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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918755/mosaic-decisionmaking-and-reemergent-agency-after-severe-brain-injury
#1
Joseph J Fins
In this article, I will discuss the challenge posed by the reemergent agency of individuals with severe brain injury whose ability to communicate has been partially restored by neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation. Instead of categorically distinguishing patients as either competent or incompetent, these technologies necessitate a more nuanced approach to intermediate states of decisionmaking capacity. This indeterminacy is addressed through a mosaic approach to decisionmaking, which seeks to achieve a proportionate and prudent balance between unbridled self-determination and conventional surrogate representation...
September 18, 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894826/functional-and-histological-effects-of-chronic-neural-electrode-implantation
#2
REVIEW
Ronald Sahyouni, David T Chang, Omid Moshtaghi, Amin Mahmoodi, Hamid R Djalilian, Harrison W Lin
OBJECTIVES: Permanent injury to the cranial nerves can often result in a substantial reduction in quality of life. Novel and innovative interventions can help restore form and function in nerve paralysis, with bioelectric interfaces among the more promising of these approaches. The foreign body response is an important consideration for any bioelectric device as it influences the function and effectiveness of the implant. The purpose of this review is to describe tissue and functional effects of chronic neural implantation among the different categories of neural implants and highlight advances in peripheral and cranial nerve stimulation...
April 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885187/a-review-on-mechanical-considerations-for-chronically-implanted-neural-probes
#3
Aziliz Lecomte, Emeline Descamps, Christian Bergaud
This review intends on presenting a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical considerations for chronically-implanted neural probes. Failure of neural electrical recordings or stimulation over time has shown to arise from foreign body reaction and device material stability. It seems that devices that match most closely the mechanical properties of the brain would more likely reduce the mechanical stress at the probe/tissue interface, thus improving body acceptance. The use of low Young's modulus polymers instead of hard substrates is a known way to enhance this mechanical mimetism, though compliance can be achieved through a variety of means...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880183/gaussian-process-autoregression-for-simultaneous-proportional-multi-modal-prosthetic-control-with-natural-hand-kinematics
#4
Michele Xiloyannis, Constantinos Gavriel, Andreas A C Thomik, A Aldo Faisal
Matching the dexterity, versatility and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use musclerelated signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863690/erratum-a-memory-efficient-implementation-scheme-of-gauss-error-function-in-a-laguerre-volterra-network-for-neuroprosthetic-devices-rev-sci-instrum-88-044301-2017
#5
Will X Y Li, Ke Cui, Wei Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843655/phantom-limbs-neuroprosthetics-and-the-developmental-origins-of-embodiment
#6
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg, James C Dooley
Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development...
August 23, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827605/neuroprosthetic-enabled-control-of-graded-arm-muscle-contraction-in-a-paralyzed-human
#7
David A Friedenberg, Michael A Schwemmer, Andrew J Landgraf, Nicholas V Annetta, Marcia A Bockbrader, Chad E Bouton, Mingming Zhang, Ali R Rezai, W Jerry Mysiw, Herbert S Bresler, Gaurav Sharma
Neuroprosthetics that combine a brain computer interface (BCI) with functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore voluntary control of a patients' own paralyzed limbs. To date, human studies have demonstrated an "all-or-none" type of control for a fixed number of pre-determined states, like hand-open and hand-closed. To be practical for everyday use, a BCI-FES system should enable smooth control of limb movements through a continuum of states and generate situationally appropriate, graded muscle contractions...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744189/self-recalibrating-surface-emg-pattern-recognition-for-neuroprosthesis-control-based-on-convolutional-neural-network
#8
Xiaolong Zhai, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Chung Tin
Hand movement classification based on surface electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition is a promising approach for upper limb neuroprosthetic control. However, maintaining day-to-day performance is challenged by the non-stationary nature of sEMG in real-life operation. In this study, we propose a self-recalibrating classifier that can be automatically updated to maintain a stable performance over time without the need for user retraining. Our classifier is based on convolutional neural network (CNN) using short latency dimension-reduced sEMG spectrograms as inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735750/partially-mixed-selectivity-in-human-posterior-parietal-association-cortex
#9
Carey Y Zhang, Tyson Aflalo, Boris Revechkis, Emily R Rosario, Debra Ouellette, Nader Pouratian, Richard A Andersen
To clarify the organization of motor representations in posterior parietal cortex, we test how three motor variables (body side, body part, cognitive strategy) are coded in the human anterior intraparietal cortex. All tested movements were encoded, arguing against strict anatomical segregation of effectors. Single units coded for diverse conjunctions of variables, with different dimensions anatomically overlapping. Consistent with recent studies, neurons encoding body parts exhibited mixed selectivity. This mixed selectivity resulted in largely orthogonal coding of body parts, which "functionally segregate" the effector responses despite the high degree of anatomical overlap...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735029/peptide-modification-of-polyimide-insulated-microwires-towards-improved-biocompatibility-through-reduced-glial-scarring
#10
Sangita Sridar, Matthew A Churchward, Vivian K Mushahwar, Kathryn G Todd, Anastasia L Elias
The goal of this study is to improve the integration of implanted microdevices with tissue in the central nervous system (CNS). The long-term utility of neuroprosthetic devices implanted in the CNS is affected by the formation of a scar by resident glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), limiting the viability and functional stability of the devices. Reduction in the proliferation of glial cells is expected to enhance the biocompatibility of devices. We demonstrate the modification of polyimide-insulated microelectrodes with a bioactive peptide KHIFSDDSSE...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701540/a-novel-paraplegia-model-in-awake-behaving-macaques
#11
Max O Krucoff, Katie Zhuang, David MacLeod, Allen Yin, Yoon Woo Byun, Roberto Jose Manson, Dennis A Turner, Laura Oliveira, Mikhail A Lebedev
Lower limb paralysis from spinal cord injury (SCI) or neurological disease carries a poor prognosis for recovery and remains a large societal burden. Neurophysiological and neuroprosthetic research have the potential to improve quality of life for these patients; however, the lack of an ethical and sustainable nonhuman primate model for paraplegia hinders their advancement. Therefore, our multidisciplinary team developed a way to induce temporary paralysis in awake behaving macaques by creating a fully implantable lumbar epidural catheter-subcutaneous port system that enables easy and reliable targeted drug delivery for sensorimotor blockade...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692062/neural-reactivations-during-sleep-determine-network-credit-assignment
#12
Tanuj Gulati, Ling Guo, Dhakshin S Ramanathan, Anitha Bodepudi, Karunesh Ganguly
A fundamental goal of motor learning is to establish the neural patterns that produce a desired behavioral outcome. It remains unclear how and when the nervous system solves this 'credit assignment' problem. Using neuroprosthetic learning, in which we could control the causal relationship between neurons and behavior, we found that sleep-dependent processing was required for credit assignment and the establishment of task-related functional connectivity reflecting the casual neuron-behavior relationship. Notably, we observed a strong link between the microstructure of sleep reactivations and credit assignment, with downscaling of non-causal activity...
September 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680906/neurofeedback-based-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-upregulates-motor-cortex-activity-in-imagined-motor-tasks
#13
Pawan Lapborisuth, Xian Zhang, Adam Noah, Joy Hirsch
Neurofeedback is a method for using neural activity displayed on a computer to regulate one's own brain function and has been shown to be a promising technique for training individuals to interact with brain-machine interface applications such as neuroprosthetic limbs. The goal of this study was to develop a user-friendly functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based neurofeedback system to upregulate neural activity associated with motor imagery, which is frequently used in neuroprosthetic applications...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669297/establishing-reconstructive-neurosurgery-as-a-subspecialty
#14
Justin M Brown, Mark A Mahan, Ross Mandeville, Bob S Carter
Neurosurgery is experiencing the emergence of a new subspecialty focused on function restoration. New, evolving, and reappraised surgical procedures have provided an opportunity to restore function to many patients with previously undertreated disorders. Candidates for reconstruction were previously limited to those with peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries, but this has been expanded to include stroke, spinal cord injury, and a host of other paralyzing disorders affecting both upper and lower motor neurons...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663460/help-hope-and-hype-ethical-dimensions-of-neuroprosthetics
#15
Jens Clausen, Eberhard Fetz, John Donoghue, Junichi Ushiba, Ulrike Spörhase, Jennifer Chandler, Niels Birbaumer, Surjo R Soekadar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614985/stimulation-of-abdominal-and-upper-thoracic-muscles-with-surface-electrodes-for-respiration-and-cough-acute-studies-in-adult-canines
#16
James S Walter, Joseph Posluszny, Raymond Dieter, Robert S Dieter, Scott Sayers, Kiratipath Iamsakul, Christine Staunton, Donald Thomas, Mark Rabbat, Sanjay Singh
OBJECTIVE: To optimize maximal respiratory responses with surface stimulation over abdominal and upper thorax muscles and using a 12-Channel Neuroprosthetic Platform. METHODS: Following instrumentation, six anesthetized adult canines were hyperventilated sufficiently to produce respiratory apnea. Six abdominal tests optimized electrode arrangements and stimulation parameters using bipolar sets of 4.5 cm square electrodes. Tests in the upper thorax optimized electrode locations, and forelimb moment was limited to slight-to-moderate...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575309/nonhuman-primate-studies-to-advance-vision-science-and-prevent-blindness
#17
Michael J Mustari
Most primate behavior is dependent on high acuity vision. Optimal visual performance in primates depends heavily upon frontally placed eyes, retinal specializations, and binocular vision. To see an object clearly its image must be placed on or near the fovea of each eye. The oculomotor system is responsible for maintaining precise eye alignment during fixation and generating eye movements to track moving targets. The visual system of nonhuman primates has a similar anatomical organization and functional capability to that of humans...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573983/neuromorphic-neural-interfaces-from-neurophysiological-inspiration-to-biohybrid-coupling-with-nervous-systems
#18
Frédéric D Broccard, Siddharth Joshi, Jun Wang, Gert Cauwenberghs
OBJECTIVE: Computation in nervous systems operates with different computational primitives, and on different hardware, than traditional digital computation and is thus subjected to different constraints from its digital counterpart regarding the use of physical resources such as time, space and energy. In an effort to better understand neural computation on a physical medium with similar spatiotemporal and energetic constraints, the field of neuromorphic engineering aims to design and implement electronic systems that emulate in very large-scale integration (VLSI) hardware the organization and functions of neural systems at multiple levels of biological organization, from individual neurons up to large circuits and networks...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489913/human-perception-of-electrical-stimulation-on-the-surface-of-somatosensory-cortex
#19
Shivayogi V Hiremath, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Jesse J Wheeler, Daniel W Moran, Robert A Gaunt, Jennifer L Collinger, Stephen T Foldes, Douglas J Weber, Weidong Chen, Michael L Boninger, Wei Wang
Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG)-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456231/a-memory-efficient-implementation-scheme-of-gauss-error-function-in-a-laguerre-volterra-network-for-neuroprosthetic-devices
#20
Will X Y Li, Ke Cui, Wei Zhang
Cognitive neural prosthesis is a manmade device which can be used to restore or compensate for lost human cognitive modalities. The generalized Laguerre-Volterra (GLV) network serves as a robust mathematical underpinning for the development of such prosthetic instrument. In this paper, a hardware implementation scheme of Gauss error function for the GLV network targeting reconfigurable platforms is reported. Numerical approximations are formulated which transform the computation of nonelementary function into combinational operations of elementary functions, and memory-intensive look-up table (LUT) based approaches can therefore be circumvented...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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