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Yazan M Dweiri, Matthew A Stone, Dustin J Tyler, Grant A McCallum, Dominique M Durand
Many attempts have been made to manufacture multi-contact nerve cuff electrodes that are safe, robust and reliable for long term neuroprosthetic applications. This protocol describes a fabrication technique of a modified cylindrical nerve cuff electrode to meet these criteria. Minimum computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM) skills are necessary to consistently produce cuffs with high precision (contact placement 0.51 ± 0.04 mm) and various cuff sizes. The precision in spatially distributing the contacts and the ability to retain a predefined geometry accomplished with this design are two criteria essential to optimize the cuff's interface for selective recording and stimulation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ryohei Fukuma, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Youichi Saitoh, Koichi Hosomi, Haruhiko Kishima, Takeshi Shimizu, Hisato Sugata, Hiroshi Yokoi, Masayuki Hirata, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Toshiki Yoshimine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jack DiGiovanna, Nadia Dominici, Lucia Friedli, Jacopo Rigosa, Simone Duis, Julie Kreider, Janine Beauparlant, Rubia van den Brand, Marco Schieppati, Silvestro Micera, Grégoire Courtine
: Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tess Torregrosa, Ryan A Koppes
Recovery of motor control is paramount for patients living with paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI). While a cure or regenerative intervention remains on the horizon for the treatment of SCI, a number of neuroprosthetic devices have been employed to treat and mitigate the symptoms of paralysis associated with injuries to the spinal column and associated comorbidities. The recent success of epidural stimulation to restore voluntary motor function in the lower limbs of a small cohort of patients has breathed new life into the promise of electric-based medicine...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Marcie Bockbrader, Matthew J Kortes, Nicholas Annetta, Connor Majstorovic, Gaurav Sharma, David A Friedenberg, Austin Morgan, Herb Bresler, W Mysiw, Ali R Rezai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Ralf Zeitler, Stefano Vassanelli, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Advanced brain-chip interfaces with numerous recording sites bear great potential for investigation of neuroprosthetic applications. The bottleneck towards achieving an efficient bio-electronic link is the real-time processing of neuronal signals, which imposes excessive requirements on bandwidth, energy and computation capacity. Here we present a unique concept where the intrinsic properties of memristive devices are exploited to compress information on neural spikes in real-time. We demonstrate that the inherent voltage thresholds of metal-oxide memristors can be used for discriminating recorded spiking events from background activity and without resorting to computationally heavy off-line processing...
2016: Nature Communications
Gaurav Sharma, David A Friedenberg, Nicholas Annetta, Bradley Glenn, Marcie Bockbrader, Connor Majstorovic, Stephanie Domas, W Jerry Mysiw, Ali Rezai, Chad Bouton
Neuroprosthetic technology has been used to restore cortical control of discrete (non-rhythmic) hand movements in a paralyzed person. However, cortical control of rhythmic movements which originate in the brain but are coordinated by Central Pattern Generator (CPG) neural networks in the spinal cord has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show a demonstration of an artificial neural bypass technology that decodes cortical activity and emulates spinal cord CPG function allowing volitional rhythmic hand movement...
2016: Scientific Reports
Solaiman Shokur, Simone Gallo, Renan C Moioli, Ana Rita C Donati, Edgard Morya, Hannes Bleuler, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient's brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients' forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass...
2016: Scientific Reports
J Ushiba, S R Soekadar
Noninvasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are typically associated with neuroprosthetic applications or communication aids developed to assist in daily life after loss of motor function, eg, in severe paralysis. However, BMI technology has recently been found to be a powerful tool to promote neural plasticity facilitating motor recovery after brain damage, eg, due to stroke or trauma. In such BMI paradigms, motor cortical output and input are simultaneously activated, for instance by translating motor cortical activity associated with the attempt to move the paralyzed fingers into actual exoskeleton-driven finger movements, resulting in contingent visual and somatosensory feedback...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
H A Agashe, A Y Paek, J L Contreras-Vidal
Upper limb amputation results in a severe reduction in the quality of life of affected individuals due to their inability to easily perform activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that translate grasping intent from the brain's neural activity into prosthetic control may increase the level of natural control currently available in myoelectric prostheses. Current BMI techniques demonstrate accurate arm position and single degree-of-freedom grasp control but are invasive and require daily recalibration...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Gabriele Fusco, Emmanuele Tidoni, Nicola Barone, Claudio Pilati, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
BACKGROUND: Studies in healthy people show that stimulation of muscle spindles through frequency-specific tendon vibration (TV) induces the illusory perception of movement. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), motor and sensory connections between the brain and parts of the body below-the-lesion level are partially or totally impaired. OBJECTIVE: The present investigation is a descriptive study aimed to investigate whether people living with SCI may experience movement illusions comparable to a control group...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Sanne Kikkert, James Kolasinski, Saad Jbabdi, Irene Tracey, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Tamar R Makin
The hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex contains detailed finger topography, thought to be shaped and maintained by daily life experience. Here we utilise phantom sensations and ultra high-field neuroimaging to uncover preserved, though latent, representation of amputees' missing hand. We show that representation of the missing hand's individual fingers persists in the primary somatosensory cortex even decades after arm amputation. By demonstrating stable topography despite amputation, our finding questions the extent to which continued sensory input is necessary to maintain organisation in sensory cortex, thereby reopening the question what happens to a cortical territory once its main input is lost...
August 23, 2016: ELife
Jeremiah D Wander, Devapratim Sarma, Lise A Johnson, Eberhard E Fetz, Rajesh P N Rao, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Felix Darvas
A motor cortex-based brain-computer interface (BCI) creates a novel real world output directly from cortical activity. Use of a BCI has been demonstrated to be a learned skill that involves recruitment of neural populations that are directly linked to BCI control as well as those that are not. The nature of interactions between these populations, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we employed a data-driven approach to assess the interaction between both local and remote cortical areas during the use of an electrocorticographic BCI, a method which allows direct sampling of cortical surface potentials...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Blessen C Eapen, Douglas P Murphy, David X Cifu
The goals of rehabilitation medicine programs are to promote health, restore functional impairments and improve quality of life. The field of neuroprosthetics has evolved over the last decade given an improved understanding of neuroscience and the incorporation of advanced biotechnology and neuroengineering in the rehabilitation setting to develop adaptable applications to help facilitate recovery for individuals with amputations and brain injury. These applications may include a simple cognitive prosthetics aid for impaired memory in brain-injured individuals to myoelectric prosthetics arms with artificial proprioceptive feedback for those with upper extremity amputations...
August 9, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Henrike Stutzki, Florian Helmhold, Max Eickenscheidt, Günther Zeck
Retinal degeneration (rd) leads to progressive photoreceptor cell death, resulting in vision loss. Stimulation of the inner-retinal neurons by neuroprosthetic implants is one of the clinically approved vision-restoration strategies, providing basic visual percepts to blind patients. However, little is understood as to what degree the degenerating retinal circuitry and the resulting aberrant hyperactivity may prevent the stimulation of physiological electrical activity. Therefore, we electrically stimulated ex vivo retinas from wild-type (wt; C57BL/6J) and blind (rd10 and rd1) mice using an implantable subretinal microchip and simultaneously recorded and analyzed the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) output with a flexible microelectrode array...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Saugat Bhattacharyya, Maureen Clerc, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) provides a neuroprosthetic interface to non-recovered muscle groups by stimulating the affected region of the human body. FES in combination with Brain-machine interfacing (BMI) has a wide scope in rehabilitation because this system directly links the cerebral motor intention of the users with its corresponding peripheral muscle activations. In this paper, we examine the effect of FES on the electroencephalography (EEG) during motor imagery (left- and right-hand movement) training of the users...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES) are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications. Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
James Wright, Vaughan G Macefield, André van Schaik, Jonathan C Tapson
It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improved performance of tasks, better usability, and greater embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. However, the interdisciplinary work on neuroprosthetic systems can lead to miscommunication due to similarities in well-established nomenclature in different fields. Here we present a review of control strategies in existing experimental, investigational and clinical neuroprosthetic systems in order to establish a baseline and promote a common understanding of different feedback modes and closed-loop controllers...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Heather L Benz, Eugene F Civillico
Safe and effective neuroprosthetic systems are of great interest to both DARPA and CDRH, due to their innovative nature and their potential to aid severely disabled populations.By expanding technological boundaries in human-device interfaces, these devices introduce new potential benefits and risks. Therefore patient input, which is increasingly important in weighing benefits and risks, is particularly relevant for this class of devices. FDA has been a significant contributor to an ongoing stakeholder conversation about the inclusion of the patient voice, working collaboratively to create a new framework for a patient-centered approach to medical device development...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
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