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Corticogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#1
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595951/sumoylation-regulates-the-transcriptional-activity-of-different-human-nfat-isoforms-in-neurons
#2
Hanna Vihma, Tõnis Timmusk
In the nervous system, four calcium/calcineurin-regulated members of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, NFATc1-c4, are involved in many developmental and functional processes, such as corticogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission, that all need precise gene regulation. Therefore it is important to understand molecular events that contribute to the regulation of the transcriptional activity of specific NFAT isoforms. Previously, we have shown that there are a number of alternative splice variants of NFAT genes expressed in the brain and that neuronal activity leads to isoform-specific transactivation capacities of different human NFAT proteins...
June 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583079/lateral-cortical-cdca7-expression-levels-are-regulated-by-pax6-and-influence-the-production-of-intermediate-progenitors
#3
Yu-Ting Huang, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: We studied whether regulation of Cdca7 (Cell division cycle associated 7) expression by transcription factor Pax6 contributes to Pax6's cellular actions during corticogenesis. The function of Cdca7 in mediating Pax6's effects during corticogenesis has not been explored. Pax6 is expressed by radial glial progenitors in the ventricular zone of the embryonic cortical neuroepithelium, where it is required for the development of a normal complement of Tbr2-expressing intermediate progenitor cells in the subventricular zone...
June 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506232/rp58-and-p27-kip1-coordinate-cell-cycle-exit-and-neuronal-migration-within-the-embryonic-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#4
Olivier Clément, Isabel Anne Hemming, Ivan Enghian Gladwyn-Ng, Zhengdong Qu, Shan Shan Li, Michael Piper, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
BACKGROUND: During the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, newborn postmitotic projection neurons are born from local neural stem cells and must undergo radial migration so as to position themselves appropriately to form functional neural circuits. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Rp58 (also known as Znf238 or Zbtb18) is critical for coordinating corticogenesis, but its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be better characterised. FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that the co-expression of Rp58 and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27(kip1) is important for E14...
May 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493553/regulation-of-cytokinesis-during-corticogenesis-focus-on-the-midbody
#5
REVIEW
Caroline A Johnson, Catherine E Wright, H Troy Ghashghaei
Development of the cerebral cortices depends on tight regulation of cell divisions. In this system, stem and progenitor cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric divisions to ultimately produce neurons that establish the layers of the cortex. Cell division culminates with formation of the midbody, a transient organelle that establishes the site of abscission between nascent daughter cells. During cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, one daughter cell will inherit the midbody remnant, which can then maintain or expel the remnant, but mechanisms and circumstances influencing this decision are unclear...
May 11, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467410/smek-promotes-corticogenesis-through-regulating-mbd3-s-stability-and-mbd3-nurd-complex-recruitment-to-genes-associated-with-neurogenesis
#6
Byoung-San Moon, Hyung-Mun Yun, Wen-Hsuan Chang, Bradford H Steele, Mingyang Cai, Si Ho Choi, Wange Lu
The fate of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during corticogenesis is determined by a complex interplay of genetic or epigenetic components, but the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that Suppressor of Mek null (Smek) interact with methyl-CpG-binding domain 3 (Mbd3) and the complex plays a critical role in self-renewal and neuronal differentiation of NPCs. We found that Smek promotes Mbd3 polyubiquitylation and degradation, blocking recruitment of the repressive Mbd3/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex at the neurogenesis-associated gene loci, and, as a consequence, increasing acetyl histone H3 activity and cortical neurogenesis...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385010/coactosin-like-protein-1-inhibits-the-neuronal-migration-during-mouse-corticogenesis
#7
Guohong Li, Yupeng Yin, Jiong Chen, Yanle Fan, Juhong Ma, Yingxue Huang, Chen Chen, Pengxiu Dai, Shulin Chen, Shanting Zhao
Coactosin-like protein-1 (Cotl1), a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family, was first purified from the soluble fraction of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Neuronal migration requires cytoskeletal remodeling and actin regulation. Although Cotl1 strongly binds to F-actin, the role of Cotl1 in neuronal migration remains unknown. Here, we revealed that Cotl1 overexpression impaired the migration of both early- and late-born neurons during mouse corticogenesis. Moreover, Cotl1 overexpression delayed, rather than blocked, neuronal migration in late-born neurons...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295210/cnvs-analysis-in-a-cohort-of-isolated-and-syndromic-dd-id-reveals-novel-genomic-disorders-position-effects-and-candidate-disease-genes
#8
Eleonora Di Gregorio, Evelise Riberi, Elga Fabia Belligni, Elisa Biamino, Malte Spielmann, Ugo Ala, Alessandro Calcia, Irene Bagnasco, Diana Carli, Giorgia Gai, Mara Giordano, Andrea Guala, Roberto Keller, Giorgia Mandrile, Carlo Arduino, Antonella Maffè, Valeria Giorgia Naretto, Fabio Sirchia, Lorena Sorasio, Silvana Ungari, Andrea Zonta, Giulia Zacchetti, Flavia Talarico, Patrizia Pappi, Simona Cavalieri, Elisa Giorgio, Cecilia Mancini, Marta Ferrero, Alessandro Brussino, Elisa Savin, Marina Gandione, Alessandra Pelle, Daniela Francesca Giachino, Mario De Marchi, Gabriella Restagno, Paolo Provero, Margherita Cirillo Silengo, Enrico Grosso, Joseph D Buxbaum, Barbara Pasini, Silvia De Rubeis, Alfredo Brusco, Giovanni Battista Ferrero
Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a widely used technique to detect Copy Number Variants (CNVs) associated with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID). We performed a comprehensive array-CGH investigation of 1,015 consecutive cases with DD/ID and combined literature mining, genetic evidence, evolutionary constraint scores, and functional information in order to assess the pathogenicity of the CNVs. We identified non-benign CNVs in 29% of patients. Amongst the pathogenic variants (11%), detected with a yield consistent with the literature, we found rare genomic disorders and CNVs spanning known disease genes...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262759/role-of-a-circadian-relevant-gene-nr1d1-in-brain-development-possible-involvement-in-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Masahide Goto, Makoto Mizuno, Ayumi Matsumoto, Zhiliang Yang, Eriko F Jimbo, Hidenori Tabata, Takanori Yamagata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
In our previous study, we screened autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with and without sleep disorders for mutations in the coding regions of circadian-relevant genes, and detected mutations in several clock genes including NR1D1. Here, we further screened ASD patients for NR1D1 mutations and identified three novel mutations including a de novo heterozygous one c.1499 G > A (p.R500H). We then analyzed the role of Nr1d1 in the development of the cerebral cortex in mice. Acute knockdown of mouse Nr1d1 with in utero electroporation caused abnormal positioning of cortical neurons during corticogenesis...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257707/a-back-door-to-cortical-development
#10
Gerd Kempermann
The mammalian cortex develops in an "inside-out" manner, as neural stem and progenitor cells lining the ventricles build the brain from within. Bifari et al. (2017), in this issue of Cell Stem Cell, find a small set of cortical neurons that appear to originate from radial glia-like progenitors in the meninges, suggesting an outside-in contribution to corticogenesis.
March 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160199/an-overview-of-the-mechanisms-of-abnormal-gabaergic-interneuronal-cortical-migration-associated-with-prenatal-ethanol-exposure
#11
REVIEW
Botros B Shenoda
GABAergic Interneuronal migration constitutes an essential process during corticogenesis. Derived from progenitor cells located in the proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon, newly generated GABAergic Interneuron migrate to their cortical destinations. Cortical dysfunction associated with defects in neuronal migration results in severe developmental consequences. There is growing evidence linking prenatal ethanol exposure to abnormal GABAergic interneuronal migration and subsequent cortical dysfunction...
February 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123074/abnormal-neurogenesis-and-cortical-growth-in-congenital-heart-disease
#12
Paul D Morton, Ludmila Korotcova, Bobbi K Lewis, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Shruti D Ramachandra, David Zurakowski, Jiangyang Zhang, Susumu Mori, Joseph A Frank, Richard A Jonas, Vittorio Gallo, Nobuyuki Ishibashi
Long-term neurological deficits due to immature cortical development are emerging as a major challenge in congenital heart disease (CHD). However, cellular mechanisms underlying dysregulation of perinatal corticogenesis in CHD remain elusive. The subventricular zone (SVZ) represents the largest postnatal niche of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We show that the piglet SVZ resembles its human counterpart and displays robust postnatal neurogenesis. We present evidence that SVZ NSPCs migrate to the frontal cortex and differentiate into interneurons in a region-specific manner...
January 25, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063930/systematic-time-dependent-visualization-and-quantitation-of-the-neurogenic-rate-in-brain-organoids
#13
Yoichi Kosodo, Taeko Suetsugu, Tetsuya J Kobayashi, Fumio Matsuzaki
Organoids mimicking the formation of the brain cortex have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for developmental studies as well as pathological investigations of brain malformations. Here, we report an integrated approach for the quantification of temporal neural production (neurogenic rate) in organoids derived from embryonic brains. Spherical tissue fragments with polarized cytoarchitectures were incubated in multiple cavities arranged in a polymethylmethacrylate chip. The time-dependent neurogenic rate in the organoids was monitored by the level of EGFP under the promoter of Tbr2, a transcription factor that is transiently expressed in neural fate-committed progenitors during corticogenesis...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041895/induction-of-expansion-and-folding-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#14
Yun Li, Julien Muffat, Attya Omer, Irene Bosch, Madeline A Lancaster, Mriganka Sur, Lee Gehrke, Juergen A Knoblich, Rudolf Jaenisch
An expansion of the cerebral neocortex is thought to be the foundation for the unique intellectual abilities of humans. It has been suggested that an increase in the proliferative potential of neural progenitors (NPs) underlies the expansion of the cortex and its convoluted appearance. Here we show that increasing NP proliferation induces expansion and folding in an in vitro model of human corticogenesis. Deletion of PTEN stimulates proliferation and generates significantly larger and substantially folded cerebral organoids...
March 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#15
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#16
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900345/new-insight-into-lsd1-function-in-human-cortical-neurogenesis
#17
Kazumi Hirano, Masakazu Namihira
The cerebral cortex of primates has evolved massively and intricately in comparison to that of other species. Accumulating evidence indicates that this is caused by changes in cell biological features of neural stem cells (NSCs), which differentiate into neurons and glial cells during development. The fate of NSCs during rodent cortical development is stringently regulated by epigenetic factors, such as histone modification enzymes, but the role of these factors in human corticogenesis is largely unknown. We have recently discovered that a lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which catalyzes the demethylation of methyl groups in the histone tail, plays a unique role in human fetal NSCs (hfNSCs)...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858201/semaphorin3a-neuropilin1-signalling-is-involved-in-the-generation-of-cortical-interneurons
#18
William D Andrews, Melissa Barber, Marion Nemitz, Fani Memi, John G Parnavelas
Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence of the ventral telencephalon and migrate to the cortex during embryonic development. These cells express neuropilin (Nrp1 and Nrp2) receptors which mediate their response to the chemorepulsive class 3 semaphorin (Sema) ligands. We show here that semaphorins Sema3A and Sema3F are expressed in layers adjacent to cortical interneuron migratory streams as well as in the striatum, suggesting they may have a role in guiding these cells throughout their journey...
November 17, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803648/reelin-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Ishii, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Kazunori Nakajima
Proper neuronal migration and laminar formation during corticogenesis is essential for normal brain function. Disruption of these developmental processes is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially, Reelin, a glycoprotein mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells and a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, has been shown to play a critical role, both during embryonic and postnatal periods. Indeed, animal studies have clearly revealed that Reelin is an essential molecule for proper migration of cortical neurons and finally regulates the cell positioning in the cortex during embryonic and early postnatal stages; by contrast, Reelin signaling is closely involved in synaptic function in adulthood...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799303/different-doublecortin-dcx-patient-alleles-show-distinct-phenotypes-in-cultured-neurons-evidence-for-divergent-loss-of-function-and-off-pathway-cellular-mechanisms
#20
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd McMahon, Matylda Roszkowska, Christopher J Bott, Kamil Kruczek, Bettina Winckler
Doublecortin on the X-chromosome (DCX) is a neuronal microtubule-binding protein with a multitude of roles in neurodevelopment. In humans, DCX is a major genetic locus for X-linked lissencephaly. The best studied defects are in neuronal migration during corticogenesis and in the hippocampus, as well as axon and dendrite growth defects. Much effort has been directed at understanding the molecular and cellular bases of DCX-linked lissencephaly. The focus has been in particular on defects in microtubule assembly and bundling, using knock-out mice and expression of WT and mutant Dcx in non-neuronal cells...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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