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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599703/sp8-transcriptional-regulation-of-cyclin-d1-during-mouse-early-corticogenesis
#1
Ugo Borello, Barbara Berarducci, Edwige Delahaye, David J Price, Colette Dehay
Multiple signals control the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells during corticogenesis. A key point of this regulation is the control of G1 phase length, which is regulated by the Cyclin/Cdks complexes. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and mouse genetics, we have explored the transcriptional regulation of Cyclin D1 ( Ccnd1 ) during the early developmental stages of the mouse cerebral cortex. We found evidence that SP8 binds to the Ccnd1 locus on exon regions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515357/epitranscriptomics-a-new-regulatory-mechanism-of-brain-development-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Florian Noack, Federico Calegari
Epigenetic modifications of DNA and chromatin are long known to control stem cell differentiation and organ function but the role of similar modifications at the level or regulatory RNAs is just beginning to emerge. Over 160 RNA modifications have been identified but their abundance, distribution and functional significance are not known. The few available maps of RNA modifications indicated their dynamic regulation during somatic stem cell differentiation, brain development and function in adulthood suggesting a hitherto unsuspected layer of regulation both at the level of RNA metabolism and post-transcriptional control of gene expression...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492654/multiple-roles-of-sonic-hedgehog-in-the-developing-human-cortex-are-suggested-by-its-widespread-distribution
#3
Fani Memi, Nada Zecevic, Nevena Radonjić
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) plays an instrumental role in brain development, fine-tuning processes such as cell proliferation, patterning, and fate specification. Although, mutations in the SHH pathway in humans are associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from holoprosencephaly to schizophrenia, its expression pattern in the developing human brain is not well established. We now determined the previously not reported wide expression of SHH in the human fetal cerebral cortex during most of the gestation period (10-40 gestational weeks)...
February 28, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452604/transcriptional-regulation-of-ependymal-cell-maturation-within-the-postnatal-brain
#4
Diana Vidovic, Raul Ayala Davila, Richard M Gronostajski, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper
BACKGROUND: Radial glial stem cells within the developing nervous system generate a variety of post-mitotic cells, including neurons and glial cells, as well as the specialised multi-ciliated cells that line the walls of the ventricular system, the ependymal cells. Ependymal cells separate the brain parenchyma from the cerebrospinal fluid and mediate osmotic regulation, the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, and the subsequent dispersion of signalling molecules via the co-ordinated beating of their cilia...
February 16, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420702/rab23-regulates-radial-migration-of-projection-neurons-via-n-cadherin
#5
Catherine H H Hor, Eyleen L K Goh
Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407790/alteration-of-mice-cerebral-cortex-development-after-prenatal-exposure-to-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin
#6
Junnan Guo, Jinzhong Xu, Junshi Zhang, Lei An
Pyrethroids, a group of insecticides with high efficiency, low toxicity and wide spectrum, are used for pest control in agriculture. Here, we administered two representative pyrethroids (cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and an equal volume of vehicle (corn oil) to the pregnant ICR mice. This study investigated the effects of cypermethrin and deltamethrin on cerebral cortex development in mice as well as possible mechanisms in proliferation and differentiation. The results showed that histopathologic change did not occurred in the cerebral cortex using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, however, the observation of fetuses exposed to cypermethrin and deltamethrin revealed reduction of neuronal proliferation, maturation and differentiation...
January 31, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380551/targeted-deletion-of-ric8a-in-mouse-neural-precursor-cells-interferes-with-the-development-of-the-brain-eyes-and-muscles
#7
Keiu Kask, Laura Tikker, Katrin Ruisu, Sirje Lulla, Eva-Maria Oja, Riho Meier, Raivo Raid, Teet Velling, Tambet Tõnissoo, Margus Pooga
Autosomal recessive disorders such as Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, Walker-Warburg syndrome, and the muscle-eye-brain disease are characterized by defects in the development of patient's brain, eyes, and skeletal muscles. These syndromes are accompanied by brain malformations like type II lissencephaly in the cerebral cortex with characteristic overmigrations of neurons through the breaches of the pial basement membrane. The signaling pathways activated by laminin receptors, dystroglycan and integrins, control the integrity of the basement membrane, and their malfunctioning may underlie the pathologies found in the rise of defects reminiscent of these syndromes...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374155/kruppel-like-factor-4-dependent-staufen1-mediated-mrna-decay-regulates-cortical-neurogenesis
#8
Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu
Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc-finger-containing protein that plays a critical role in diverse cellular physiology. While most of these functions attribute to its role as a transcription factor, it is postulated that Klf4 may play a role other than transcriptional regulation. Here we demonstrate that Klf4 loss in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to increased neurogenesis and reduced self-renewal in mice. In addition, Klf4 interacts with RNA-binding protein Staufen1 (Stau1) and RNA helicase Ddx5/17...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325060/pathophysiological-analyses-of-leptomeningeal-heterotopia-using-gyrencephalic-mammals
#9
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Naoki Kobayashi, Natsu Uda, Miwako Hirota, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) is a focal malformation of the cerebral cortex and frequently found in patients with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying LGH formation are still largely unclear because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples from human TD patients. Recently, we established a new animal model for analysing cortical malformations of human TD by utilizing our genetic manipulation technique for gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. Here we investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the formation of LGH using our TD ferrets...
March 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309830/the-chromatin-basis-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-rethinking-dysfunction-along-the-molecular-and-temporal-axes
#10
REVIEW
Michele Gabriele, Alejandro Lopez Tobon, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Giuseppe Testa
The complexity of the human brain emerges from a long and finely tuned developmental process orchestrated by the crosstalk between genome and environment. Vis à vis other species, the human brain displays unique functional and morphological features that result from this extensive developmental process that is, unsurprisingly, highly vulnerable to both genetically and environmentally induced alterations. One of the most striking outcomes of the recent surge of sequencing-based studies on neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is the emergence of chromatin regulation as one of the two domains most affected by causative mutations or Copy Number Variations besides synaptic function, whose involvement had been largely predicted for obvious reasons...
January 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305158/tbr2-antagonizes-retinoic-acid-dependent-neuronal-differentiation-by-repressing-zfp423-during-corticogenesis
#11
Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa
During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305086/the-candidate-schizophrenia-risk-gene-dgcr2-regulates-early-steps-of-corticogenesis
#12
Aude Molinard-Chenu, Alexandre Dayer
BACKGROUND: Alterations in early steps of cortical circuit assembly are thought to play a critical role in vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), but the pathogenic impact of SZ-risk mutations on corticogenesis remains to be determined. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 2 (DGCR2) is located in the 22q11.2 locus, whose deletion is a major risk factor for SZ. Moreover, exome sequencing of individuals with idiopathic SZ identified a rare missense mutation in DGCR2, further suggesting that DGCR2 is involved in SZ...
April 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229923/eml1-loss-impairs-apical-progenitor-spindle-length-and-soma-shape-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#13
Sara Bizzotto, Ana Uzquiano, Florent Dingli, Dmitry Ershov, Anne Houllier, Guillaume Arras, Mark Richards, Damarys Loew, Nicolas Minc, Alexandre Croquelois, Anne Houdusse, Fiona Francis
The ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing cerebral cortex is a pseudostratified epithelium that contains progenitors undergoing precisely regulated divisions at its most apical side, the ventricular lining (VL). Mitotic perturbations can contribute to pathological mechanisms leading to cortical malformations. The HeCo mutant mouse exhibits subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), likely to be initiated by progenitor delamination from the VZ early during corticogenesis. The causes for this are however, currently unknown...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#14
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
February 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209901/abundant-focal-adhesion-kinase-causes-aberrant-neuronal-migration-via-its-phosphorylation-at-tyr925
#15
Lei An, Weiwei Li, Xinde Hu, Wei Zhang, Shanting Zhao
The process of neuronal migration is precisely regulated by different molecules during corticogenesis. The FAK (focal adhesion kinase) plays a critical role in embryogenesis and is involved in cell motility through focal adhesions, but the underlying mechanisms on inordinate expression are unclear. To investigate the effect of FAK overexpression on neuronal migration spatiotemporally, mice FAK was transfected into the neurons in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that exogenous FAK distributed in the cytoplasm (in vivo) and co-localized with vinculin (in vitro) and induced aberrant neuronal migration via phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925 during cerebral cortex development...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205104/coup-tf1-modulates-thyroid-hormone-action-in-an-embryonic-stem-cell-model-of-cortical-pyramidal-neuronal-differentiation
#16
Xiaochun Teng, Yan-Yun Liu, Weiping Teng, Gregory A Brent
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone is critical for normal brain development and acts in a spatial and temporal specific pattern. Thyroid hormone excess, or deficiency, can lead to irreversible impairment of brain and sensory development. Chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1), expressed early in neuronal development, is essential to achieve normal brain structure. Thyroid hormone stimulation of gene expression is inversely correlated with the level of COUP-TF1 expression...
January 10, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194577/cerebral-cortex-development-an-outside-in-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Gulistan Agirman, Loïc Broix, Laurent Nguyen
The cerebral cortex is a complex structure that contains different classes of neurons distributed within six layers and regionally organized into highly specialized areas. Cortical layering arises during embryonic development in an inside-out manner as forebrain progenitors proliferate and generate distinct waves of interneurons and projection neurons. Radial glial cells (RGCs) derive from neuroepithelial cells and are the founding cortical progenitors. At the onset of corticogenesis, RGCs expand their pool by proliferative divisions...
December 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191246/munc18-1-gene-abnormalities-are-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-through-defective-cortical-architecture-during-brain-development
#18
Nanako Hamada, Ikuko Iwamoto, Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
While Munc18-1 interacts with Syntaxin1 and controls the formation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) complex to regulate presynaptic vesicle fusion in developed neurons, this molecule is likely to be involved in brain development since its gene abnormalities cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst (Ohtahara syndrome), neonatal epileptic encephalopathy and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We thus analyzed physiological significance of Munc18-1 during cortical development...
November 30, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185180/subtype-specification-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons-in-their-immature-stages
#19
Koji Oishi, Kazunori Nakajima
The diversification of neuronal subtypes during corticogenesis is fundamental to the establishment of the complex cortical structure. Although subtype specification has been assumed to occur in neural progenitor cells, increasing evidence has begun to reveal the plasticity of subtype determination in immature neurons. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the regulation of subtype specification during later periods of neuronal differentiation, such as the post-mitotic and post-migratory stages. We also discuss thalamocortical axons as an extra-cortical cue that provides information on the subtype determination of immature cortical neurons...
January 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180410/smek1-2-is-a-nuclear-chaperone-and-cofactor-for-cleaved-wnt-receptor-ryk-regulating-cortical-neurogenesis
#20
Wen-Hsuan Chang, Si Ho Choi, Byoung-San Moon, Mingyang Cai, Jungmook Lyu, Jinlun Bai, Fan Gao, Ibrahim Hajjali, Zhongfang Zhao, Daniel B Campbell, Leslie P Weiner, Wange Lu
The receptor-like tyrosine kinase (Ryk), a Wnt receptor, is important for cell fate determination during corticogenesis. During neuronal differentiation, the Ryk intracellular domain (ICD) is cleaved. Cleavage of Ryk and nuclear translocation of Ryk-ICD are required for neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanism of translocation and how it regulates neuronal differentiation remain unclear. Here, we identified Smek1 and Smek2 as Ryk-ICD partners that regulate its nuclear localization and function together with Ryk-ICD in the nucleus through chromatin recruitment and gene transcription regulation...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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