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Consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667898/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-after-cardiac-surgery
#1
Yoshiyuki Nishimura
A 76-year-old woman who had been on hemodialysis for 3 years developed ischemic mitral valve insufficiency, tricuspid insufficiency, and chronic atrial fibrillation, and underwent cardiac surgery. On the 4th postoperative day, she experienced a sudden disturbance of consciousness, aphasia, and limb ataxia. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Wernicke's encephalopathy was suspected and the patient was given vitamin B1, whereupon her symptoms gradually improved. On the 42nd postoperative day, she was free of neurological symptoms and discharged...
January 1, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667730/succinate-decreases-bladder-function-in-a-rat-model-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Monica Velasquez Flores, Abubakr H Mossa, Philippe Cammisotto, Lysanne Campeau
AIMS: Succinate and its receptor, GPR91, have been implicated in different aspects of metabolic syndrome. As GPR91 is expressed in the urinary bladder, the aim of this study is to show the effect of chronically increased succinate levels on bladder function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and hypertensive Dahl rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or succinate (50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 4 weeks. Conscious cystometry was performed at the end of this period...
April 18, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667653/commentary-chasing-the-rainbow-the-non-conscious-nature-of-being
#3
COMMENT
Philip Clapson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#4
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667248/establishment-of-a-radiotelemetric-recording-technique-in-mice-to-investigate-gastric-slow-waves-modulatory-role-of-putative-neurotransmitter-systems
#5
Huichuan Wang, Zengbing Lu, Yuen Hang Liu, Yayi Sun, Longlong Tu, Man P Ngan, Chi-Kong Yeung, John A Rudd
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Gastric slow waves originating from interstitial cells of Cajal-smooth muscle syncytium are usually studied in culture or in tissue segments, but no studies have made recording of slow waves from conscious freely moving mice. Can radiotelemetry be used to record slow waves, and do they respond predictably to drug treatment? What is the main finding and its importance? Radiotelemetry may be used to record slow waves from conscious freely moving mice permitting an examination of drug action in vivo, which is critical to drug discovery projects characterizing drugs and metabolites on gastrointestinal function...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667225/activation-of-central-gaba-b-receptors-offsets-the-cyclosporine-counteraction-of-endotoxic-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-conscious-rats
#6
Marwa Y Sallam, Sahar M El-Gowilly, Abdel-Galil A Abdel-Galil, Mahmoud M El-Mas
We have previously shown that cyclosporine (CSA) counteracts cardiovascular manifestations induced by endotoxemia (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) such as hypotension and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in conscious rats. In this study we investigated whether the facilitation of central γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission blunts these favorable influences of CSA. The LPS-CSA interaction was determined in the absence and presence of drugs that activate GABAA or GABAB receptors or elevate synaptic GABA levels in the central nervous system...
April 18, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666960/consciousness-indexing-and-outcome-prediction-with-resting-state-eeg-in-severe-disorders-of-consciousness
#7
Sabina Stefan, Barbara Schorr, Alex Lopez-Rolon, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Jonathan P Shock, Martin Rosenfelder, Suzette Heck, Andreas Bender
We applied the following methods to resting-state EEG data from patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) for consciousness indexing and outcome prediction: microstates, entropy (i.e. approximate, permutation), power in alpha and delta frequency bands, and connectivity (i.e. weighted symbolic mutual information, symbolic transfer entropy, complex network analysis). Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) were classified into these two categories by fitting and testing a generalised linear model...
April 17, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666760/barefoot-running-does-not-affect-simple-reaction-time-an-exploratory-study
#8
Nicholas J Snow, Jason F L Blair, Graham Z MacDonald, Jeannette M Byrne, Fabien A Basset
Background: Converging evidence comparing barefoot (BF) and shod (SH) running highlights differences in foot-strike patterns and somatosensory feedback, among others. Anecdotal evidence from SH runners attempting BF running suggests a greater attentional demand may be experienced during BF running. However, little work to date has examined whether there is an attentional cost of BF versus SH running. Objective: This exploratory study aimed to examine whether an acute bout of BF running would impact simple reaction time (SRT) compared to SH running, in a sample of runners naïve to BF running...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666096/devil-is-in-the-detail
#9
John Roshan Jacob, Amal Paul, Anoop George Alex
A 15-year-old girl of Asian origin, hailing from a rural agrarian background, presented with history of multiple episodes of dizziness for 3 years. The episodes were precipitated mostly by emotional and/or physical stress and relieved on lying down, with a few episodes culminating in transient loss of consciousness. As preliminary cardiac and neurological evaluation were normal, she was being treated by the primary physician as a case of probable psychogenic syncope, supported by the consistent association of the episodes with emotional stress...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666062/morning-hyperinsulinemia-primes-the-liver-for-glucose-uptake-and-glycogen-storage-later-in-the-day
#10
Mary Courtney Moore, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Katie C Coate, Guillaume Kraft, Masakazu Shiota, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We observed that a 4h morning (AM) duodenal infusion of glucose vs saline doubled hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) and storage during a hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic (HIHG) clamp that afternoon (PM). To separate the effects of AM hyperglycemia vs AM hyperinsulinemia on the PM response, we used hepatic balance and tracer (3 H-glucose) techniques in conscious dogs. From 0-240 min, dogs underwent a euinsulinemic hyperglycemic (GLC; n =7) or hyperinsulinemic euglycemic (INS; n =8) clamp. Tracer equilibration and basal sampling occurred from 240-360 min, followed by a HIHG clamp (360-600 min; 4xbasal insulin, 2xbasal glycemia) with portal glucose infusion (4 mg...
April 17, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665699/characterizing-signals-within-lesions-and-mapping-brain-network-connectivity-after-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-7-tesla-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665587/interstitial-transpedal-mr-lymphangiography-of-central-lymphatics-using-a-standard-mr-contrast-agent-feasibility-and-initial-results-in-patients-with-chylous-effusions
#12
Claus Christian Pieper, Hans Heinz Schild
PURPOSE:  To describe a novel technique for transpedal magnetic resonance lymphangiography (tMRL) with interstitial injection of a standard gadolinium-based contrast agent, and to assess its ability to visualize the central lymphatic system (CLS) in patients with chylous effusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Experiences with tMRL were retrospectively reviewed in seven patients with chylous effusions. High-resolution three-dimensional multi-echo (mDIXON) images of the entire torso were obtained before and after interstitial injection of an extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agent...
April 17, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665228/ultra-high-field-fmri-insights-on-insight-neural-correlates-of-the-aha-moment
#13
Martin Tik, Ronald Sladky, Caroline Di Bernardi Luft, David Willinger, André Hoffmann, Michael J Banissy, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Christian Windischberger
Finding creative solutions to difficult problems is a fundamental aspect of human culture and a skill highly needed. However, the exact neural processes underlying creative problem solving remain unclear. Insightful problem solving tasks were shown to be a valid method for investigating one subcomponent of creativity: the Aha!-moment. Finding insightful solutions during a remote associates task (RAT) was found to elicit specific cortical activity changes. Considering the strong affective components of Aha!-moments, as manifested in the subjectively experienced feeling of relief following the sudden emergence of the solution of the problem without any conscious forewarning, we hypothesized the subcortical dopaminergic reward network to be critically engaged during Aha...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664887/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-potentiation-inhibits-learning-in-a-computational-network-model
#14
Kingsley P Storer, George N Reeke
BACKGROUND: Propofol produces memory impairment at concentrations well below those abolishing consciousness. Episodic memory, mediated by the hippocampus, is most sensitive. Two potentially overlapping scenarios may explain how γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) potentiation by propofol disrupts episodic memory-the first mediated by shifting the balance from excitation to inhibition while the second involves disruption of rhythmic oscillations. We use a hippocampal network model to explore these scenarios...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664874/traumatic-brain-injury-and-infectious-encephalopathy-in-children-from-four-resource-limited-settings-in-africa
#15
Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664516/-brain-development-in-childhood-acquisition-and-evolution-of-children-s-understanding-of-death
#16
Colomba Norero V
There is a relation between brain development in children and the acquisition of the five subcom ponents for a mature conceptualisation of biological death: Irreversibility, applicability, inevitability, functional cessation and casuality. Current theories propose that knowledge (among them about death) is acquired through a series of confluent waves with advances and setbacks, thus explaining the important differences encountered among children of the same age and good intellectual develop ment. Generally speaking children under four years of age do not have a consciousness of death...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664457/aspergillus-sinusitis-complicated-with-meningitis-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions-in-immunocompetent-patient
#17
Ahmad AlHaj Houssen, Fahad Algreeshah
This is a case of a 33-year-old male complaining of severe headache, neck pain, photophobia, vomiting and high-grade fever of several days. He had history of nasal polyp removal and recurrent sinusitis in the last 8 years. On examination: conscious with glasco coma scale (GCS) 15/15 and normal limbs strength but with positive Babinski sign. For further observation, he was admitted and full work-up was done. Even though full empirical antibiotics were started, there was no immediate improvement and he deteriorated dramatically developing ocular deficit, hydrocephalus and lower level of consciousness with multiple infarctions found at different areas in brain...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662882/circulatory-arrest-brain-arrest-and-death-determination
#18
Sam David Shemie, Dale Gardiner
Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death) are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662443/emotion-regulation-and-complex-brain-networks-association-between-expressive-suppression-and-efficiency-in-the-fronto-parietal-network-and-default-mode-network
#19
Junhao Pan, Liying Zhan, ChuanLin Hu, Junkai Yang, Cong Wang, Li Gu, Shengqi Zhong, Yingyu Huang, Qian Wu, Xiaolin Xie, Qijin Chen, Hui Zhou, Miner Huang, Xiang Wu
Emotion regulation (ER) refers to the "implementation of a conscious or non-conscious goal to start, stop or otherwise modulate the trajectory of an emotion" (Etkin et al., 2015). Whereas multiple brain areas have been found to be involved in ER, relatively little is known about whether and how ER is associated with the global functioning of brain networks. Recent advances in brain connectivity research using graph-theory based analysis have shown that the brain can be organized into complex networks composed of functionally or structurally connected brain areas...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662089/time-rescaling-reproduces-eeg-behavior-during-transition-from-propofol-anesthesia-induced-unconsciousness-to-consciousness
#20
S Boussen, A Spiegler, C Benar, M Carrère, F Bartolomei, P Metellus, R Voituriez, L Velly, N Bruder, A Trébuchon
General anesthesia (GA) is a reversible manipulation of consciousness whose mechanism is mysterious at the level of neural networks leaving space for several competing hypotheses. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) signals in patients who underwent intracranial monitoring during awake surgery for the treatment of cerebral tumors in functional areas of the brain. Therefore, we recorded the transition from unconsciousness to consciousness directly on the brain surface. Using frequency resolved interferometry; we studied the intermediate ECoG frequencies (4-40 Hz)...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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