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Neuroprosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163122/selectivity-and-longevity-of-peripheral-nerve-and-machine-interfaces-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Usman Ghafoor, Sohee Kim, Keum-Shik Hong
For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163010/an-axiology-of-information-security-for-futuristic-neuroprostheses-upholding-human-values-in-the-context-of-technological-posthumanization
#2
Matthew E Gladden
Previous works exploring the challenges of ensuring information security for neuroprosthetic devices and their users have typically built on the traditional InfoSec concept of the "CIA Triad" of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. However, we argue that the CIA Triad provides an increasingly inadequate foundation for envisioning information security for neuroprostheses, insofar as it presumes that (1) any computational systems to be secured are merely instruments for expressing their human users' agency, and (2) computing devices are conceptually and practically separable from their users...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148138/artificial-walking-technologies-to-improve-gait-in-cerebral-palsy-multichannel-neuromuscular-stimulation
#3
Jessica Rose, Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Erin E Butler
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127334/biological-assessments-of-multifunctional-hydrogel-decorated-implantable-neural-cuff-electrode-for-clinical-neurology-application
#4
Han-Jun Kim, Dong Nyoung Heo, Yi Jae Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Ji Yoon Kang, Soo Hyun Lee, I I Keun Kwon, Sun Hee Do
The implantable cuff electrode is an effective neuroprosthetic device in current nerve tissue engineering. However, biocompatibility and stability are still a serious dispute in terms of in vivo function and continuous monitoring. In this regard, assessing the host's biological response to biomaterials is one of the key factors of chronic implantation. In this article, we analyzed the peripheral nerve specific-biological responses to the application of multi-functional hydrogel-coated electrodes. The surface of the cuff electrode was modified using a multifunctional hydrogel composed of PEG hydrogel, cyclosporin A(CsA)-microsphere(MS) and electrodeposited PEDOT:PSS...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#5
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063229/interfacing-with-the-nervous-system-a-review-of-current-bioelectric-technologies
#6
REVIEW
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Jefferson W Chen, David T Chang, Omid Moshtaghi, Hamid R Djalilian, Harrison W Lin
The aim of this study is to discuss the state of the art with regard to established or promising bioelectric therapies meant to alter or control neurologic function. We present recent reports on bioelectric technologies that interface with the nervous system at three potential sites-(1) the end organ, (2) the peripheral nervous system, and (3) the central nervous system-while exploring practical and clinical considerations. A literature search was executed on PubMed, IEEE, and Web of Science databases. A review of the current literature was conducted to examine functional and histomorphological effects of neuroprosthetic interfaces with a focus on end-organ, peripheral, and central nervous system interfaces...
October 23, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060056/nanostructured-platinum-as-an-electrochemically-and-mechanically-stable-electrode-coating
#7
C Boehler, F Oberueber, T Stieglitz, M Asplund
Nanostructured materials exhibit large electrochemical surface areas and are thus of high interest for neural interfaces where low impedance and high charge transfer characteristics are desired. While progress in nanotechnology successively enabled smaller feature sizes and thus improved electrochemical properties, concerns were raised with respect to the mechanical stability of such nano structures for use in neural applications. In our study we address these concerns by investigating the mechanical and electrochemical stability of nanostructured platinum...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060052/comparative-evaluation-of-different-wavelet-thresholding-methods-for-neural-signal-processing
#8
Gianluca Barabino, Giulia Baldazzi, Eleonora Sulas, Caterina Carboni, Luigi Raffo, Danilo Pani
Neural signal decoding is the basis for the development of neuroprosthetic devices and systems. Depending on the part of the nervous system these signals are picked up from, different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) can be experienced. Wavelet denoising is often adopted due to its capability of reducing, to some extent, the noise falling within the signal spectrum. Several variables influence the denoising quality, but usually the focus in on the selection of the best performing mother wavelet. However, the threshold definition and the way it is applied to the signal have a significant impact on the denoising quality, determining the amount of noise removed and the distortion introduced on the signal...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046111/eeg-classification-with-a-sequential-decision-making-method-in-motor-imagery-bci
#9
Rong Liu, Yongxuan Wang, Geoffrey I Newman, Nitish V Thakor, Sarah Ying
To develop subject-specific classifier to recognize mental states fast and reliably is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this paper, a sequential decision-making strategy is explored in conjunction with an optimal wavelet analysis for EEG classification. The subject-specific wavelet parameters based on a grid-search method were first developed to determine evidence accumulative curve for the sequential classifier...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035219/an-embedded-real-time-processing-platform-for-optogenetic-neuroprosthetic-applications
#10
Boyuan Yan, Sheila Nirenberg
Optogenetics offers a powerful new approach for controlling neural circuits. It has numerous applications in both basic and clinical science. These applications require stimulating devices with small processors that can perform real-time neural signal processing, deliver high intensity light with high spatial and temporal resolution, and do not consume a lot of power. In this paper, we demonstrate the implementation of neuronal models in a platform consisting of an embedded system module and a portable DLP projector...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017900/neural-electrode-resilience-against-dielectric-damage-may-be-improved-by-use-of-highly-doped-silicon-as-a-conductive-material
#11
Ryan Caldwell, Rohit Sharma, Pavel Takmakov, Matthew G Street, Florian Solzbacher, Prashant Tathireddy, Loren Rieth
BACKGROUND: Dielectric damage occurring in vivo to neural electrodes, leading to conductive material exposure and impedance reduction over time, limits the functional lifetime and clinical viability of neuroprosthetics. We used silicon micromachined Utah Electrode Arrays (UEAs) with iridium oxide (IrOx) tip metallization and parylene C dielectric encapsulation to understand the factors affecting device resilience and drive improvements. NEW METHOD: In vitro impedance measurements and finite element analyses were conducted to evaluate how exposed surface area of silicon and IrOx affect UEA properties...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993523/giuliano-vanghetti-and-the-innovation-of-cineplastic-operations
#12
REVIEW
Peppino Tropea, Alberto Mazzoni, Silvestro Micera, Massimo Corbo
OBJECTIVE: Developing functional artificial limbs for amputees has been a centuries-old challenge in medicine. We review the mechanical and neurologic principles of "cineplastic operations" and "plastic motors" used to restore movements in prostheses, with special attention to the work of Giuliano Vanghetti. METHODS: We evaluated original publications describing cineplastic operations, biographic information, writings, drawings, and unpublished letters from the Vanghetti library, preserved in Empoli, Italy, and performed a bibliographic search and comparison for similar procedures in the literature...
October 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966581/enhancing-performance-of-a-hybrid-eeg-fnirs-system-using-channel-selection-and-early-temporal-features
#13
Rihui Li, Thomas Potter, Weitian Huang, Yingchun Zhang
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques hold a great promise for neuroprosthetic applications. A desirable BCI system should be portable, minimally invasive, and feature high classification accuracy and efficiency. As two commonly used non-invasive brain imaging modalities, Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) BCI system have often been incorporated in the development of hybrid BCI systems, largely due to their complimentary properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the early temporal information extracted from singular EEG and fNIRS channels on each hemisphere can be used to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of a hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI system...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918755/mosaic-decisionmaking-and-reemergent-agency-after-severe-brain-injury
#14
Joseph J Fins
In this article, I will discuss the challenge posed by the reemergent agency of individuals with severe brain injury whose ability to communicate has been partially restored by neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation. Instead of categorically distinguishing patients as either competent or incompetent, these technologies necessitate a more nuanced approach to intermediate states of decisionmaking capacity. This indeterminacy is addressed through a mosaic approach to decisionmaking, which seeks to achieve a proportionate and prudent balance between unbridled self-determination and conventional surrogate representation...
September 18, 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894826/functional-and-histological-effects-of-chronic-neural-electrode-implantation
#15
REVIEW
Ronald Sahyouni, David T Chang, Omid Moshtaghi, Amin Mahmoodi, Hamid R Djalilian, Harrison W Lin
OBJECTIVES: Permanent injury to the cranial nerves can often result in a substantial reduction in quality of life. Novel and innovative interventions can help restore form and function in nerve paralysis, with bioelectric interfaces among the more promising of these approaches. The foreign body response is an important consideration for any bioelectric device as it influences the function and effectiveness of the implant. The purpose of this review is to describe tissue and functional effects of chronic neural implantation among the different categories of neural implants and highlight advances in peripheral and cranial nerve stimulation...
April 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885187/a-review-on-mechanical-considerations-for-chronically-implanted-neural-probes
#16
Aziliz Lecomte, Emeline Descamps, Christian Bergaud
This review intends on presenting a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical considerations for chronically-implanted neural probes. Failure of neural electrical recordings or stimulation over time has shown to arise from foreign body reaction and device material stability. It seems that devices that match most closely the mechanical properties of the brain would more likely reduce the mechanical stress at the probe/tissue interface, thus improving body acceptance. The use of low Young's modulus polymers instead of hard substrates is a known way to enhance this mechanical mimetism, though compliance can be achieved through a variety of means...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880183/gaussian-process-autoregression-for-simultaneous-proportional-multi-modal-prosthetic-control-with-natural-hand-kinematics
#17
Michele Xiloyannis, Constantinos Gavriel, Andreas A C Thomik, A Aldo Faisal
Matching the dexterity, versatility and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use musclerelated signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863690/erratum-a-memory-efficient-implementation-scheme-of-gauss-error-function-in-a-laguerre-volterra-network-for-neuroprosthetic-devices-rev-sci-instrum-88-044301-2017
#18
Will X Y Li, Ke Cui, Wei Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843655/phantom-limbs-neuroprosthetics-and-the-developmental-origins-of-embodiment
#19
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg, James C Dooley
Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development...
October 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827605/neuroprosthetic-enabled-control-of-graded-arm-muscle-contraction-in-a-paralyzed-human
#20
David A Friedenberg, Michael A Schwemmer, Andrew J Landgraf, Nicholas V Annetta, Marcia A Bockbrader, Chad E Bouton, Mingming Zhang, Ali R Rezai, W Jerry Mysiw, Herbert S Bresler, Gaurav Sharma
Neuroprosthetics that combine a brain computer interface (BCI) with functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore voluntary control of a patients' own paralyzed limbs. To date, human studies have demonstrated an "all-or-none" type of control for a fixed number of pre-determined states, like hand-open and hand-closed. To be practical for everyday use, a BCI-FES system should enable smooth control of limb movements through a continuum of states and generate situationally appropriate, graded muscle contractions...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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