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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#1
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#2
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900345/new-insight-into-lsd1-function-in-human-cortical-neurogenesis
#3
Kazumi Hirano, Masakazu Namihira
The cerebral cortex of primates has evolved massively and intricately in comparison to that of other species. Accumulating evidence indicates that this is caused by changes in cell biological features of neural stem cells (NSCs), which differentiate into neurons and glial cells during development. The fate of NSCs during rodent cortical development is stringently regulated by epigenetic factors, such as histone modification enzymes, but the role of these factors in human corticogenesis is largely unknown. We have recently discovered that a lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which catalyzes the demethylation of methyl groups in the histone tail, plays a unique role in human fetal NSCs (hfNSCs)...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858201/semaphorin3a-neuropilin1-signalling-is-involved-in-the-generation-of-cortical-interneurons
#4
William D Andrews, Melissa Barber, Marion Nemitz, Fani Memi, John G Parnavelas
Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence of the ventral telencephalon and migrate to the cortex during embryonic development. These cells express neuropilin (Nrp1 and Nrp2) receptors which mediate their response to the chemorepulsive class 3 semaphorin (Sema) ligands. We show here that semaphorins Sema3A and Sema3F are expressed in layers adjacent to cortical interneuron migratory streams as well as in the striatum, suggesting they may have a role in guiding these cells throughout their journey...
November 17, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803648/reelin-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Ishii, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Kazunori Nakajima
Proper neuronal migration and laminar formation during corticogenesis is essential for normal brain function. Disruption of these developmental processes is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially, Reelin, a glycoprotein mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells and a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, has been shown to play a critical role, both during embryonic and postnatal periods. Indeed, animal studies have clearly revealed that Reelin is an essential molecule for proper migration of cortical neurons and finally regulates the cell positioning in the cortex during embryonic and early postnatal stages; by contrast, Reelin signaling is closely involved in synaptic function in adulthood...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799303/different-doublecortin-dcx-patient-alleles-show-distinct-phenotypes-in-cultured-neurons-evidence-for-divergent-loss-of-function-and-off-pathway-cellular-mechanisms
#6
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd McMahon, Matylda Roszkowska, Christopher J Bott, Kamil Kruczek, Bettina Winckler
DCX (doublecortin on the X-chromosome) is a neuronal microtubule-binding protein with a multitude of roles in neurodevelopment. In humans, DCX is a major genetic locus for X-linked lissencephaly. The best-studied defects are in neuronal migration during corticogenesis and in the hippocampus, as well as axon and dendrite growth defects. Much effort has been directed at understanding the molecular and cellular bases of DCX-linked lissencephaly. The focus has been in particular on defects in microtubule assembly and bundling, using knock-out mice and expression of WT and mutant DCX in non-neuronal cells...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787898/role-of-a-heterotrimeric-g-protein-gi2-in-the-corticogenesis-possible-involvement-in-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia-and-intellectual-disability
#7
Nanako Hamada, Yutaka Negishi, Makoto Mizuno, Fuyuki Miya, Ayako Hattori, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Mami Yamasaki, Yonehiro Kanemura, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hidenori Tabata, Shinji Saitoh, Koh-Ichi Nagata
We analyzed the role of a heterotrimeric G-protein, Gi2, in the development of the cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of the α-subunit (Gαi2) with in utero electroporation caused delayed radial migration of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis, perhaps because of impaired morphology. The migration phenotype was rescued by an RNAi-resistant version of Gαi2. On the other hand, silencing of Gαi2 did not affect axon elongation, dendritic arbor formation or neurogenesis at ventricular zone in vivo. When behavior analyses were conducted with acute Gαi2-knockdown mice, they showed defects in social interaction, novelty recognition and active avoidance learning as well as increased anxiety...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760116/chromosome-conformation-elucidates-regulatory-relationships-in-developing-human-brain
#8
Hyejung Won, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Neelroop N Parikshak, Jerry Huang, Carli K Opland, Michael J Gandal, Gavin J Sutton, Farhad Hormozdiari, Daning Lu, Changhoon Lee, Eleazar Eskin, Irina Voineagu, Jason Ernst, Daniel H Geschwind
Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease...
October 19, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743462/generation-of-improved-human-cerebral-organoids-from-single-copy-dyrk1a-knockout-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-trisomy-21-hypothetical-solutions-for-neurodevelopmental-models-and-therapeutic-alternatives-in-down-syndrome
#9
E Sacide Çağlayan
Dual-specificity thyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a strong therapeutic target to ameliorate cognitive functions of Down Syndrome (DS). Genetic normalization of Dyrk1a is sufficient to normalize early cortical developmental phenotypes in DS mouse models. Gyrencephalic human neocortical development is more complex than that in lissencephalic mice; hence, cerebral organoids (COs) can be used to model early neurodevelopmental defects of DS. Single copy DYRK1A knockout COs (scDYRK1AKO-COs) can be generated from manipulated DS derived (DS-) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genetic normalization of DYRK1A is expected to result in corrected neurodevelopmental phenotypes that can be reminiscent of normal COs...
October 15, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683913/putative-cell-adhesion-membrane-protein-vstm5-regulates-neuronal-morphology-and-migration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
A-Ram Lee, Kwang Woo Ko, Hojae Lee, Yi-Seul Yoon, Mi-Ryoung Song, Chul-Seung Park
UNLABELLED: During brain development, dynamic changes in neuronal membranes perform critical roles in neuronal morphogenesis and migration to create functional neural circuits. Among the proteins that induce membrane dynamics, cell adhesion molecules are important in neuronal membrane plasticity. Here, we report that V-set and transmembrane domain-containing protein 5 (Vstm5), a cell-adhesion-like molecule belonging to the Ig superfamily, was found in mouse brain. Knock-down of Vstm5 in cultured hippocampal neurons markedly reduced the complexity of dendritic structures, as well as the number of dendritic filopodia...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670918/control-of-cortex-development-by-ulk4-a-rare-risk-gene-for-mental-disorders-including-schizophrenia
#11
Bing Lang, Lei Zhang, Guanyu Jiang, Ling Hu, Wei Lan, Lei Zhao, Irene Hunter, Michal Pruski, Ning-Ning Song, Ying Huang, Ling Zhang, David St Clair, Colin D McCaig, Yu-Qiang Ding
Schizophrenia is a debilitating familial neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of people worldwide. Although the heritability for schizophrenia approaches 80% only a small proportion of the overall genetic risk has been accounted for, and to date only a limited number of genetic loci have been definitively implicated. We have identified recently through genetic and in vitro functional studies, a novel serine/threonine kinase gene, unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4), as a rare risk factor for major mental disorders including schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670206/malformations-of-cortical-development-from-postnatal-to-fetal-imaging
#12
Tally Lerman-Sagie, Zvi Leibovitz
Abnormal fetal corticogenesis results in malformations of cortical development (MCD). Abnormal cell proliferation leads to microcephaly or megalencephaly, incomplete neuronal migration results in heterotopia and lissencephaly, neuronal overmigration manifests as cobblestone malformations, and anomalous postmigrational cortical organization is responsible for polymicrogyria and focal cortical dysplasias. MCD comprises various congenital brain disorders, caused by different genetic, infectious, or vascular etiologies and is associated with significant neurological morbidity...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668246/from-stem-cells-to-comparative-corticogenesis-a-bridge-too-far
#13
COMMENT
Marion Betizeau, Colette Dehay
It has been hypothesized that the higher number of neurons in human cortex compared to the chimpanzee and other primate species is key to high cognitive function. Are human cortical precursors endowed with specific properties that drive greater neuronal expansion than in other non-human primates? Otani et al. 2016 addressed this issue taking advantage of comparative in vitro corticogenesis models based on human, chimpanzee and macaque pluripotent stem cells. Clonal analysis revealed a heterochrony of early developmental events possibly leading to a relatively higher expansion of human cortical precursor population...
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647922/normalizing-translation-through-4e-bp-prevents-mtor-driven-cortical-mislamination-and-ameliorates-aberrant-neuron-integration
#14
Tiffany V Lin, Lawrence Hsieh, Tomoki Kimura, Taylor J Malone, Angélique Bordey
Hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a shared molecular hallmark in several neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal brain cytoarchitecture. The mechanisms downstream of mTORC1 that are responsible for these defects remain unclear. We show that focally increasing mTORC1 activity during late corticogenesis leads to ectopic placement of upper-layer cortical neurons that does not require altered signaling in radial glia and is accompanied by changes in layer-specific molecular identity...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620979/enhanced-abventricular-proliferation-compensates-cell-death-in-the-embryonic-cerebral-cortex
#15
Betty Freret-Hodara, Yi Cui, Amélie Griveau, Lisa Vigier, Yoko Arai, Jonathan Touboul, Alessandra Pierani
Loss of neurons in the neocortex is generally thought to result in a final reduction of cerebral volume. Yet, little is known on how the developing cerebral cortex copes with death of early-born neurons. Here, we tackled this issue by taking advantage of a transgenic mouse model in which, from early embryonic stages to mid-corticogenesis, abundant apoptosis is induced in the postmitotic compartment. Unexpectedly, the thickness of the mutant cortical plate at E18.5 was normal, due to an overproduction of upper layer neurons at E14...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607605/role-of-class-iii-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-in-the-brain-development-possible-involvement-in-specific-learning-disorders
#16
Yutaka Inaguma, Ayumi Matsumoto, Mariko Noda, Hidenori Tabata, Akihiko Maeda, Masahide Goto, Daisuke Usui, Eriko F Jimbo, Kiyoshi Kikkawa, Mamitaro Ohtsuki, Mariko Y Momoi, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3C3 or mammalian vacuolar protein sorting 34 homolog, Vps34) regulates vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and nutrient sensing. Recently, we reported that PIK3C3 is expressed in mouse cerebral cortex throughout the developmental process, especially at early embryonic stage. We thus examined the role of PIK3C3 in the development of the mouse cerebral cortex. Acute silencing of PIK3C3 with in utero electroporation method caused positional defects of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600842/the-tbr2-molecular-network-controls-cortical-neuronal-differentiation-through-complementary-genetic-and-epigenetic-pathways
#17
Alessandro Sessa, Ernesto Ciabatti, Daniela Drechsel, Luca Massimino, Gaia Colasante, Serena Giannelli, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira, Francois Guillemot, Broccoli Vania
The T-box containing Tbr2 gene encodes for a transcription factor essential for the specification of the intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) originating the excitatory neurons of the cerebral cortex. However, its overall mechanism of action, direct target genes and cofactors remain unknown. Herein, we carried out global gene expression profiling combined with genome-wide binding site identification to determine the molecular pathways regulated by TBR2 in INPs. This analysis led to the identification of novel protein-protein interactions that control multiple features of INPs including cell-type identity, morphology, proliferation and migration dynamics...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503845/dclk1-phosphorylates-the-microtubule-associated-protein-map7d1-to-promote-axon-elongation-in-cortical-neurons
#18
Hiroyuki Koizumi, Hiromi Fujioka, Kazuya Togashi, James Thompson, John R Yates, Joseph G Gleeson, Kazuo Emoto
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a member of the neuronal microtubule-associated doublecortin (DCX) family and functions in multiple stages of neural development including radial migration and axon growth of cortical neurons. DCLK1 is suggested to play the roles in part through its protein kinase activity, yet the kinase substrates of DCLK1 remain largely unknown. Here we have identified MAP7D1 (microtubule-associated protein 7 domain containing 1) as a novel substrate of DCLK1 by using proteomic analysis...
August 9, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479140/the-marmoset-an-emerging-model-to-unravel-the-evolution-and-development-of-the-primate-neocortex
#19
Jihane Homman-Ludiye, James A Bourne
Throughout evolution, the neocortex has undergone a dramatic expansion providing the substrate for increasingly complex cognitive abilities, culminating with humans. The enlargement of the neocortex did not affect its' basic organization, which is remarkably conserved from rodents to primates. The mouse has thus proven an advantageous model to decipher the molecular and cellular mechanisms supporting neocortical development. However, it is of limited benefit when studying the mechanisms leading to the inclusion of higher-order association areas, which form the largest fraction of the primate neocortex...
August 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476503/dynamic-expression-of-the-mouse-orthologue-of-the-human-amyotropic-lateral-sclerosis-associated-gene-c9orf72-during-central-nervous-system-development-and-neuronal-differentiation
#20
Ross Ferguson, Eleni Serafeimidou-Pouliou, Vasanta Subramanian
The hexanucleotide repeat in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene is the most significant cause of amyotropic lateral sclerosis as well as some forms of fronto-temporal dementia. The C9orf72 protein has been previously reported to be expressed in post-mortem human brain as well as in late embryonic and some postnatal stages in mice. Herein, we present a detailed study of the distribution of C9orf72 protein in the embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse brain, spinal cord as well as during the differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells to neurons including motor neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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