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Neuroprosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717707/electrode-size-dependent-thresholds-in-subretinal-neuroprosthetic-stimulation
#1
Andrea Corna, Thoralf Herrmann, Guenther Zeck
Retinal prostheses have shown promising results in restoring some visual perception to blind patients but successful identification of objects of different size remains a challenge. Here we investigated electrode-size specific stimulation thresholds and their variability for subretinal electrical stimulation. Our findings indicate the range of charge densities required to achieve identification of small objects and the object-size-specific scaling of stimulation threshold.
 Approach: 
 Using biphasic voltage - limited current stimuli provided by a light-sensitive microchip, we determined threshold charge densities for stimulation with variable electrode sizes...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698736/enhancement-of-motor-imagery-ability-via-combined-action-observation-and-motor-imagery-training-with-proprioceptive-neurofeedback
#2
Yumie Ono, Kenya Wada, Masaya Kurata, Naoto Seki
Varied individual ability to control the sensory-motor rhythms may limit the potential use of motor-imagery (MI) in neurorehabilitation and neuroprosthetics. We employed neurofeedback training of MI under action observation (AO: AOMI) with proprioceptive feedback and examined whether it could enhance MI-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD). Twenty-eight healthy young adults participated in the neurofeedback training. They performed MI while watching a video of hand-squeezing motion from a first-person perspective...
April 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670506/dexterous-control-of-seven-functional-hand-movements-using-cortically-controlled-transcutaneous-muscle-stimulation-in-a-person-with-tetraplegia
#3
Samuel C Colachis, Marcie A Bockbrader, Mingming Zhang, David A Friedenberg, Nicholas V Annetta, Michael A Schwemmer, Nicholas D Skomrock, Walter J Mysiw, Ali R Rezai, Herbert S Bresler, Gaurav Sharma
Individuals with tetraplegia identify restoration of hand function as a critical, unmet need to regain their independence and improve quality of life. Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) technology addresses this need by reconnecting the brain with paralyzed limbs to restore function. In this study, we quantified performance of an intuitive, cortically-controlled, transcutaneous FES system on standardized object manipulation tasks from the Grasp and Release Test (GRT)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651458/differential-expression-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-afferent-neurons-renders-selective-neural-block-by-ionic-direct-current
#4
Fei Yang, Michael Anderson, Shaoqiu He, Kimberly Stephens, Yu Zheng, Zhiyong Chen, Srinivasa N Raja, Felix Aplin, Yun Guan, Gene Fridman
The assertion that large-diameter nerve fibers have low thresholds and small-diameter fibers have high thresholds in response to electrical stimulation has been held in a nearly axiomatic regard in the field of neuromodulation and neuroprosthetics. In contrast to the short pulses used to evoke action potentials, long-duration ionic direct current has been shown to block neural activity. We propose that the main determinant of the neural sensitivity to direct current block is not the size of the axon but the types of voltage-gated sodium channels prevalent in its neural membrane...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618966/integration-of-nanobots-into-neural-circuits-as-a-future-therapy-for-treating-neurodegenerative-disorders
#5
Arthur Saniotis, Maciej Henneberg, Abdul-Rahman Sawalma
Recent neuroscientific research demonstrates that the human brain is becoming altered by technological devices. Improvements in biotechnologies and computer based technologies are now increasing the likelihood for the development of brain augmentation devices in the next 20 years. We have developed the idea of an "Endomyccorhizae like interface" (ELI) nanocognitive device as a new kind of future neuroprosthetic which aims to facilitate neuronal network properties in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519457/extinction-as-a-deficit-of-the-decision-making-circuitry-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex
#6
Vassilios N Christopoulos, Kristen N Andersen, Richard A Andersen
Extinction is a common neurologic deficit that often occurs as one of a constellation of symptoms seen with lesions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Although extinction has typically been considered a deficit in the allocation of attention, new findings, particularly from nonhuman primate studies, point to one potential and important source of extinction as damage to decision-making circuits for actions within the PPC. This new understanding provides clues to potential therapies for extinction. Also the finding that the PPC is important for action decisions and action planning has led to new neuroprosthetic applications using PPC recordings as control signals to assist paralyzed patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498358/motor-commands-decoding-using-peripheral-nerve-signals-a-review
#7
Keum-Shik Hong, Nida Aziz, Usman Ghafoor
During the last few decades, substantial scientific and technological efforts have been focused on the development of neuroprostheses. The major emphasis has been on techniques for connecting the human nervous system with a robotic prosthesis via natural-feeling interfaces. The peripheral nerves provide access to highly processed and segregated neural command signals from the brain that can in principle be used to determine user intent and control muscles. If these signals could be used, they might allow near-natural and intuitive control of prosthetic limbs with multiple degrees of freedom...
June 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398914/-low-road-to-rehabilitation-a-perspective-on-subliminal-sensory-neuroprosthetics
#8
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
Fear can propagate parallelly through both cortical and subcortical pathways. It can instigate memory consolidation habitually and might allow internal simulation of movements independent of the cortical structures. This perspective suggests delivery of subliminal, aversive and kinematic audiovisual stimuli via neuroprosthetics in patients with neocortical dysfunctions. We suggest possible scenarios by which these stimuli might bypass damaged neocortical structures and possibly assisting in motor relearning...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381054/mesh-nanoelectronics-seamless-integration-of-electronics-with-tissues
#9
Xiaochuan Dai, Guosong Hong, Teng Gao, Charles M Lieber
Nanobioelectronics represents a rapidly developing field with broad-ranging opportunities in fundamental biological sciences, biotechnology, and medicine. Despite this potential, seamless integration of electronics has been difficult due to fundamental mismatches, including size and mechanical properties, between the elements of the electronic and living biological systems. In this Account, we discuss the concept, development, key demonstrations, and future opportunities of mesh nanoelectronics as a general paradigm for seamless integration of electronics within synthetic tissues and live animals...
February 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378977/real-time-classification-of-auditory-sentences-using-evoked-cortical-activity-in-humans
#10
David Aaron Moses, Matthew Leonard, Edward F Chang
OBJECTIVE: Recent research has characterized the anatomical and functional basis of speech perception in the human auditory cortex. These advances have made it possible to decode speech information from activity in brain regions like the superior temporal gyrus, but no published work has demonstrated this ability in real-time, which is necessary for neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces. APPROACH: Here, we introduce a real-time Neural Speech Recognition (rtNSR) software package, which was used to classify spoken input from high-resolution electrocorticography signals in real-time...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378445/real-time-closed-loop-functional-electrical-stimulation-control-of-muscle-activation-with-evoked-electromyography-feedback-for-spinal-cord-injured-patients
#11
Zhan Li, David Guiraud, David Andreu, Anthony Gelis, Charles Fattal, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a neuroprosthetic technique to help restore motor function of spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients. Through delivery of electrical pulses to muscles of motor-impaired subjects, FES is able to artificially induce their muscle contractions. Evoked electromyography (eEMG) is used to record such FES-induced electrical muscle activity and presents a form of [Formula: see text]-wave. In order to monitor electrical muscle activity under stimulation and ensure safe stimulation configurations, closed-loop FES control with eEMG feedback is needed to be developed for SCI patients who lose their voluntary muscle contraction ability...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350183/integrated-biocircuits-engineering-functional-multicellular-circuits-and-devices
#12
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
OBJECTIVE: Implantable neurotechnologies have revolutionized neuromodulatory medicine for treating the dysfunction of diseased neural circuitry. However, challenges with biocompatibility and lack of full control over neural network communication and function limits the potential to create more stable and robust neuromodulation devices. Thus, we propose a platform technology of implantable and programmable cellular systems, namely Integrated Biocircuits, which use only cells as the functional components of the device...
April 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323135/peptide-based-coatings-for-flexible-implantable-neural-interfaces
#13
Martina Righi, Gian Luigi Puleo, Ilaria Tonazzini, Guido Giudetti, Marco Cecchini, Silvestro Micera
In the last decade, the use of flexible biosensors for neuroprosthetic and translational applications has widely increased. Among them, the polyimide (PI)-based thin-film electrodes got a large popularity. However, the usability of these devices is still hampered by a non-optimal tissue-device interface that usually compromises the long-term quality of neural signals. Advanced strategies able to improve the surface properties of these devices have been developed in the recent past. Unfortunately, most of them are not easy to be developed and combined with micro-fabrication processes, and require long-term efforts to be testable with human subjects...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249656/brain-computer-interface-with-inhibitory-neurons-reveals-subtype-specific-strategies
#14
Akinori Mitani, Mingyuan Dong, Takaki Komiyama
Brain-computer interfaces have seen an increase in popularity due to their potential for direct neuroprosthetic applications for amputees and disabled individuals. Supporting this promise, animals-including humans-can learn even arbitrary mapping between the activity of cortical neurons and movement of prosthetic devices [1-4]. However, the performance of neuroprosthetic device control has been nowhere near that of limb control in healthy individuals, presenting a dire need to improve the performance. One potential limitation is the fact that previous work has not distinguished diverse cell types in the neocortex, even though different cell types possess distinct functions in cortical computations [5-7] and likely distinct capacities to control brain-computer interfaces...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225565/commentary-emergence-of-a-stable-cortical-map-for-neuroprosthetic-control
#15
COMMENT
Mikhail A Lebedev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209023/motor-cortical-activity-changes-during-neuroprosthetic-controlled-object-interaction
#16
John E Downey, Lucas Brane, Robert A Gaunt, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Michael L Boninger, Jennifer L Collinger
Brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled prosthetic arms are being developed to restore function to people with upper-limb paralysis. This work provides an opportunity to analyze human cortical activity during complex tasks. Previously we observed that BCI control became more difficult during interactions with objects, although we did not quantify the neural origins of this phenomena. Here, we investigated how motor cortical activity changed in the presence of an object independently of the kinematics that were being generated using intracortical recordings from two people with tetraplegia...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200477/evolutionary-algorithm-optimization-of-biological-learning-parameters-in-a-biomimetic-neuroprosthesis
#17
S Dura-Bernal, S A Neymotin, C C Kerr, S Sivagnanam, A Majumdar, J T Francis, W W Lytton
Biomimetic simulation permits neuroscientists to better understand the complex neuronal dynamics of the brain. Embedding a biomimetic simulation in a closed-loop neuroprosthesis, which can read and write signals from the brain, will permit applications for amelioration of motor, psychiatric, and memory-related brain disorders. Biomimetic neuroprostheses require real-time adaptation to changes in the external environment, thus constituting an example of a dynamic data-driven application system. As model fidelity increases, so does the number of parameters and the complexity of finding appropriate parameter configurations...
March 2017: IBM Journal of Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181432/cochlear-implant-phantom-for-evaluating-computed-tomography-acquisition-parameters
#18
Srijata Chakravorti, Brian J Bussey, Yiyuan Zhao, Benoit M Dawant, Robert F Labadie, Jack H Noble
Cochlear implants (CIs) are surgically implantable neuroprosthetic devices used to treat profound hearing loss. Recent literature indicates that there is a correlation between the final intracochlear positioning of the CI electrode arrays and the ultimate hearing outcome of the patient, indicating that further studies to better understand the relationship between electrode position and outcomes could have significant implications for future surgical techniques, array design, and processor programming methods...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163122/selectivity-and-longevity-of-peripheral-nerve-and-machine-interfaces-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Usman Ghafoor, Sohee Kim, Keum-Shik Hong
For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163010/an-axiology-of-information-security-for-futuristic-neuroprostheses-upholding-human-values-in-the-context-of-technological-posthumanization
#20
Matthew E Gladden
Previous works exploring the challenges of ensuring information security for neuroprosthetic devices and their users have typically built on the traditional InfoSec concept of the "CIA Triad" of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. However, we argue that the CIA Triad provides an increasingly inadequate foundation for envisioning information security for neuroprostheses, insofar as it presumes that (1) any computational systems to be secured are merely instruments for expressing their human users' agency, and (2) computing devices are conceptually and practically separable from their users...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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