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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230269/antigenic-burden-and-serum-igg-concentrations-influence-rituximab-pharmacokinetics-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#1
Bertrand Lioger, Soujanya Ratna Edupuganti, Denis Mulleman, Christophe Passot, Céline Desvignes, Théodora Bejan-Angoulvant, Gilles Thibault, Valérie Gouilleux-Gruart, Julien Mélet, Gilles Paintaud, David Ternant
AIMS: Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, which is approved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed at assessing the influence of CD19+ cell counts as target-antigen amount, and of immunoglobulin G (IgG) serum concentrations on rituximab pharmacokinetics in RA patients. METHODS: In a cohort of 64 RA patients who had received repetitive courses of rituximab, the influence of CD19+ cell count, IgG serum concentration, body surface area (BSA), sex, and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) on rituximab pharmacokinetic parameters was assessed using a population pharmacokinetic analysis...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230188/3d-time-lapse-imaging-and-quantification-of-mitochondrial-dynamics
#2
Miguel Sison, Sabyasachi Chakrabortty, Jérôme Extermann, Amir Nahas, Paul James Marchand, Antonio Lopez, Tanja Weil, Theo Lasser
We present a 3D time-lapse imaging method for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in living HeLa cells based on photothermal optical coherence microscopy and using novel surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. The biocompatible protein-based biopolymer coating contains multiple functional groups which impart better cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting efficiency. The high stability of the gold nanoparticles allows continuous imaging over an extended time up to 3000 seconds without significant cell damage...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229277/ginger-extract-adjuvant-to-doxorubicin-in-mammary-carcinoma-study-of-some-molecular-mechanisms
#3
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Naglaa F Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Hend E Abo Mansour
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer properties of ginger extract (GE) in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) and to evaluate the use of GE in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) as a complementary therapy against SEC. METHODS: SEC was induced in 60 female mice. Mice were divided into four equal groups: SEC, GE, DOX and GE + DOX. GE (100 mg/kg orally day after day) and DOX (4 mg/kg i.p. for 4 cycles every 5 days) were given to mice starting on day 12 of inoculation...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229111/the-chronic-mild-stress-cms-model-of-depression-history-evaluation-and-usage
#4
REVIEW
Paul Willner
Now 30 years old, the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression has been used in >1300 published studies, with a year-on-year increase rising to >200 papers in 2015. Data from a survey of users show that while a variety of names are in use (chronic mild/unpredictable/varied stress), these describe essentially the same procedure. This paper provides an update on the validity and reliability of the CMS model, and reviews recent data on the neurobiological basis of CMS effects and the mechanisms of antidepressant action: the volume of this research may be unique in providing a comprehensive account of antidepressant action within a single model...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228609/barriers-associated-with-door-to-balloon-delay-in-contemporary-japanese-practice
#5
Nobuhiro Ikemura, Mitsuaki Sawano, Yasuyuki Shiraishi, Ikuko Ueda, Hiroaki Miyata, Yohei Numasawa, Shigetaka Noma, Masahiro Suzuki, Yukihiko Momiyama, Taku Inohara, Kentaro Hayashida, Shinsuke Yuasa, Yuichiro Maekawa, Keiichi Fukuda, Shun Kohsaka
BACKGROUND: Door-to-balloon (DTB) time ≤90 min is an important quality indicator in the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but a considerable number of patients still do not meet this goal, particularly in countries outside the USA and Europe.Methods and Results:We analyzed 2,428 STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI ≤12 h of symptom onset who were registered in an ongoing prospective multicenter database (JCD-KiCS registry), between 2008 and 2013. We analyzed both the time trend in DTB time within this cohort in the registry, and independent predictors of delayed DTB time >90 min...
February 23, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228330/assessment-of-monitor-unit-limiting-strategy-using-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-for-cancer-of-hypopharynx
#6
Shabbir Ahamed, Navin Singh, Deleep Gudipudi, Suneetha Mulinti, Anil Talluri, Bhudevi Soubhagya, Madhusudhana Sresty
PURPOSE: To quantify relative merit of MU deprived plans against freely optimized plans in terms of plan quality and report changes induced by progressive resolution optimizer algorithm (PRO3) to the dynamic parameters of RapidArc. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten cases of carcinoma hypopharynx were retrospectively planned in three phases without using MU tool. Replicas of these baseline plans were reoptimized using "Intermediate dose" feature and "MU tool" to reduce MUs by 20%, 35%, and 50%...
February 19, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228322/anti-tumour-research-of-recombinant-bcg-using-bzlf1-and-hgm-csf-fusion-genes
#7
Qing-Jie Xue, Yun-Qing Li, Chun-Qing Yang, Ting Chen, Xiu-Zhen Li, Baohua Cheng, Chun-Mei Wang
The random primer Oligo(dT)15 was used in RT-PCR to obtain cDNA from the human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene BZLF1. Then, the sequence splicing overlap extension method was used to obtain a GCBF fusion gene containing a linker sequence that encoded the polypeptide (Gly4Ser)3. The GCBF fusion gene was inserted into pMV261, which was then transformed into competent E. coli DH5 alpha cells, and positive cells were selected based on kanamycin resistance on LB plates...
February 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227833/a-comparative-study-of-approaches-to-compute-the-field-distribution-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-hemiparkinson-rat-model
#8
Andrea Bohme, Ursula van Rienen, Andrea Bohme, Ursula van Rienen, Ursula Van Rienen, Andrea Bohme
Computational modeling of the stimulating field distribution during Deep Brain Stimulation provides an opportunity to advance our knowledge of this neurosurgical therapy for Parkinson's disease. There exist several approaches to model the target region for Deep Brain Stimulation in Hemi-parkinson Rats with volume conductor models. We have described and compared the normalized mapping approach as well as the modeling with three-dimensional structures, which include curvilinear coordinates to assure an anatomically realistic conductivity tensor orientation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227791/nonlinear-3-d-simulation-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-therapy-in-the-kidney
#9
Visa Suomi, Jiri Jaros, Bradley Treeby, Robin Cleveland, Visa Suomi, Jiri Jaros, Bradley Treeby, Robin Cleveland, Jiri Jaros, Bradley Treeby, Robin Cleveland, Visa Suomi
Kidney cancer is a severe disease which can be treated non-invasively using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. However, tissue in front of the transducer and the deep location of kidney can cause significant losses to the efficiency of the treatment. The effect of attenuation, refraction and reflection due to different tissue types on HIFU therapy of the kidney was studied using a nonlinear ultrasound simulation model. The geometry of the tissue was derived from a computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient which had been segmented for water, bone, soft tissue, fat and kidney...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227677/multipoint-temperature-monitoring-in-liver-undergoing-computed-tomography-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-with-fiber-bragg-grating-probes
#10
P Saccomandi, E Schena, M Diana, F M Di Matteo, G Costamagna, J Marescaux, P Saccomandi, E Schena, M Diana, F M Di Matteo, G Costamagna, J Marescaux, F M Di Matteo, J Marescaux, E Schena, M Diana, G Costamagna, P Saccomandi
In this work, we investigated the temperature increment experienced by biological tissue during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The measurements were performed by using two custom-made thermal probes based on fiber optic sensors (fiber Bragg gratings, FBGs). The two probes embed a total of 9 FBGs. Experiments were performed during RFA of an ex vivo healthy porcine liver. The RFA heating module was equipped with 5 thermocouples. Results show that the temperature increment close to the applicator (i.e., 0.6 cm-0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227590/elastic-ribbon-like-piezoelectric-energy-harvester-for-wearable-devices-with-stretchable-surfaces
#11
You Liang Lionel, Wong, Gary K Fedder, You Liang Lionel, Wong, Gary K Fedder
This paper presents an elastic ribbon-like piezoelectric energy harvester which is targeted for skin-wearable devices by harnessing the movements of stretchable surfaces. The device aims to power up smart thin stick-on devices for healthcare monitoring. By embedding a ribbon-like PVDF film in a flexible elastomer, Ecoflex, the device is potentially able to stretch 34%, while maintaining internal strain of the film below its plastic deformation limit. Alternate electrode layout and bimorph configuration help to reduce charge cancellation, while increasing overall effectiveness...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227541/effects-of-electrode-displacement-in-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-computational-study
#12
Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo
In order to understand better the ways in which cortical excitability is linked to target brain areas, this study describes the effects of focalized high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), and investigates the way in which these effects persisted after the stimulus electrodes were displaced from the target area. We constructed a 3D volume conduction model of an anatomically realistic head that is ideal for HD-tDCS, as well as compartmental models of layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227222/hemodynamic-effects-from-coil-distribution-with-realistic-coil-models-in-an-aneurysm
#13
Soichiro Fujimura, Hiroyuki Takao, Takashi Suzuki, Chihebeddine Dahmani, Hiroya Mamori, Makoto Yamamoto, Yuichi Murayama, Soichiro Fujimura, Hiroyuki Takao, Takashi Suzuki, Chihebeddine Dahmani, Hiroya Mamori, Makoto Yamamoto, Yuichi Murayama, Makoto Yamamoto, Hiroya Mamori, Soichiro Fujimura, Takashi Suzuki, Yuichi Murayama, Chihebeddine Dahmani, Hiroyuki Takao
Because of its minimal invasiveness, coil embolization has become a popular way to treat aneurysms. The main problem with this method, however, is the poor understanding of the hemodynamics in the aneurysm after coil embolization. To improve this situation, we used a finite element method and computational fluid dynamics to investigate how hemodynamic parameters depend on the spatial distribution of coils. A basic model of an internal carotid artery aneurysm was created, and six realistic coil models were considered for the coil geometry...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226508/temperature-monitoring-during-radiofrequency-ablation-of-liver-in-vivo-trials
#14
P Saccomandi, G Frauenfelder, C Massaroni, M A Caponera, A Polimadei, F Taffoni, F M Di Matteo, G Costamagna, F Giurazza, E Schena, P Saccomandi, G Frauenfelder, C Massaroni, M A Caponera, A Polimadei, F Taffoni, F M Di Matteo, G Costamagna, F Giurazza, E Schena, F Taffoni, F M Di Matteo, F Giurazza, E Schena, G Costamagna, A Polimadei, G Frauenfelder, P Saccomandi, C Massaroni
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat tumors by means of hyperthermia, mostly through percutaneous approach. The tissue temperature plays a pivotal role in the achievement of the target volume heating, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue from thermal damage. Several techniques for thermometry during RFA are investigated, most of them based on the use of single-point measurement system (e.g., thermocouples). The measurement of temperature map is crucial for the real-time control and fine adjustment of the treatment settings, to optimize the shape and size of the ablated volume...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226400/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-ampicillin-in-neonates-with-hypoxemic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-the-setting-of-controlled-hypothermia
#15
Jeffrey J Cies, Keri N Fugarolas, Wayne S Moore, Robert W Mason, Ogechukwu R Menkiti
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of ampicillin in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing controlled hypothermia (CH). DESIGN: Prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirteen neonates (three females, 10 males) with HIE encephalopathy receiving CH and ampicillin 100 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between May 2013 and June 2014...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226226/microglia-function-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-health-and-neurodegeneration
#16
Marco Colonna, Oleg Butovsky
Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair. Microglia serve as brain macrophages but are distinct from other tissue macrophages owing to their unique homeostatic phenotype and tight regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. They are responsible for the elimination of microbes, dead cells, redundant synapses, protein aggregates, and other particulate and soluble antigens that may endanger the CNS. Furthermore, as the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines, microglia are pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226225/thymic-epithelial-cells
#17
Jakub Abramson, Graham Anderson
IntrathymicTcell development is a complex process that depends upon continuous guidance from thymus stromal cell microenvironments. The thymic epithelium within the thymic stroma comprises highly specialized cells with a high degree of anatomic, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity. These properties are collectively required to bias thymocyte development toward production of self-tolerant and functionally competent T cells. The importance of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is evidenced by clear links between their dysfunction and multiple diseases where autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are major components...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226216/overcoming-immune-dysregulation-with-immunoengineered-nanobiomaterials
#18
Evan A Scott, Nicholas B Karabin, Punn Augsornworawat
The immune system is governed by an immensely complex network of cells and both intracellular and extracellular molecular factors. It must respond to an ever-growing number of biochemical and biophysical inputs by eliciting appropriate and specific responses in order to maintain homeostasis. But as with any complex system, a plethora of false positives and false negatives can occur to generate dysregulated responses. Dysregulated immune responses are essential components of diverse inflammation-driven pathologies, including cancer, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225581/effect-of-sonication-duration-and-power-on-ablation-depth-during-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-of-bone
#19
Matthew D Bucknor, Eugene Ozhinsky, Rutwik Shah, Roland Krug, Viola Rieke
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of differences in sonication duration and power on the size of postcontrast ablation zone following magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) of bone in a swine femoral bone model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental procedures received approval from the Institutional Committee on Animal Research. MRgFUS was used to create two thermal lesions in the left femur of six pigs. Each target was subjected to six sonications. 400J of energy was used for each sonication...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225353/impact-of-fluorescence-emission-from-gold-atoms-on-surrounding-biological-tissue-implications-for-nanoparticle-radio-enhancement
#20
Hilary L Byrne, Yaser Gholami, Zdenka Kuncic
The addition of gold nanoparticles within target tissue (i.e. a tumour) to enhance the delivered radiation dose is a well studied radiotherapy treatment strategy, despite not yet having been translated into standard clinical practice. While several studies have used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate radiation dose enhancement by Auger electrons emitted from irradiated gold nanoparticles, none have yet considered the effects due to escaping fluorescence photons. Geant4 was used to simulate a water phantom containing 10 mg/mL uniformly dispersed gold (1% by mass) at 5cm depth...
February 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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