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Neuroprosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323135/peptide-based-coatings-for-flexible-implantable-neural-interfaces
#1
Martina Righi, Gian Luigi Puleo, Ilaria Tonazzini, Guido Giudetti, Marco Cecchini, Silvestro Micera
In the last decade, the use of flexible biosensors for neuroprosthetic and translational applications has widely increased. Among them, the polyimide (PI)-based thin-film electrodes got a large popularity. However, the usability of these devices is still hampered by a non-optimal tissue-device interface that usually compromises the long-term quality of neural signals. Advanced strategies able to improve the surface properties of these devices have been developed in the recent past. Unfortunately, most of them are not easy to be developed and combined with micro-fabrication processes, and require long-term efforts to be testable with human subjects...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249656/brain-computer-interface-with-inhibitory-neurons-reveals-subtype-specific-strategies
#2
Akinori Mitani, Mingyuan Dong, Takaki Komiyama
Brain-computer interfaces have seen an increase in popularity due to their potential for direct neuroprosthetic applications for amputees and disabled individuals. Supporting this promise, animals-including humans-can learn even arbitrary mapping between the activity of cortical neurons and movement of prosthetic devices [1-4]. However, the performance of neuroprosthetic device control has been nowhere near that of limb control in healthy individuals, presenting a dire need to improve the performance. One potential limitation is the fact that previous work has not distinguished diverse cell types in the neocortex, even though different cell types possess distinct functions in cortical computations [5-7] and likely distinct capacities to control brain-computer interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225565/commentary-emergence-of-a-stable-cortical-map-for-neuroprosthetic-control
#3
COMMENT
Mikhail A Lebedev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209023/motor-cortical-activity-changes-during-neuroprosthetic-controlled-object-interaction
#4
John E Downey, Lucas Brane, Robert A Gaunt, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Michael L Boninger, Jennifer L Collinger
Brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled prosthetic arms are being developed to restore function to people with upper-limb paralysis. This work provides an opportunity to analyze human cortical activity during complex tasks. Previously we observed that BCI control became more difficult during interactions with objects, although we did not quantify the neural origins of this phenomena. Here, we investigated how motor cortical activity changed in the presence of an object independently of the kinematics that were being generated using intracortical recordings from two people with tetraplegia...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200477/evolutionary-algorithm-optimization-of-biological-learning-parameters-in-a-biomimetic-neuroprosthesis
#5
S Dura-Bernal, S A Neymotin, C C Kerr, S Sivagnanam, A Majumdar, J T Francis, W W Lytton
Biomimetic simulation permits neuroscientists to better understand the complex neuronal dynamics of the brain. Embedding a biomimetic simulation in a closed-loop neuroprosthesis, which can read and write signals from the brain, will permit applications for amelioration of motor, psychiatric, and memory-related brain disorders. Biomimetic neuroprostheses require real-time adaptation to changes in the external environment, thus constituting an example of a dynamic data-driven application system. As model fidelity increases, so does the number of parameters and the complexity of finding appropriate parameter configurations...
March 2017: IBM Journal of Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181432/cochlear-implant-phantom-for-evaluating-computed-tomography-acquisition-parameters
#6
Srijata Chakravorti, Brian J Bussey, Yiyuan Zhao, Benoit M Dawant, Robert F Labadie, Jack H Noble
Cochlear implants (CIs) are surgically implantable neuroprosthetic devices used to treat profound hearing loss. Recent literature indicates that there is a correlation between the final intracochlear positioning of the CI electrode arrays and the ultimate hearing outcome of the patient, indicating that further studies to better understand the relationship between electrode position and outcomes could have significant implications for future surgical techniques, array design, and processor programming methods...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163122/selectivity-and-longevity-of-peripheral-nerve-and-machine-interfaces-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Usman Ghafoor, Sohee Kim, Keum-Shik Hong
For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163010/an-axiology-of-information-security-for-futuristic-neuroprostheses-upholding-human-values-in-the-context-of-technological-posthumanization
#8
Matthew E Gladden
Previous works exploring the challenges of ensuring information security for neuroprosthetic devices and their users have typically built on the traditional InfoSec concept of the "CIA Triad" of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. However, we argue that the CIA Triad provides an increasingly inadequate foundation for envisioning information security for neuroprostheses, insofar as it presumes that (1) any computational systems to be secured are merely instruments for expressing their human users' agency, and (2) computing devices are conceptually and practically separable from their users...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148138/artificial-walking-technologies-to-improve-gait-in-cerebral-palsy-multichannel-neuromuscular-stimulation
#9
Jessica Rose, Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Erin E Butler
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127334/biological-assessments-of-multifunctional-hydrogel-decorated-implantable-neural-cuff-electrode-for-clinical-neurology-application
#10
Han-Jun Kim, Dong Nyoung Heo, Yi Jae Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Ji Yoon Kang, Soo Hyun Lee, I I Keun Kwon, Sun Hee Do
The implantable cuff electrode is an effective neuroprosthetic device in current nerve tissue engineering. However, biocompatibility and stability are still a serious dispute in terms of in vivo function and continuous monitoring. In this regard, assessing the host's biological response to biomaterials is one of the key factors of chronic implantation. In this article, we analyzed the peripheral nerve specific-biological responses to the application of multi-functional hydrogel-coated electrodes. The surface of the cuff electrode was modified using a multifunctional hydrogel composed of PEG hydrogel, cyclosporin A(CsA)-microsphere(MS) and electrodeposited PEDOT:PSS...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#11
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063229/interfacing-with-the-nervous-system-a-review-of-current-bioelectric-technologies
#12
REVIEW
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Jefferson W Chen, David T Chang, Omid Moshtaghi, Hamid R Djalilian, Harrison W Lin
The aim of this study is to discuss the state of the art with regard to established or promising bioelectric therapies meant to alter or control neurologic function. We present recent reports on bioelectric technologies that interface with the nervous system at three potential sites-(1) the end organ, (2) the peripheral nervous system, and (3) the central nervous system-while exploring practical and clinical considerations. A literature search was executed on PubMed, IEEE, and Web of Science databases. A review of the current literature was conducted to examine functional and histomorphological effects of neuroprosthetic interfaces with a focus on end-organ, peripheral, and central nervous system interfaces...
October 23, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060056/nanostructured-platinum-as-an-electrochemically-and-mechanically-stable-electrode-coating
#13
C Boehler, F Oberueber, T Stieglitz, M Asplund
Nanostructured materials exhibit large electrochemical surface areas and are thus of high interest for neural interfaces where low impedance and high charge transfer characteristics are desired. While progress in nanotechnology successively enabled smaller feature sizes and thus improved electrochemical properties, concerns were raised with respect to the mechanical stability of such nano structures for use in neural applications. In our study we address these concerns by investigating the mechanical and electrochemical stability of nanostructured platinum...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060052/comparative-evaluation-of-different-wavelet-thresholding-methods-for-neural-signal-processing
#14
Gianluca Barabino, Giulia Baldazzi, Eleonora Sulas, Caterina Carboni, Luigi Raffo, Danilo Pani
Neural signal decoding is the basis for the development of neuroprosthetic devices and systems. Depending on the part of the nervous system these signals are picked up from, different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) can be experienced. Wavelet denoising is often adopted due to its capability of reducing, to some extent, the noise falling within the signal spectrum. Several variables influence the denoising quality, but usually the focus in on the selection of the best performing mother wavelet. However, the threshold definition and the way it is applied to the signal have a significant impact on the denoising quality, determining the amount of noise removed and the distortion introduced on the signal...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046111/eeg-classification-with-a-sequential-decision-making-method-in-motor-imagery-bci
#15
Rong Liu, Yongxuan Wang, Geoffrey I Newman, Nitish V Thakor, Sarah Ying
To develop subject-specific classifier to recognize mental states fast and reliably is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this paper, a sequential decision-making strategy is explored in conjunction with an optimal wavelet analysis for EEG classification. The subject-specific wavelet parameters based on a grid-search method were first developed to determine evidence accumulative curve for the sequential classifier...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035219/an-embedded-real-time-processing-platform-for-optogenetic-neuroprosthetic-applications
#16
Boyuan Yan, Sheila Nirenberg
Optogenetics offers a powerful new approach for controlling neural circuits. It has numerous applications in both basic and clinical science. These applications require stimulating devices with small processors that can perform real-time neural signal processing, deliver high intensity light with high spatial and temporal resolution, and do not consume a lot of power. In this paper, we demonstrate the implementation of neuronal models in a platform consisting of an embedded system module and a portable DLP projector...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017900/neural-electrode-resilience-against-dielectric-damage-may-be-improved-by-use-of-highly-doped-silicon-as-a-conductive-material
#17
Ryan Caldwell, Rohit Sharma, Pavel Takmakov, Matthew G Street, Florian Solzbacher, Prashant Tathireddy, Loren Rieth
BACKGROUND: Dielectric damage occurring in vivo to neural electrodes, leading to conductive material exposure and impedance reduction over time, limits the functional lifetime and clinical viability of neuroprosthetics. We used silicon micromachined Utah Electrode Arrays (UEAs) with iridium oxide (IrOx) tip metallization and parylene C dielectric encapsulation to understand the factors affecting device resilience and drive improvements. NEW METHOD: In vitro impedance measurements and finite element analyses were conducted to evaluate how exposed surface area of silicon and IrOx affect UEA properties...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993523/giuliano-vanghetti-and-the-innovation-of-cineplastic-operations
#18
REVIEW
Peppino Tropea, Alberto Mazzoni, Silvestro Micera, Massimo Corbo
OBJECTIVE: Developing functional artificial limbs for amputees has been a centuries-old challenge in medicine. We review the mechanical and neurologic principles of "cineplastic operations" and "plastic motors" used to restore movements in prostheses, with special attention to the work of Giuliano Vanghetti. METHODS: We evaluated original publications describing cineplastic operations, biographic information, writings, drawings, and unpublished letters from the Vanghetti library, preserved in Empoli, Italy, and performed a bibliographic search and comparison for similar procedures in the literature...
October 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966581/enhancing-performance-of-a-hybrid-eeg-fnirs-system-using-channel-selection-and-early-temporal-features
#19
Rihui Li, Thomas Potter, Weitian Huang, Yingchun Zhang
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques hold a great promise for neuroprosthetic applications. A desirable BCI system should be portable, minimally invasive, and feature high classification accuracy and efficiency. As two commonly used non-invasive brain imaging modalities, Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) BCI system have often been incorporated in the development of hybrid BCI systems, largely due to their complimentary properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the early temporal information extracted from singular EEG and fNIRS channels on each hemisphere can be used to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of a hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI system...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918755/mosaic-decisionmaking-and-reemergent-agency-after-severe-brain-injury
#20
Joseph J Fins
In this article, I will discuss the challenge posed by the reemergent agency of individuals with severe brain injury whose ability to communicate has been partially restored by neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation. Instead of categorically distinguishing patients as either competent or incompetent, these technologies necessitate a more nuanced approach to intermediate states of decisionmaking capacity. This indeterminacy is addressed through a mosaic approach to decisionmaking, which seeks to achieve a proportionate and prudent balance between unbridled self-determination and conventional surrogate representation...
September 18, 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
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