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Neuroprosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382924/fascicular-nerve-stimulation-and-recording-using-a-novel-double-aisle-regenerative-electrode
#1
Ignacio Delgado-Martínez, Martina Righi, Daniel Santos, Annarita Cutrone, Silvia Bossi, Silvia D'Amico, Jaume Del Valle, Silvestro Micera, Xavier Navarro
OBJECTIVE: As artificial prostheses become more refined, they are most often used as a therapeutic option for hand amputation. Differently from extra- or intraneural interfaces, regenerative nerve electrodes are designed to enable electrical interface with regrowing axonal bundles of injured nerves, aiming to achieve high selectivity for recording and stimulation. However, most of the developed designs pose an obstacle to the regrowth mechanisms due to low transparency and cause an impairment of the nerve regeneration...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374841/artificial-spatiotemporal-touch-inputs-reveal-complementary-decoding-in-neocortical-neurons
#2
Calogero M Oddo, Alberto Mazzoni, Anton Spanne, Jonas M D Enander, Hannes Mogensen, Fredrik Bengtsson, Domenico Camboni, Silvestro Micera, Henrik Jörntell
Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366027/detecting-destabilizing-wheelchair-conditions-for-maintaining-seated-posture
#3
Anna Crawford, Kiley Armstrong, Kenneth Loparo, Musa Audu, Ronald Triolo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. METHODS: A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities...
April 1, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363481/reaching-again-a-glimpse-of-the-future-with-neuroprosthetics
#4
Steve I Perlmutter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348511/constraints-and-adaptation-of-closed-loop-neuroprosthetics-for-functional-restoration
#5
Robert Bauer, Alireza Gharabaghi
Closed-loop neuroprosthetics aim to compensate for lost function, e.g., by controlling external devices such as prostheses or wheelchairs. Such assistive approaches seek to maximize speed and classification accuracy for high-dimensional control. More recent approaches use similar technology, but aim to restore lost motor function in the long term. To achieve this goal, restorative neuroprosthetics attempt to facilitate motor re-learning and to strengthen damaged and/or alternative neural connections on the basis of neurofeedback training within rehabilitative environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338618/real-time-gait-event-detection-based-on-kinematic-data-coupled-to-a-biomechanical-model-%C3%A2
#6
Stefan Lambrecht, Anna Harutyunyan, Kevin Tanghe, Maarten Afschrift, Joris De Schutter, Ilse Jonkers
Real-time detection of multiple stance events, more specifically initial contact (IC), foot flat (FF), heel off (HO), and toe off (TO), could greatly benefit neurorobotic (NR) and neuroprosthetic (NP) control. Three real-time threshold-based algorithms have been developed, detecting the aforementioned events based on kinematic data in combination with a biomechanical model. Data from seven subjects walking at three speeds on an instrumented treadmill were used to validate the presented algorithms, accumulating to a total of 558 steps...
March 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325029/noninvasive-eeg-correlates-of-overground-and-stair-walking
#7
Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
Automated walking intention detection remains a challenge in lower-limb neuroprosthetic systems. Here, we assess the feasibility of extracting motor intent from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). First, we evaluated the corticomuscular coherence between central EEG electrodes (C1, Cz, C2) and muscles of the shank and thigh during walking on level ground and stairs. Second, we trained decoders to predict the linear envelope of the surface electromyogram (EMG). We observed significant EEG-led corticomuscular coupling between electrodes and sEMG (tibialis anterior) in the high delta (3-4 Hz) and low theta (4-5 Hz) frequency bands during level walking, indicating efferent signaling from the cortex to peripheral motor neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324946/characterization-of-motor-cortex-activity-of-the-lower-limb-region
#8
Fadi Mikhail, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Matthew D Best, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Understanding the functional properties of the motor cortex is a key step to developing effective neuroprosthetic and computer interfaces for amputees and patients with spinal cord injury. Most efforts have been directed towards studying the upper limb region of the motor cortex. Little has been done in the way of addressing lower limb motor cortical physiology. In this study, we implanted multiple microelectrode arrays along the central sulcus in the primary motor cortex of a macaque monkey. Using intracortical microstimulation, we identified neurons that evoked leg movements, either exclusively or mostly, and we studied their firing activity during a center-out arm movement task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321887/simplification-of-visual-rendering-in-simulated-prosthetic-vision-facilitates-navigation
#9
Victor Vergnieux, Marc J-M Macé, Christophe Jouffrais
Visual neuroprostheses are still limited and simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is used to evaluate potential and forthcoming functionality of these implants. SPV has been used to evaluate the minimum requirement on visual neuroprosthetic characteristics to restore various functions such as reading, objects and face recognition, object grasping, etc. Some of these studies focused on obstacle avoidance but only a few investigated orientation or navigation abilities with prosthetic vision. The resolution of current arrays of electrodes is not sufficient to allow navigation tasks without additional processing of the visual input...
March 21, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284918/intracortical-microstimulation-differentially-activates-cortical-layers-based-on-stimulation-depth
#10
Mathias Benjamin Voigt, Peter Hubka, Andrej Kral
BACKGROUND: Intracortical microstimulation is one of the most common techniques to causally interfere with neuronal processing, but neuronal recordings spanning the whole cortical depth during stimulation are exceptionally rare. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here we combined layer-specific intracortical microstimulation with extracellular recordings on the same shank of a linear multi-electrode array to study the effects of electrical stimulation in different cortical depths on intracortical processing in the auditory cortex in vivo...
February 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269360/development-of-high-impedance-measurement-system-for-water-leakage-detection-in-implantable-neuroprosthetic-devices
#11
Aziz Yousif, Shawn K Kelly
There has been a push for a greater number of channels in implantable neuroprosthetic devices; but, that number has largely been limited by current hermetic packaging technology. Microfabricated packaging is becoming reality, but a standard testing system is needed to prepare these devices for clinical trials. Impedance measurements of electrodes built into the packaging layers may give an early warning of device failure and predict device lifetime. Because the impedance magnitudes of such devices can be on the order of gigaohms, a versatile system was designed to accommodate ultra-high impedances and allow future integrated circuit implementation in current neural prosthetic technologies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268959/modeling-distinct-sources-of-neural-variability-driving-neuroprosthetic-control
#12
Preeya Khanna, Vivek R Athalye, Suraj Gowda, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena
Many closed-loop, continuous-control brain-machine interface (BMI) architectures rely on decoding via a linear readout of noisy population neural activity. However, recent work has found that decomposing neural population activity into correlated and uncorrelated variability reveals that improvements in cursor control coincide with the emergence of correlated neural variability. In order to address how correlated and uncorrelated neural variability arises and contributes to BMI cursor control, we simulate a neural population receiving combinations of shared inputs affecting all cells and private inputs affecting only individual cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268628/idle-state-classification-using-spiking-activity-and-local-field-potentials-in-a-brain-computer-interface
#13
Jordan J Williams, Rex N Tien, Yoh Inoue, Andrew B Schwartz
Previous studies of intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have often focused on or compared the use of spiking activity and local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding kinematic movement parameters. Conversely, using these signals to detect the initial intention to use a neuroprosthetic device or not has remained a relatively understudied problem. In this study, we examined the relative performance of spiking activity and LFP signals in detecting discrete state changes in attention regarding a user's desire to actively control a BCI device...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#14
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227810/noninvasive-eeg-correlates-of-overground-and-stair-walking
#15
Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Fangshi Zhu, Recep Ozdemir, Justin A Brantley, Helen Huang, Anna T Winslow, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Trieu Phat Luu
Automated walking intention detection remains a challenge in lower-limb neuroprosthetic systems. Here, we assess the feasibility of extracting motor intent from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). First, we evaluated the corticomuscular coherence between central EEG electrodes (C1, Cz, C2) and muscles of the shank and thigh during walking on level ground and stairs. Second, we trained decoders to predict the linear envelope of the surface electromyogram (EMG). We observed significant EEG-led corticomuscular coupling between electrodes and sEMG (tibialis anterior) in the high delta (3-4 Hz) and low theta (4-5 Hz) frequency bands during level walking, indicating efferent signaling from the cortex to peripheral motor neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227602/development-of-high-impedance-measurement-system-for-water-leakage-detection-in-implantable-neuroprosthetic-devices
#16
Aziz Yousif, Shawn K Kelly, Aziz Yousif, Shawn K Kelly, Shawn K Kelly, Aziz Yousif
There has been a push for a greater number of channels in implantable neuroprosthetic devices; but, that number has largely been limited by current hermetic packaging technology. Microfabricated packaging is becoming reality, but a standard testing system is needed to prepare these devices for clinical trials. Impedance measurements of electrodes built into the packaging layers may give an early warning of device failure and predict device lifetime. Because the impedance magnitudes of such devices can be on the order of gigaohms, a versatile system was designed to accommodate ultra-high impedances and allow future integrated circuit implementation in current neural prosthetic technologies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227166/modeling-distinct-sources-of-neural-variability-driving-neuroprosthetic-control
#17
Preeya Khanna, Vivek R Athalye, Suraj Gowda, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena, Preeya Khanna, Vivek R Athalye, Suraj Gowda, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena, Jose M Carmena, Vivek R Athalye, Rui M Costa, Preeya Khanna, Suraj Gowda
Many closed-loop, continuous-control brain-machine interface (BMI) architectures rely on decoding via a linear readout of noisy population neural activity. However, recent work has found that decomposing neural population activity into correlated and uncorrelated variability reveals that improvements in cursor control coincide with the emergence of correlated neural variability. In order to address how correlated and uncorrelated neural variability arises and contributes to BMI cursor control, we simulate a neural population receiving combinations of shared inputs affecting all cells and private inputs affecting only individual cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226808/idle-state-classification-using-spiking-activity-and-local-field-potentials-in-a-brain-computer-interface
#18
Jordan J Williams, Rex N Tien, Yoh Inoue, Andrew B Schwartz, Jordan J Williams, Rex N Tien, Yoh Inoue, Andrew B Schwartz, Rex N Tien, Andrew B Schwartz, Jordan J Williams, Yoh Inoue
Previous studies of intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have often focused on or compared the use of spiking activity and local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding kinematic movement parameters. Conversely, using these signals to detect the initial intention to use a neuroprosthetic device or not has remained a relatively understudied problem. In this study, we examined the relative performance of spiking activity and LFP signals in detecting discrete state changes in attention regarding a user's desire to actively control a BCI device...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198591/interpenetrating-conducting-hydrogel-materials-for-neural-interfacing-electrodes
#19
Josef Goding, Aaron Gilmour, Penny Martens, Laura Poole-Warren, Rylie Green
Conducting hydrogels (CHs) are an emerging technology in the field of medical electrodes and brain-machine interfaces. The greatest challenge to the fabrication of CH electrodes is the hybridization of dissimilar polymers (conductive polymer and hydrogel) to ensure the formation of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) required to achieve both soft and electroactive materials. A new hydrogel system is developed that enables tailored placement of covalently immobilized dopant groups within the hydrogel matrix...
February 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190641/emergence-of-coordinated-neural-dynamics-underlies-neuroprosthetic-learning-and-skillful-control
#20
Vivek R Athalye, Karunesh Ganguly, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena
During motor learning, movements and underlying neural activity initially exhibit large trial-to-trial variability that decreases over learning. However, it is unclear how task-relevant neural populations coordinate to explore and consolidate activity patterns. Exploration and consolidation could happen for each neuron independently, across the population jointly, or both. We disambiguated among these possibilities by investigating how subjects learned de novo to control a brain-machine interface using neurons from motor cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
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