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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086942/external-beam-radiotherapy-for-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-international-multicenter-phase-i-trial-sakk-77-07-and-sasl-26
#1
Evelyn Herrmann, Diana Naehrig, Manfred Sassowsky, Martin Bigler, Jeroen Buijsen, Ilja Ciernik, Daniel Zwahlen, Alessandra Franzetti Pellanda, Andreas Meister, Peter Brauchli, Simona Berardi, Erika Kuettel, Jean-François Dufour, Daniel M Aebersold
PURPOSE: To assess feasibility and safety of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (cfRT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed stage cT1-4, cN0-1 HCC and Child-Pugh Score (CPS) A or B disease were included in a phase I multicenter trial. Metastatic HCC were allowed if ≥90% of total tumor volume was located within the liver. Patients were enrolled onto five dose-escalation levels (54-70Gy in 2Gy fractions) based on a modified 3 + 3 design, with cohorts of five patients instead of three patients in dose levels 4 and 5...
January 13, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086916/microglial-activation-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-18-f-feppa
#2
Christine Ghadery, Yuko Koshimori, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Pablo Rusjan, Jinhee Kim, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes including activated microglia have been reported to play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO) has been observed after brain injury and inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand targeting TSPO allows for the quantification of neuroinflammation in vivo. METHODS: Based on the genotype of the rs6791 polymorphism in the TSPO gene, we included 25 mixed-affinity binders (MABs) (14 PD patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls (HC)) and 27 high-affinity binders (HABs) (16 PD patients and 11 age-matched HC) to assess regional differences in the second-generation radioligand [(18)F]-FEPPA between PD patients and HC...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086849/successful-outcome-following-pneumonectomy-in-a-teenage-boy-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-case-report
#3
Zheyi Liew, Santosh Mallikarjuna, Asif Hasan, F Kate Gould, Su Bunn, Matthew F Thomas, Jim L Lordan, Christopher O'Brien, Malcolm Brodlie
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis lung disease is generally a diffuse process however rarely one lung may become particularly damaged through chronic collapse and consolidation resulting in end-stage bronchiectasis with relative sparing of the contralateral lung. This clinical situation is sometimes referred to as "destroyed lung". Lung resection surgery is seldom indicated in cystic fibrosis and the associated medical literature is relatively sparse. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14 year old boy was referred to our centre for lung transplantation assessment...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081089/direct-comparison-of-two-dimensional-and-three-dimensional-laser-induced-fluorescence-measurements-on-highly-turbulent-flames
#4
Lin Ma, Qingchun Lei, Tyler Capil, Stephen D Hammack, Campbell D Carter
This Letter reports the first direct comparison between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applied to highly turbulent flames, with the goal of experimentally illustrating the capabilities and limitations of volumetric LIF (VLIF). To accomplish these goals, planar LIF (PLIF) and VLIF measurements were simultaneously performed on turbulent flames based on the CH radical. The PLIF measurements imaged a planar cross-section of the target flames across a 2D field-of-view (FOV) of 42  mm×42  mm...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079918/dose-evaluation-of-lamivudine-in-hiv-infected-children-aged-5%C3%A2-months-18%C3%A2-years-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis
#5
Esther J H Janssen, Diane E T Bastiaans, Pyry A J Välitalo, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Hermione Lyall, Catherijne A J Knibbe, David M Burger
AIM: The objectives of this study were to characterise age-related changes in lamivudine pharmacokinetics in children and evaluate lamivudine exposure, followed by dose recommendations for subgroups in which target steady state AUC0-24h is not reached. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic modelling was performed in NONMEM using data from two model building datasets and two external datasets (n = 180 (age 0.4-18 years, bodyweight 3.4-60.5 kg); 2,061 samples (median 12 per child); daily oral dose 60-300 mg (3...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079816/a-comparison-study-between-gross-tumor-volumes-defined-by-preoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-postoperative-specimens-and-tumor-bed-for-radiotherapy-after-breast-conserving-surgery
#6
Aiping Zhang, Jianbin Li, Wei Wang, Yongsheng Wang, Dianbin Mu, Zhaoqiu Chen, Qian Shao, Fengxiang Li
BACKGROUND: The identification and contouring of target volume is important for breast-conserving therapy. The aim of the study was to compare preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative pathology, excised specimens' (ES) size, and tumor bed (TB) delineation as methods for determining the gross tumor volume (GTV) for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radiotherapy after BCS were enrolled...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079628/interleukin-6-is-increased-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-community-dwelling-domestic-dogs-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#7
Hanne Gredal, Barbara B Thomsen, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Laurent Garosi, Clare Rusbridge, Daniel Anthony, Arne Møller, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Kate L Lambertsen, Mette Berendt
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up...
January 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079525/a-model-based-3d-patient-specific-pre-treatment-qa-method-for-vmat-using-the-epid
#8
Peter M McCowan, Ganiyu Asuni, Timothy van Beek, Eric Van Uytven, Kaden Kujanpaa, Boyd McCurdy
This study reports the development and validation of the first model-based, 3D patient dose reconstruction method for pre-treatment quality assurance using EPID images. The method is also investigated for sensitivity to potential MLC delivery errors. Each cine-mode EPID image acquired during plan delivery was processed using a previously developed back-projection dose reconstruction model providing a 3D dose estimate on the CT simulation data. Validation was carried out using 24 SBRT-VMAT patient plans by comparing: 1) ion chamber point dose measurements in a solid water phantom, 2) the treatment planning system (TPS) predicted 3D dose to the EPID reconstructed 3D dose in a solid water phantom, and 3) the TPS predicted 3D dose to the EPID and our forward predicted reconstructed 3D dose in the patient (CT data)...
January 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079267/estimating-4d-cbct-from-prior-information-and-extremely-limited-angle-projections-using-structural-pca-and-weighted-free-form-deformation-for-lung-radiotherapy
#9
Wendy Harris, You Zhang, Fang-Fang Yin, Lei Ren
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. METHODS: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078638/-11-c-methionine-positron-emission-tomography-delineates-non-contrast-enhancing-tumor-regions-at-high-risk-for-recurrence-in-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#10
John T Lucas, Nick Serrano, Hyun Kim, Xingyu Li, Scott E Snyder, Scott Hwang, Yimei Li, Chia-Ho Hua, Alberto Broniscer, Thomas E Merchant, Barry L Shulkin
We assessed the prognostic utility of (11)C-Methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) in pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG). Thirty-one children had 62 MET-PET studies. Segmented tumor volumes from co-registered magnetic resonance studies were assessed for concordance with MET-PET uptake using Boolean operations. The tumor volume at diagnosis and treatment failure was assessed relative to MET-PET avid volume. The prognostic impact of MET-PET-delineated non-contrast enhancing tumor (NCET) was assessed...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078077/a-novel-method-for-the-quantification-of-fatty-infiltration-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Nicole K Biltz, Gretchen A Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fatty infiltration of the skeletal muscle is a common but poorly understood feature of many myopathies. It is best described in human muscle, where non-invasive imaging techniques and representative histology have been optimized to view and quantify infiltrating fat. However, human studies are limited in their ability to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating fatty infiltration, a likely prerequisite to developing targeted interventions. As mechanistic investigations move to small animals, studies may benefit from new or adapted imaging tools optimized for high resolution and whole muscle quantification...
2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077128/treatment-planning-comparison-of-impt-vmat-and-4%C3%AF-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cases
#12
Angelia Tran, Jingjing Zhang, Kaley Woods, Victoria Yu, Dan Nguyen, Gary Gustafson, Lane Rosen, Ke Sheng
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), non-coplanar 4π intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) represent the most advanced treatment methods based on heavy ion and X-rays, respectively. Here we compare their performance for prostate cancer treatment. METHODS: Ten prostate patients were planned using IMPT with robustness optimization, VMAT, and 4π to an initial dose of 54 Gy to a clinical target volume (CTV) that encompassed the prostate and seminal vesicles, then a boost prescription dose of 25...
January 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075206/hydrogel-rectum-prostate-spacers-mitigate-the-uncertainties-in-proton-relative-biological-effectiveness-associated-with-anterior-oblique-beams
#13
Tracy S A Underwood, Justin C Voog, Maryam Moteabbed, Shikui Tang, Edward Soffen, Oren Cahlon, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Anthony L Zietman, Jason A Efstathiou, Harald Paganetti
AIM: Anterior-oblique (AO) proton beams can form an attractive option for prostate patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as they avoid the femoral heads. For a cohort with hydrogel prostate-rectum spacers, we asked whether it was possible to generate AO proton plans robust to end-of-range elevations in linear energy transfer (LET) and modeled relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Additionally we considered how rectal spacers influenced planned dose distributions for AO and standard bilateral (SB) proton beams versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
January 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075197/validation-of-an-established-prognostic-score-after-re-irradiation-of-recurrent-glioma
#14
Kerstin A Kessel, Josefine Hesse, Christoph Straube, Claus Zimmer, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Re-irradiation (Re-RT) is offered widely in clinical routine, and has been established as a key element in the treatment of recurrent gliomas. At our center, generally re-resection is performed widely by an experienced neurosurgical team. Thus, Re-RT mostly offered to patients with macroscopic residuals or irresectable lesions, is applied later compared to other centers. Therefore, we sought to validate the Combs Prognostic Score developed in 2012 using our independent patient cohort...
January 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075192/loss-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-expression-delays-mammary-tumorigenesis-and-reduces-localized-inflammation-in-the-c3-1-sv40tag-triple-negative-breast-cancer-model
#15
Taryn L Cranford, Kandy T Velázquez, Reilly T Enos, Jackie E Bader, Meredith S Carson, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Mitzi Nagarkatti, E Angela Murphy
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been implicated as a major modulator in the progression of mammary tumorigenesis, largely due to its ability to recruit macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are key mediators in the connection between inflammation and cancer progression and have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Thus, MCP-1 may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory and difficult-to-treat cancers such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We examined the effect of MCP-1 depletion on mammary tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074780/mri-directed-cognitive-fusion-guided-biopsy-of-the-anterior-prostate-tumors
#16
Ian G Murphy, Elaine NiMhurchu, Robert G Gibney, Colm J McMahon
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-directed cognitive fusion transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided anterior prostate biopsy for diagnosis of anterior prostate tumors and to illustrate this technique. METHODS: A total of 39 patients with previous negative TRUS biopsy, but high clinical suspicion of occult prostate cancer, prospectively underwent prostate MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Patients with a suspicious anterior lesion on MRI underwent targeted anterior gland TRUS guided biopsy with cognitive fusion technique using sagittal probe orientation...
January 11, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074231/development-of-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-acquisition-and-analysis-workflow-for-the-quantification-of-shock-wave-lithotripsy-induced-renal-hemorrhagic-injury
#17
Rajash K Handa, Paul R Territo, Philip M Blomgren, Scott A Persohn, Chen Lin, Cynthia D Johnson, Lei Jiang, Bret A Connors, Gary D Hutchins
The current accepted standard for quantifying shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)-induced tissue damage is based on morphometric detection of renal hemorrhage in serial tissue sections from fixed kidneys. This methodology is time and labor intensive and is tissue destructive. We have developed a non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that permits rapid assessment of SWL-induced hemorrhagic lesion volumes in post-mortem kidneys using native tissue contrast to reduce cycle time. Kidneys of anesthetized pigs were targeted with shock waves using the Dornier Compact S lithotripter...
January 10, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074015/electron-absorbed-fractions-in-an-image-based-microscopic-skeletal-dosimetry-model-of-chinese-adult-male
#18
Shenshen Gao, Li Ren, Rui Qiu, Zhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Junli Li
Based on the Chinese reference adult male voxel model, a set of microscopic skeletal models of Chinese adult male is constructed through the processes of computed tomography (CT) imaging, bone coring, micro-CT imaging, image segmentation, merging into macroscopic bone model and implementation in Geant4. At the step of image segmentation, a new bone endosteum (BE) segmentation method is realized by sampling. The set of model contains 32 spongiosa samples with voxel size of 19 μm cubes. The microscopic spongiosa bone data for Chinese adult male are provided...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073946/a-randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-comparing-two-dose-fractionations-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-sbrt-for-medically-inoperable-stage-ia-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-or-small-lung-lesions-clinically-diagnosed-as-primary-lung-cancer-japan-clinical-oncology-group
#19
EDITORIAL
Tomoki Kimura, Yasushi Nagata, Junko Eba, Shuichi Ozawa, Satoshi Ishikura, Taro Shibata, Yoshinori Ito, Masahiro Hiraoka, Yasumasa Nishimura
A randomized Phase III trial commenced in Japan in February 2016. Currently, 42 Gy in four fractions of stereotactic body radiotherapy prescribed at the D95% of the planning target volume, which is considered equal to the commonly used 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter using an old dose calculation algorithm, is the standard treatment in Japan for medically inoperable Stage IA non-small cell lung cancer and small lung lesions clinically diagnosed as primary lung cancer. This study aims to examine the superiority of 55 Gy in four fractions over 42 Gy in four fractions...
January 9, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073791/rapid-deployment-aortic-replacement-radar-registry-in-spain-a-protocol
#20
Victor Bautista-Hernandez, Natalia Cal-Purriños, Jose M Arribas-Leal, Manuel Carnero-Alcazar, Jose F Gutierrez-Diez, Jose J Cuenca-Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Rapid deployment valves (RDV) represent a newly introduced approach to aortic valve replacement which facilitates surgical implantation and minimally invasive techniques, shortens surgical times and shows excellent haemodynamic performance. However, evidence on their safety, efficacy and potential complications is mostly fitted with small-volume and retrospective studies. Moreover, no current guidelines exist. To improve our knowledge on this technology, The Rapid Deployment Aortic Replacement (RADAR) Registry will be established across Spain with the aim of assessing RDV outcomes in the real-world setting...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
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