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Po-Hao Chen, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Meltem Çobanoğulları Direk, Veli Yıldırım, Serkan Güneş, Gülçin Bozlu, Çetin Okuyaz
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with increased serotonergic activity in central nervous system and may occur during the use of serotonergic drugs. Although increasing frequency of serotonergic drug use in children, pediatricians, emergency medicine and pediatric intensive care specialists have not enough knowledge and experience about SS that is a potentially life-threatening condition. A 12-year-old girl patient was admitted to our emergency room with the history of involuntary contractions on her extremities and alteration of consciousness...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kerry L Gagnon, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: While the importance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has gained public attention in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to head injuries among women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study screened for lifetime exposure to mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) among a sample of women who experienced recent IPV (median days since target incident = 26). METHOD: Participants included ethnically diverse women whose IPV experiences were reported to law enforcement...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
I Bernátová, P Bališ, R Goga, M Behuliak, J Zicha, I Sekaj
This study investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to blood pressure regulation in conscious adult male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress. Role of ROS was investigated in rats with temporally impaired principal blood pressure regulation systems using ganglionic blocker pentolinium (P, 5 mg/kg), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (C, 10 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (L, 30 mg/kg) and superoxide dismutase mimeticum tempol (T, 25 mg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured by the carotid artery catheter and inhibitors were administered intravenously...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Robert Mark Simpson
Murrow and Murrow offer a novel account of dehumanization, by synthesizing data which suggest that where subject S has a dehumanized view of group G, S's neural mechanisms of empathy show a dampened response to the suffering of members of G, and S's judgments about the humanity of members of G are largely non-conscious. Here I examine Murrow and Murrow's suggestions about how identity-based hate speech bears responsibility for dehumanization in the first place. I identify a distinction between (i) accounts of the nature of the harm effected by identity prejudice, and (ii) accounts of how hate speech contributes to the harms of identity prejudice...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Amjad Al Taki, Mohammed Khalesi, Muftah Shagmani, Islam Yahia, Fatma Al Kaddah
Objective. The current investigation was proposed to determine the impression of trained dental professionals and laypeople towards the modified smile esthetics. Materials and Methods. Twenty-six images were randomized in a survey and graded according to attractiveness by the orthodontists, general dentists, and laypeople. Photographs of gingival display, midline diastema, central incisor crown length, and lateral incisor crown width were manipulated with five minor changes in each. For smile arc and buccal corridor, two major changes were incorporated besides the ideal photograph...
2016: International Journal of Dentistry
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
Alasdair I Ross, Thomas Schenk, Jutta Billino, Mary J Macleod, Constanze Hesse
Previous research found that a patient with cortical blindness (homonymous hemianopia) was able to successfully avoid an obstacle placed in his blind field, despite reporting no conscious awareness of it [Striemer, C. L., Chapman, C. S., & Goodale, M. A., 2009, PNAS, 106(37), 15996-16001]. This finding led to the suggestion that dorsal stream areas, that are assumed to mediate obstacle avoidance behaviour, may obtain their visual input primarily from subcortical pathways. Hence, it was suggested that normal obstacle avoidance behaviour can proceed without input from the primary visual cortex...
October 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Sooyoung Lee, Masafumi Sanefuji, Michiko Torio, Noriyuki Kaku, Yuko Ichimiya, Soichi Mizuguchi, Haruhisa Baba, Yasunari Sakai, Yoshito Ishizaki, Hiroyuki Torisu, Ryutaro Kira, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) occurs in children associated with infection. It is characterized by a prolonged febrile seizure in the first phase, and a cluster of seizures, deterioration of consciousness and the white matter lesions with reduced diffusion in the second phase. The patients often have severe neurological sequelae, but the prognostic indicators remain unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of AESD patients who subsequently exhibited severe neurological sequelae...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Cappelli, Marco Moretti, Gianni Misuri, Luca Voltolini, Massimo Pistolesi, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is an uncommon disease occurring mainly after traumatic lower limb long bone fractures. A 64-year-old woman with pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusion underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). After 3 days, the patient had an acute decrease in consciousness level followed by the onset of seizures and right hemiparesis. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed findings suggestive of CFE. CFE occurring after an uncommon nontraumatic cause of fat embolism, such as VATS, is a rare clinical event whose diagnosis could be challenging...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Karolina Kowalska, Dominika Ewa Habrowska-Górczyńska, Agnieszka Wanda Piastowska-Ciesielska
Zearalenone (ZEA), a fungal mycotoxin, is present in a wide range of human foods. Many animal studies have found ZEA to possess a disruptive effect on the hormonal balance, mainly due to its similarity to naturally-occurring estrogens. With increasing consciousness of the adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on human health, it is becoming more important to monitor ZEA concentrations in food and identify its potential effects on human health. Based on a review of recent studies on animal models and molecular pathways in which ZEA is reported to have an influence on humans, we postulate that ZEA might act as an endocrine disruptor in humans in a similar way to animals...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ozlem Korkmaz Dilmen, Eren Fatma Akcil, Abdulvahap Oguz, Hayriye Vehid, Yusuf Tunali
Since awake craniotomy (AC) has become a standard of care for supratentorial tumour resection, especially in the motor and language cortex, determining the most appropriate anaesthetic protocol is very important. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare the effectiveness of conscious sedation (CS) to "awake-asleep-awake" (AAA) techniques for supratentorial tumour resection. Forty-two patients undergoing CS and 22 patients undergoing AAA were included in the study. The primary endpoint was to compare the CS and AAA techniques with respect to intraoperative pain and agitation in patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Yannick Fogang, Benjamin Legros, Chantal Depondt, Nicolas Mavroudakis, Nicolas Gaspard
INTRODUCTION: Seizures are common in critically ill patients and prevalence can exceed 30% in the neuro-intensive care unit (ICU). Continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) is the gold standard for seizure detection in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the yield of intermittent EEG (iEEG) to detect critically ill adult patients with seizures and to identify the factors that affect this yield. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cEEG data and medical records from 977 consecutive critically ill patients undergoing cEEG...
October 19, 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Taewoo Kim
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients...
October 21, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Emma F Thomas, Craig McGarty, Gerhard Reese, Mariette Berndsen, Ana-Maria Bliuc
The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists...
October 20, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Damien Lesenfants, Dina Habbal, Camille Chatelle, Caroline Schnakers, Steven Laureys, Quentin Noirhomme
OBJECTIVE: To propose a new methodology based on single-trial analysis for detecting residual response to command with EMG in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), overcoming the issue of trial dependency and decreasing the influence of a patient's fluctuation of vigilance or arousal over time on diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: Forty-five patients with DOC (18 with vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [VS/UWS], 22 in a minimally conscious state [MCS], 3 who emerged from MCS [EMCS], and 2 with locked-in syndrome [LIS]) and 20 healthy controls were included in the study...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Suzanne M Thompson, Marianne J Nieuwenhuijze, Lisa Kane Low, Raymond de Vries
OBJECTIVE: to describe Dutch midwives' attitudes toward, and motivations for, the promotion of physiological childbirth and to identify factors associated with those attitudes and motivations. DESIGN: exploratory, qualitative design using focus groups. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: hospital- and community-based midwives. FINDINGS: four themes emerged: physiological birth as a continuum, navigating the settings, woman-centeredness and competence and confidence...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Zhihui Yang, Fan Lin, Amanda S Weissman, Emily Jaalouk, Qing-Shan Xue, Kevin K W Wang
Despite the concussion/ mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) being the most frequent occurrence of traumatic brain injury, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury and its effects. To develop a better understanding of concussions, animals are often used because they provide a controlled, rigorous, and efficient model. Studies have adapted traditional animal models to perform mTBI to stimulate mild injury severity by changing the injury parameters. These models have been used because they can produce morphologically similar brain injuries to the clinical condition and provide a spectrum of injury severities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Saleem I Abdulrauf, Peter Vuong, Ritesh Patel, Raghu Sampath, Ahmed M Ashour, Lauren M Germany, Jonathon Lebovitz, Colt Brunson, Yuvraj Nijjar, J Kyle Dryden, Maheen Q Khan, Mihaela G Stefan, Evan Wiley, Ryan T Cleary, Connor Reis, Jodi Walsh, Paula Buchanan
OBJECTIVE Risk of ischemia during aneurysm surgery is significantly related to temporary clipping time and final clipping that might incorporate a perforator. In this study, the authors attempted to assess the potential added benefit to patient outcomes of "awake" neurological testing when compared with standard neurophysiological testing performed under general anesthesia. The procedure is performed after the induction of conscious sedation, and for the neurological testing, the patient is fully awake. METHODS The authors conducted an institutional review board-approved prospective study of clipping unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in 30 consecutive adult patients who underwent awake clipping...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Umberto Melia, Eva Gabarron, Mercé Agustí, Nuria Souto, Patricia Pineda, Joan Fontanet, Montserrat Vallverdu, Erik Weber Jensen, Pedro Gambus
The objective of this work is to compare the performances of two electroencephalogram based indices for detecting loss of consciousness and loss of response to nociceptive stimulation. Specifically, their behaviour after drug induction and during recovery of consciousness was pointed out. Data was recorded from 140 patients scheduled for general anaesthesia with a combination of propofol and remifentanil. The qCON 2000 monitor (Quantium Medical, Barcelona, Spain) was used to calculate the qCON and qNOX. Loss of response to verbal command and loss of eye-lash reflex were assessed during the transition from awake to anesthetized, defining the state of loss of consciousness...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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