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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#1
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
December 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209901/abundant-focal-adhesion-kinase-causes-aberrant-neuronal-migration-via-its-phosphorylation-at-tyr925
#2
Lei An, Weiwei Li, Xinde Hu, Wei Zhang, Shanting Zhao
The process of neuronal migration is precisely regulated by different molecules during corticogenesis. The FAK (focal adhesion kinase) plays a critical role in embryogenesis and is involved in cell motility through focal adhesions, but the underlying mechanisms on inordinate expression are unclear. To investigate the effect of FAK overexpression on neuronal migration spatiotemporally, mice FAK was transfected into the neurons in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that exogenous FAK distributed in the cytoplasm (in vivo) and co-localized with vinculin (in vitro) and induced aberrant neuronal migration via phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925 during cerebral cortex development...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205104/coup-tf1-modulates-thyroid-hormone-action-in-an-embryonic-stem-cell-model-of-cortical-pyramidal-neuronal-differentiation
#3
Xiaochun Teng, Yan-Yun Liu, Weiping Teng, Gregory A Brent
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone is critical for normal brain development and acts in a spatial and temporal specific pattern. Thyroid hormone excess, or deficiency, can lead to irreversible impairment of brain and sensory development. COUP-TF1, expressed early in neuronal development, is essential to achieve normal brain structure. Thyroid hormone stimulation of gene expression is inversely correlated with the level of COUP-TF1 expression. METHODS: We utilized an in vitro method of differentiating mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells into cortical neurons to study the influence of COUP-TF1 on thyroid hormone signaling in brain development...
December 5, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194577/cerebral-cortex-development-an-outside-in-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Gulistan Agirman, Loic Broix, Laurent Nguyen
The cerebral cortex is a complex structure that contains different classes of neurons distributed within six layers and regionally organized into a highly specialized area. Cortical layering arises during embryonic development in an inside-out manner as forebrain progenitors proliferate and generate distinct waves of interneurons and projection neurons. Radial glial cells (RGCs) derive from neuroepithelial cells and are the founding cortical progenitors. At the onset of corticogenesis, RGCs expand their pool by proliferative divisions...
November 30, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191246/munc18-1-gene-abnormalities-are-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-through-defective-cortical-architecture-during-brain-development
#5
Nanako Hamada, Ikuko Iwamoto, Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
While Munc18-1 interacts with Syntaxin1 and controls the formation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) complex to regulate presynaptic vesicle fusion in developed neurons, this molecule is likely to be involved in brain development since its gene abnormalities cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst (Ohtahara syndrome), neonatal epileptic encephalopathy and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We thus analyzed physiological significance of Munc18-1 during cortical development...
November 30, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185180/subtype-specification-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons-in-their-immature-stages
#6
Koji Oishi, Kazunori Nakajima
The diversification of neuronal subtypes during corticogenesis is fundamental to the establishment of the complex cortical structure. Although subtype specification has been assumed to occur in neural progenitor cells, increasing evidence has begun to reveal the plasticity of subtype determination in immature neurons. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the regulation of subtype specification during later periods of neuronal differentiation, such as the post-mitotic and post-migratory stages. We also discuss thalamocortical axons as an extra-cortical cue that provides information on the subtype determination of immature cortical neurons...
November 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180410/smek1-2-is-a-nuclear-chaperone-and-cofactor-for-cleaved-wnt-receptor-ryk-regulating-cortical-neurogenesis
#7
Wen-Hsuan Chang, Si Ho Choi, Byoung-San Moon, Mingyang Cai, Jungmook Lyu, Jinlun Bai, Fan Gao, Ibrahim Hajjali, Zhongfang Zhao, Daniel B Campbell, Leslie P Weiner, Wange Lu
The receptor-like tyrosine kinase (Ryk), a Wnt receptor, is important for cell fate determination during corticogenesis. During neuronal differentiation, the Ryk intracellular domain (ICD) is cleaved. Cleavage of Ryk and nuclear translocation of Ryk-ICD are required for neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanism of translocation and how it regulates neuronal differentiation remain unclear. Here, we identified Smek1 and Smek2 as Ryk-ICD partners that regulate its nuclear localization and function together with Ryk-ICD in the nucleus through chromatin recruitment and gene transcription regulation...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144970/epimetronomics-m6a-marks-the-tempo-of-corticogenesis
#8
Nathan C Boles, Sally Temple
Yoon et al. (2017) uncover a key role for the m6A RNA mark in regulating the timing of cerebral cortex development in mouse and human. This discovery opens new avenues of exploration into how the epitranscriptome helps orchestrate central nervous system formation.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#9
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130119/p85-regulates-neuronal-migration-through-affecting-neuronal-morphology-during-mouse-corticogenesis
#10
Xinran Cheng, Kaikai Li, MengMeng Liu, Xinde Hu, Mingrui Xu, Runchuan Yan, Shanting Zhao
In mammalian developing embryonic cortex, projection neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate, guided by radial glial cells with a transformation between bipolar and multipolar morphology. Previous studies have demonstrated that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal plays a critical role in brain development. However, the function of P85 in cortical development is still unclear. In the present study, we found that overexpression of P85 impaired cortical neuronal migration. Using in utero electroporation, we revealed that the length of the leading process in P85 overexpressed neurons became shorter than that in the control group but with more branches...
November 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109240/deficiency-of-the-thyroid-hormone-transporter-mct8-in-neural-progenitors-impairs-cellular-processes-crucial-for-early-corticogenesis
#11
Pieter Vancamp, Marie-Anne Deprez, Michiel Remmerie, Veerle M Darras
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for establishing layered brain structures, a process called corticogenesis, by acting on transcriptional activity of numerous genes. In humans, deficiency of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), involved in cellular uptake of THs prior to their action, results in severe neurological abnormalities, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. While the brain lesions predominantly originate prenatally, it remains unclear how and when exactly MCT8 dysfunction affects cellular processes crucial for corticogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036432/copb2-is-essential-for-embryogenesis-and-hypomorphic-mutations-cause-human-microcephaly
#12
Andrew DiStasio, Ashley Driver, Kristen Sund, Milene Donlin, Ranjith M Muraleedharan, Shabnam Pooya, Beth Kline-Fath, Kenneth M Kaufman, Cynthia A Prows, Elizabeth Schorry, Biplab DasGupta, Rolf W Stottmann
Primary microcephaly is a congenital brain malformation characterized by a head circumference less than three standard deviations below the mean for age and sex and results in moderate to severe mental deficiencies and decreased lifespan. We recently studied two children with primary microcephaly in an otherwise unaffected family. Exome sequencing identified an autosomal recessive mutation leading to an amino acid substitution in a WD40 domain of the highly conserved Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Beta 2 (COPB2)...
September 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030097/transient-vimentin-expression-during-the-embryonic-development-of-the-chicken-cerebellum
#13
Vasiliki Kommata, Catherine R Dermon
Complex morphogenetic events, critical for the development of normal cerebellum foliation and layering, are known to involve type III intermediate filament protein such as vimentin expressed by Bergmann glia. The present study aimed to determine aspects of intermediate and late embryonic pattern of vimentin expression during the corticogenesis of chicken cerebellum at embryonic days 10-19 (E10-E19), using single and double immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Vimentin expression showed partial co-localization with the glial markers GFAP and BLBP...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975414/high-level-of-ctp-synthase-induces-formation-of-cytoophidia-in-cortical-neurons-and-impairs-corticogenesis
#14
Xuzhao Li, Jiongfang Xie, Maofang Hei, Jianli Tang, Yanqing Wang, Eckart Förster, Shanting Zhao
De novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP is catalyzed by the essential pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme CTP synthase (CTPs), which forms large-scale filamentous structures consisting of CTPs termed cytoophidia in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that cytoophidia are abundant in neuroepithelial stem cells in Drosophila optic lobes and that overexpression of CTPs impairs optic lobe development. Whether CTPs and cytoophidia also play a role in the development of the mammalian cortex remains elusive...
October 3, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939666/the-e2a-splice-variant-e47-regulates-the-differentiation-of-projection-neurons-via-p57-kip2-during-cortical-development
#15
Sabrina Pfurr, Yu-Hsuan Chu, Christian Bohrer, Franziska Greulich, Robert Beattie, Könül Mammadzada, Miriam Hils, Sebastian J Arnold, Verdon Taylor, Kristina Schachtrup, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Christian Schachtrup
During corticogenesis, distinct classes of neurons are born from progenitor cells located in the ventricular and subventricular zones, from where they migrate towards the pial surface to assemble into highly organized layer-specific circuits. However, the precise and coordinated transcriptional network activity defining neuronal identity is still not understood. Here, we show that genetic depletion of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor E2A splice variant E47 increased the number of Tbr1-positive deep layer and Satb2-positive upper layer neurons at E14...
September 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933765/potential-role-of-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Sara Anna Bonini, Andrea Mastinu, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Maurizio Memo
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by neuroanatomical abnormalities indicative of corticogenesis disturbances. At the basis of NDDs cortical abnormalities, the principal developmental processes involved are cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. NDDs are also considered "synaptic disorders" since accumulating evidence suggests that NDDs are developmental brain misconnection syndromes characterized by altered connectivity in local circuits and between brain regions. Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play a fundamental role in the regulation of basic neurodevelopmental processes, such as neuronal polarization and migration, neuronal branching and synaptogenesis...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899007/the-spectrum-of-structural-and-functional-network-alterations-in-malformations-of-cortical-development
#17
Seok-Jun Hong, Boris C Bernhardt, Ravnoor S Gill, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi
Neuroimaging studies of malformations of cortical development have mainly focused on the characterization of the primary lesional substrate, while whole-brain investigations remain scarce. Our purpose was to assess large-scale brain organization in prevalent cortical malformations. Based on experimental evidence suggesting that distributed effects of focal insults are modulated by stages of brain development, we postulated differential patterns of network anomalies across subtypes of malformations. We studied a cohort of patients with focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 63), subcortical nodular heterotopia (n = 44), and polymicrogyria (n = 34), and compared them to 82 age- and sex-matched controls...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837264/rna-on-the-brain-emerging-layers-of-post-transcriptional-regulation-in-cerebral-cortex-development
#18
REVIEW
Ashley L Lennox, Hanqian Mao, Debra L Silver
Embryonic development is a critical period during which neurons of the brain are generated and organized. In the developing cerebral cortex, this requires complex processes of neural progenitor proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and migration. Each step relies upon highly regulated control of gene expression. In particular, RNA splicing, stability, localization, and translation have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulatory nodes of mouse corticogenesis. Trans-regulators of RNA metabolism, including microRNAs (miRs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), orchestrate diverse steps of cortical development...
August 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816361/msel-1l-deficiency-affects-vasculogenesis-and-neural-stem-cell-lineage-commitment
#19
Marina Cardano, Giuseppe R Diaferia, Luciano Conti, Simona Baronchelli, Alessandro Sessa, Vania Broccoli, Andrea Barbieri, Pasquale De Blasio, Ida Biunno
mSEL-1L is a highly conserved ER-resident type I protein, involved in the degradation of misfolded peptides through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a pathway known to control the plasticity of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotype and survival. In this article, we demonstrate that mSEL-1L deficiency interferes with the murine embryonic vascular network, showing particular irregularities in the intracranic and intersomitic neurovascular units and in the cerebral capillary microcirculation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803787/expression-analyses-of-phactr1-phosphatase-and-actin-regulator-1-during-mouse-brain-development
#20
Hidenori Ito, Makoto Mizuno, Kei Noguchi, Rika Morishita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Phactr1 (Phosphatase and actin regulator 1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and considered to regulate various neuronal processes through the regulation of protein phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Phactr1, anti-Phactr1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of Phactr1 with mouse brain tissues. Western blotting analyses revealed that Phactr1 was expressed in a tissue-dependent profile in the young adult mouse and in a developmental stage-dependent manner in the mouse brain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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