-neural-induction-methods-for-the-generation-of-neural-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Abinaya Chandrasekaran, Hasan X Avci, Anna Ochalek, Lone N Rösingh, Kinga Molnár, Lajos László, Tamás Bellák, Annamária Téglási, Krisztina Pesti, Arpad Mike, Phetcharat Phanthong, Orsolya Bíró, Vanessa Hall, Narisorn Kitiyanant, Karl-Heinz Krause, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency of 2D induction with 3D induction method in their ability to generate NPCs, and subsequently neurons and astrocytes. Neural differentiation was analysed at the protein level qualitatively by immunocytochemistry and quantitatively by flow cytometry for NPC (SOX1, PAX6, NESTIN), neuronal (MAP2, TUBB3), cortical layer (TBR1, CUX1) and glial markers (SOX9, GFAP, AQP4)...
October 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939666/the-e2a-splice-variant-e47-regulates-the-differentiation-of-projection-neurons-via-p57-kip2-during-cortical-development
#2
Sabrina Pfurr, Yu-Hsuan Chu, Christian Bohrer, Franziska Greulich, Robert Beattie, Könül Mammadzada, Miriam Hils, Sebastian J Arnold, Verdon Taylor, Kristina Schachtrup, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Christian Schachtrup
During corticogenesis, distinct classes of neurons are born from progenitor cells located in the ventricular and subventricular zones, from where they migrate towards the pial surface to assemble into highly organized layer-specific circuits. However, the precise and coordinated transcriptional network activity defining neuronal identity is still not understood. Here, we show that genetic depletion of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor E2A splice variant E47 increased the number of Tbr1-positive deep layer and Satb2-positive upper layer neurons at E14...
September 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891227/expression-of-regulatory-genes-in-the-embryonic-brain-of-a-lizard-and-implications-for-understanding-pallial-organization-and-evolution
#3
Ester Desfilis, Antonio Abellán, Vicente Sentandreu, Loreta Medina
The comparison of gene expression patterns in the embryonic brain of mouse and chicken is being essential for understanding pallial organization. However, the scarcity of gene expression data in reptiles, crucial for understanding evolution, makes it difficult to identify homologues of pallial divisions in different amniotes. We cloned and analyzed the expression of the genes Emx1, Lhx2, Lhx9, and Tbr1 in the embryonic telencephalon of the lacertid lizard Psammodromus algirus. The comparative expression patterns of these genes, critical for pallial development, are better understood when using a recently proposed six-part model of pallial divisions...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833756/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumors-in-epilepsy-dysplasia-or-neoplasia
#4
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumors of the CNS. There are 15 reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic vs. malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterized epilepsy-associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors (LEAT)...
August 19, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726548/wnt-yes-associated-protein-interactions-during-neural-tissue-patterning-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Julie Bejoy, Liqing Song, Yi Zhou, Yan Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain-like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests...
August 31, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677231/development-of-deep-and-upper-neuronal-layers-in-the-domestic-cat-sheep-and-pig-neocortex
#6
M Glatzle, M Hoops, J Kauffold, J Seeger, S A Fietz
The neocortex plays a key role in cognition, volitional motor control and sensory perception and has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution. The mature neocortex consists of radially aligned neurons that are arranged in six layers. Layers II-VI are often split into two groups: deep and upper layers, both building up the so-called cortical plate during embryonic and foetal development. So far cortical neurogenesis, including the generation of deep and upper layers, has mostly been studied in laboratory rodents and primates...
July 4, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#7
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607372/enhanced-derivation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cortical-glutamatergic-neurons-by-a-small-molecule
#8
Shi-Ying Cao, Yao Hu, Cheng Chen, Fang Yuan, Min Xu, Qi Li, Kai-Heng Fang, Yaoyu Chen, Yan Liu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) play important role in studying the function of human glutamatergic neurons and related disease pathogenesis. However, the current hPSC-derived cortical system produced a significant number of inhibitory GABAergic neurons that reduced the purity of excitatory neurons. In this study, we established a robust hPSC-derived cortical neurogenesis system by applying the SHH inhibitor cyclopamine. Cyclopamine specified the dorsal cortical fate in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced the generation of cortical glutamatergic neurons, expressing PAX6, TBR1, TBR2, CTIP2, SATB2, and vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUT)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595950/luteolin-attenuates-interleukin-6-mediated-astrogliosis-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-aggregates-a-candidate-preventive-substance-for-maternal-immune-activation-induced-abnormalities
#9
Masashi Zuiki, Tomohiro Chiyonobu, Michiko Yoshida, Hiroshi Maeda, Satoshi Yamashita, Satoshi Kidowaki, Tatsuji Hasegawa, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Katsuhiko Ono, Hajime Hosoi, Masafumi Morimoto
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in offspring. Several previous animal studies have indicated that maternal immune activation (MIA), rather than a specific pathogen, alters fetal brain development. Among them, prenatal exposure to interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been associated with behavioral and neuropathological abnormalities, though such findings remain to be elucidated in humans. We developed a human cell-based model of MIA by exposing human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neural aggregates to IL-6 and investigated whether luteolin-a naturally occurring flavonoid found in edible plants-could prevent MIA-induced abnormalities...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586483/isolated-mitochondria-transfer-improves-neuronal-differentiation-of-schizophrenia-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-rescues-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-the-disorder
#10
Odile Robicsek, Hila M Ene, Rachel Karry, Ofer Ytzhaki, Eyal Asor, Donna McPhie, Bruce M Cohen, Rotem Ben-Yehuda, Ina Weiner, Dorit Ben-Shachar
Dysfunction of mitochondria, key players in various essential cell processes, has been repeatedly reported in schizophrenia (SZ). Recently, several studies have reported functional recovery and cellular viability following mitochondrial transplantation, mostly in ischemia experimental models. Here, we aimed to demonstrate beneficial effects of isolated active normal mitochondria (IAN-MIT) transfer in vitro and in vivo, using SZ-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiating into glutamatergic neuron, as well as a rodent model of SZ...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584888/autism-spectrum-disorder-neuropathology-and-animal-models
#11
REVIEW
Merina Varghese, Neha Keshav, Sarah Jacot-Descombes, Tahia Warda, Bridget Wicinski, Dara L Dickstein, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Silvia De Rubeis, Elodie Drapeau, Joseph D Buxbaum, Patrick R Hof
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a major impact on the development and social integration of affected individuals and is the most heritable of psychiatric disorders. An increase in the incidence of ASD cases has prompted a surge in research efforts on the underlying neuropathologic processes. We present an overview of current findings in neuropathology studies of ASD using two investigational approaches, postmortem human brains and ASD animal models, and discuss the overlap, limitations, and significance of each...
October 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584103/neurog2-and-ascl1-together-regulate-a-postmitotic-derepression-circuit-to-govern-laminar-fate-specification-in-the-murine-neocortex
#12
Daniel J Dennis, Grey Wilkinson, Saiqun Li, Rajiv Dixit, Lata Adnani, Anjali Balakrishnan, Sisu Han, Christopher Kovach, Nicole Gruenig, Deborah M Kurrasch, Richard H Dyck, Carol Schuurmans
A derepression mode of cell-fate specification involving the transcriptional repressors Tbr1, Fezf2, Satb2, and Ctip2 operates in neocortical projection neurons to specify six layer identities in sequence. Less well understood is how laminar fate transitions are regulated in cortical progenitors. The proneural genes Neurog2 and Ascl1 cooperate in progenitors to control the temporal switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we asked whether these proneural genes also regulate laminar fate transitions. Several defects were observed in the derepression circuit in Neurog2(-/-);Ascl1(-/-) mutants: an inability to repress expression of Tbr1 (a deep layer VI marker) during upper-layer neurogenesis, a loss of Fezf2(+)/Ctip2(+) layer V neurons, and precocious differentiation of normally late-born, Satb2(+) layer II-IV neurons...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472243/the-subpial-granular-layer-and-transient-versus-persisting-cajal-retzius-neurons-of-the-fetal-human-cortex
#13
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
Neurons of the subpial granular layer (SGL) in the human marginal zone (MZ) migrate tangentially from the periolfactory subventricular zone all over the neocortex. After an immature stage, from 14 to 18 gestational weeks (GW), the SGL attains maximum prominence around midgestation. At 20-25 GW, a transient miniature cell type in the MZ expresses glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and calretinin, and extends a varicose plexus surrounding somata of large transient Cajal-Retzius neurons (tCRN), potentially modulating their activity...
May 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419903/dna-methylation-based-age-prediction-from-saliva-high-age-predictability-by-combination-of-7-cpg-markers
#14
Sae Rom Hong, Sang-Eun Jung, Eun Hee Lee, Kyoung-Jin Shin, Woo Ick Yang, Hwan Young Lee
DNA methylation is currently one of the most promising age-predictive biomarkers. Many studies have reported DNA methylation-based age predictive models, but most of these are based on DNA methylation patterns from blood. Only a few studies have examined age-predictive DNA patterns in saliva, which is one of the most frequently-encountered body fluids at crime scenes. In this study, we generated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of saliva from 54 individuals and identified CpG markers that showed a high correlation between methylation and age...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414797/big1-is-required-for-the-survival-of-deep-layer-neurons-neuronal-polarity-and-the-formation-of-axonal-tracts-between-the-thalamus-and-neocortex-in-developing-brain
#15
Jia-Jie Teoh, Tomohiko Iwano, Masataka Kunii, Nur Atik, Erda Avriyanti, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Kenta Moriwaki, Akihiro Harada
BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo. The loss of BIG1 decreased the size of the neocortex and hippocampus. In BIG1-deficient mice, the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) and the interneurons were unaffected. However, Tbr1+ and Ctip2+ deep layer (DL) neurons showed spatial-temporal dependent apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386343/signaling-by-tgf-betas-in-tubule-cultures-of-adult-rat-testis
#16
Kai-Hui Chan, Sebastian P Galuska, Pradeep Kumar Kudipudi, Mohammad Assad Riaz, Kate L Loveland, Lutz Konrad
Although signal transduction of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) is well characterized in individual cell types, data about TGF-β signaling in a cellular context is still scarce. In this study, we used ex vivo tubule cultures from adult rat testis to investigate TGF-β signaling. We show for the first time in testicular tubules, that TGF-βs also signal via the BMP type I receptors, with ALK2 used by TGF-β1 and ALK3 and ALK6 by TGF-β2. This signal transduction is mediated via Smad3 as well as via Smad1...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271248/network-reconstruction-reveals-that-valproic-acid-activates-neurogenic-transcriptional-programs-in-adult-brain-following-traumatic-injury
#17
Gerald A Higgins, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Brian Pauls, Richard Higgins, Brian D Athey, Hasan E Alam
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mechanism of action of valproic acid (VPA) in the adult central nervous system (CNS) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Data were analyzed from different sources, including experiments in a porcine model, data from postmortem human brain, published studies, public and commercial databases. RESULTS: The transcriptional program in the CNS following TBI, HS, and VPA treatment includes activation of regulatory pathways that enhance neurogenesis and suppress gliogenesis...
August 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240720/the-role-of-mir-122-5p-in-negatively-regulating-t-box-brain-1-expression-on-the-differentiation-of-mouse-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Yu Yang, Zhaoliang Shen, Wei Sun, Shuang Gao, Yuanlong Li, Yue Guo
To achieve neuronal differentiation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) into neuron-like cells and explore the role of miR-122-5p that may regulate T-box brain 1 (Tbr1) expression during the induction. BMSCs were cultured and induced with butylated hydroxyanisole, retinoic acid (RA), basic fibroblast growth factor, and nerve growth factor in vitro. The cells were stained for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and β-III-tubulin by immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescence. MiR-122-5p that may regulate Tbr1 expression was predicted by bioinformatics and identified using a Dual-Luciferase assay...
May 3, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158988/microsatellite-polymorphisms-associated-with-human-behavioural-and-psychological-phenotypes-including-a-gene-environment-interaction
#19
Andrew T M Bagshaw, L John Horwood, David M Fergusson, Neil J Gemmell, Martin A Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. METHODS: We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance...
February 3, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158247/neuroprotective-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-against-hyperoxia-induced-injury-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#20
Stefanie Endesfelder, Hanan Makki, Clarissa von Haefen, Claudia D Spies, Christoph Bührer, Marco Sifringer
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective agonist of α2-receptors with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine have been reported in various brain injury models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on hippocampal neurogenesis, specifically the proliferation capacity and maturation of neurons and neuronal plasticity following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. Six-day old sex-matched Wistar rats were exposed to 80% oxygen or room air for 24 h and treated with 1, 5 or 10 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine or normal saline...
2017: PloS One
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