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Neuroprosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059065/rapid-control-and-feedback-rates-enhance-neuroprosthetic-control
#1
Maryam M Shanechi, Amy L Orsborn, Helene G Moorman, Suraj Gowda, Siddharth Dangi, Jose M Carmena
Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) create novel sensorimotor pathways for action. Much as the sensorimotor apparatus shapes natural motor control, the BMI pathway characteristics may also influence neuroprosthetic control. Here, we explore the influence of control and feedback rates, where control rate indicates how often motor commands are sent from the brain to the prosthetic, and feedback rate indicates how often visual feedback of the prosthetic is provided to the subject. We developed a new BMI that allows arbitrarily fast control and feedback rates, and used it to dissociate the effects of each rate in two monkeys...
January 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009244/neuroethics-and-disorders-of-consciousness-discerning-brain-states-in-clinical-practice-and-research
#2
Joseph J Fins
Decisions about end-of-life care and participation in clinical research for patients with disorders of consciousness begin with diagnostic discernment. Accurately distinguishing between brain states clarifies clinicians' ethical obligations and responsibilities. Central to this effort is the obligation to provide neuropalliative care for patients in the minimally conscious state who can perceive pain and to restore functional communication through neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation to patients with intact but underactivated neural networks...
December 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000616/use-of-spatiotemporal-templates-for-pathway-discrimination-in-peripheral-nerve-recordings-a-simulation-study
#3
Ryan G L Koh, Adrian I Nachman, José Zariffa
OBJECTIVE: Extraction of information from the peripheral nervous system can provide control signals in neuroprosthetic applications. However, the ability to selectively record from different pathways within peripheral nerves is limited. We investigated the integration of spatial and temporal information for pathway discrimination in peripheral nerves using measurements from a multi-contact nerve cuff electrode. APPROACH: Spatiotemporal templates were established for different neural pathways of interest, and used to obtain tailored matched filters for each of these pathways...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995126/discriminability-of-single-and-multichannel-intracortical-microstimulation-within-somatosensory-cortex
#4
Cynthia K Overstreet, Randall B Hellman, Ruben D Ponce Wong, Veronica J Santos, Stephen I Helms Tillery
The addition of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to neuroprosthetic limbs is expected to significantly improve the control of these devices. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of somatosensory cortex is a promising method of delivering this sensory feedback. To date, the main focus of somatosensory ICMS studies has been to deliver discriminable signals, corresponding to varying intensity, to a single location in cortex. However, multiple independent and simultaneous streams of sensory information will need to be encoded by ICMS to provide functionally relevant feedback for a neuroprosthetic limb (e...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990235/a-hybrid-functional-electrical-stimulation-for-real-time-estimation-of-joint-torque-and-closed-loop-control-of-muscle-activation
#5
Zhan Li, David Guiraud, David Andreu, Charles Fattal, Anthony Gelis, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
As a neuroprosthetic technique, functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore lost motor performance of impaired patients. Through delivering electrical pulses to target muscles, the joint movement can be eventually elicited. This work presents a real-time FES system which is able to deal with two neuroprosthetic missions: one is estimating FES-induced joint torque with evoked electromyograph (eEMG), and the other is artificially controlling muscle activation with such eEMG feedback. The clinical experiment results on spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and healthy subjects show promising performance of the proposed FES system...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977419/a-computational-model-that-predicts-behavioral-sensitivity-to-intracortical-microstimulation
#6
Sungshin Kim, Thierri Callier, Sliman J Bensmaia
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a powerful tool to investigate the neural mechanisms of perception and can be used to restore sensation for patients who have lost it. While sensitivity to ICMS has previously been characterized, no systematic framework has been developed to summarize the detectability of individual ICMS pulse trains or the discriminability of pairs of pulse trains. APPROACH: We develop a simple simulation that describes the responses of a population of neurons to a train of electrical pulses delivered through a microelectrode...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833537/forward-prediction-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-and-dynamic-brain-machine-interface
#7
He Cui
While remarkable progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) over the past two decades, it is still difficult to utilize neural signals to drive artificial actuators to produce predictive movements in response to dynamic stimuli. In contrast to naturalistic limb movements largely based on forward planning, brain-controlled neuroprosthetics mainly rely on feedback without prior trajectory formation. As an important sensorimotor interface integrating multisensory inputs and efference copy, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might play a proactive role in predictive motor control...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819256/long-term-stability-of-intracortical-recordings-using-perforated-and-arrayed-parylene-sheath-electrodes
#8
Seth A Hara, Brian J Kim, Jonathan T W Kuo, Curtis D Lee, Ellis Meng, Victor Pikov
OBJECTIVE: Acquisition of reliable and robust neural recordings with intracortical neural probes is a persistent challenge in the field of neuroprosthetics. We developed a multielectrode array technology to address chronic intracortical recording reliability and present in vivo recording results. APPROACH: The 2 × 2 Parylene sheath electrode array (PSEA) was microfabricated and constructed from only Parylene C and platinum. The probe includes a novel three-dimensional sheath structure, perforations, and bioactive coatings that improve tissue integration and manage immune response...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768048/fabrication-of-high-contact-density-flat-interface-nerve-electrodes-for-recording-and-stimulation-applications
#9
Yazan M Dweiri, Matthew A Stone, Dustin J Tyler, Grant A McCallum, Dominique M Durand
Many attempts have been made to manufacture multi-contact nerve cuff electrodes that are safe, robust and reliable for long term neuroprosthetic applications. This protocol describes a fabrication technique of a modified cylindrical nerve cuff electrode to meet these criteria. Minimum computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM) skills are necessary to consistently produce cuffs with high precision (contact placement 0.51 ± 0.04 mm) and various cuff sizes. The precision in spatially distributing the contacts and the ability to retain a predefined geometry accomplished with this design are two criteria essential to optimize the cuff's interface for selective recording and stimulation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759013/corrigendum-real-time-control-of-a-neuroprosthetic-hand-by-magnetoencephalographic-signals-from-paralysed-patients
#10
Ryohei Fukuma, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Youichi Saitoh, Koichi Hosomi, Haruhiko Kishima, Takeshi Shimizu, Hisato Sugata, Hiroshi Yokoi, Masayuki Hirata, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Toshiki Yoshimine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757072/influence-of-biphasic-stimulation-on-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-for-neuroprosthetic-devices
#11
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707977/engagement-of-the-rat-hindlimb-motor-cortex-across-natural-locomotor-behaviors
#12
Jack DiGiovanna, Nadia Dominici, Lucia Friedli, Jacopo Rigosa, Simone Duis, Julie Kreider, Janine Beauparlant, Rubia van den Brand, Marco Schieppati, Silvestro Micera, Grégoire Courtine
: Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701161/bioelectric-medicine-and-devices-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Tess Torregrosa, Ryan A Koppes
Recovery of motor control is paramount for patients living with paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI). While a cure or regenerative intervention remains on the horizon for the treatment of SCI, a number of neuroprosthetic devices have been employed to treat and mitigate the symptoms of paralysis associated with injuries to the spinal column and associated comorbidities. The recent success of epidural stimulation to restore voluntary motor function in the lower limbs of a small cohort of patients has breathed new life into the promise of electric-based medicine...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673011/poster-253-implanted-brain-computer-interface-controlling-a-neuroprosthetic-for-increasing-upper-limb-function-in-a-human-with-tetraparesis
#14
Marcie Bockbrader, Matthew J Kortes, Nicholas Annetta, Connor Majstorovic, Gaurav Sharma, David A Friedenberg, Austin Morgan, Herb Bresler, W Mysiw, Ali R Rezai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666698/real-time-encoding-and-compression-of-neuronal-spikes-by-metal-oxide-memristors
#15
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Ralf Zeitler, Stefano Vassanelli, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Advanced brain-chip interfaces with numerous recording sites bear great potential for investigation of neuroprosthetic applications. The bottleneck towards achieving an efficient bio-electronic link is the real-time processing of neuronal signals, which imposes excessive requirements on bandwidth, energy and computation capacity. Here we present a unique concept where the intrinsic properties of memristive devices are exploited to compress information on neural spikes in real-time. We demonstrate that the inherent voltage thresholds of metal-oxide memristors can be used for discriminating recorded spiking events from background activity and without resorting to computationally heavy off-line processing...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658585/using-an-artificial-neural-bypass-to-restore-cortical-control-of-rhythmic-movements-in-a-human-with-quadriplegia
#16
Gaurav Sharma, David A Friedenberg, Nicholas Annetta, Bradley Glenn, Marcie Bockbrader, Connor Majstorovic, Stephanie Domas, W Jerry Mysiw, Ali Rezai, Chad Bouton
Neuroprosthetic technology has been used to restore cortical control of discrete (non-rhythmic) hand movements in a paralyzed person. However, cortical control of rhythmic movements which originate in the brain but are coordinated by Central Pattern Generator (CPG) neural networks in the spinal cord has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show a demonstration of an artificial neural bypass technology that decodes cortical activity and emulates spinal cord CPG function allowing volitional rhythmic hand movement...
September 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640345/assimilation-of-virtual-legs-and-perception-of-floor-texture-by-complete-paraplegic-patients-receiving-artificial-tactile-feedback
#17
Solaiman Shokur, Simone Gallo, Renan C Moioli, Ana Rita C Donati, Edgard Morya, Hannes Bleuler, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient's brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients' forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590969/brain-machine-interfaces-for-rehabilitation-of-poststroke-hemiplegia
#18
J Ushiba, S R Soekadar
Noninvasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are typically associated with neuroprosthetic applications or communication aids developed to assist in daily life after loss of motor function, eg, in severe paralysis. However, BMI technology has recently been found to be a powerful tool to promote neural plasticity facilitating motor recovery after brain damage, eg, due to stroke or trauma. In such BMI paradigms, motor cortical output and input are simultaneously activated, for instance by translating motor cortical activity associated with the attempt to move the paralyzed fingers into actual exoskeleton-driven finger movements, resulting in contingent visual and somatosensory feedback...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590967/multisession-noninvasive-closed-loop-neuroprosthetic-control-of-grasping-by-upper-limb-amputees
#19
H A Agashe, A Y Paek, J L Contreras-Vidal
Upper limb amputation results in a severe reduction in the quality of life of affected individuals due to their inability to easily perform activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that translate grasping intent from the brain's neural activity into prosthetic control may increase the level of natural control currently available in myoelectric prostheses. Current BMI techniques demonstrate accurate arm position and single degree-of-freedom grasp control but are invasive and require daily recalibration...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567757/illusion-of-arm-movement-evoked-by-tendon-vibration-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Gabriele Fusco, Emmanuele Tidoni, Nicola Barone, Claudio Pilati, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
BACKGROUND: Studies in healthy people show that stimulation of muscle spindles through frequency-specific tendon vibration (TV) induces the illusory perception of movement. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), motor and sensory connections between the brain and parts of the body below-the-lesion level are partially or totally impaired. OBJECTIVE: The present investigation is a descriptive study aimed to investigate whether people living with SCI may experience movement illusions comparable to a control group...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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