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Stress cardiomyopathy

Murray Esler
The London physician and neuroanatomist Thomas Willis in the 17th century correctly attributed the source of emotions to the brain, not the heart as believed in antiquity. Contemporary research documents the phenomenon of "triggered" heart disease, when the autonomic nervous system control of the heart by the brain goes awry, producing heart disease of sudden onset, precipitated by acute emotional upheaval. This can take the form of, variously, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sudden death...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jian-Jun Wen, Xianxiu Wan, John Thacker, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is prevalent in Latin America and recognized as an emerging infectious heart disease in the US. The NO-cGMP-PKG1α pathway maintains cardiac homeostasis and inotropy and may be disturbed due to phosphodiesterase (PDE5) mediated cGMP catabolism in CCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with Tc, and at the end of acute parasitemia (i.e. 45 days post-infection), treated with sildenafil (SIL, 1 mg/kg) twice per week for 3 weeks...
June 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Uros Kuzmanov, Hongbo Guo, Diana Buchsbaum, Jake Cosme, Cynthia Abbasi, Ruth Isserlin, Parveen Sharma, Anthony O Gramolini, Andrew Emili
Phospholamban (PLN) plays a central role in Ca(2+) homeostasis in cardiac myocytes through regulation of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2A (SERCA2A) Ca(2+) pump. An inherited mutation converting arginine residue 9 in PLN to cysteine (R9C) results in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans and transgenic mice, but the downstream signaling defects leading to decompensation and heart failure are poorly understood. Here we used precision mass spectrometry to study the global phosphorylation dynamics of 1,887 cardiac phosphoproteins in early affected heart tissue in a transgenic R9C mouse model of DCM compared with wild-type littermates...
October 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vikrant Mahajani, Vidya Suratkal
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TC) is also known as Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy or Broken Heart Syndrome. Typically there is transient systolic dysfunction of the apical or the mid segments of the left ventricle that occurs in the presence of acute emotional stress. Some atypical variants have been described. Hyperadrenergic state associated with emotional stress is cited as the probable etiology. It mimics Acute Myocardial Infarction with concomitant rise in cardiac biomarkers, ECG, 2D-Echocardiography abnormalities comprising of left ventricular dysfunction with regional wall motion abnormality, no significant Coronary Artery Disease on angiography...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Neha Atale, Sharad Saxena, J Grace Nirmala, R T Narendhirakannan, Sujata Mohanty, Vibha Rani
There exists a complex and multifactorial relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia is an important factor imposing damage (glucose toxicity) on cardiac cell leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. There are substantial clinical evidences on the adverse effects of conventional therapies in the prevention/treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Currently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have emerged as a safe, efficient, and inexpensive alternative for therapeutic uses. The present study discloses the silver nanoparticle biosynthesizing capability and cardioprotective potential of Syzygium cumini seeds already reported to have antidiabetic properties...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zhenyu Hu, Jiong-Wei Wang, Dejie Yu, Jia Lin Soon, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Roger Foo, Ping Liao, Henry M Colecraft, Tuck Wah Soong
Decreased expression and activity of CaV1.2 calcium channels has been reported in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we identified in rodents a splice variant of CaV1.2 channel, named CaV1.2e21+22, that contained the pair of mutually exclusive exons 21 and 22. This variant was highly expressed in neonatal hearts. The abundance of this variant was gradually increased by 12.5-folds within 14 days of transverse aortic banding that induced cardiac hypertrophy in adult mouse hearts and was also elevated in left ventricles from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ankush Sachdeva, Biswajit Paul
Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has come a long way as establishing itself as a feasible, safe, effective, relatively cheaper non-invasive technique to detect population suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) and following up patients post revascuralization. Besides these DSE is commonly used to diagnose low gradient, low flow true severe aortic stenosis (AS); differentiating it from pseudo- AS and to follow up patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP). Various non-invasive techniques have different sensitivity and specificity to accurately judge a viable myocardium and to accurately detect the improvement in regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) post-revascularization, leading to an overall increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Sabine Weiskirchen, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Christian Faul
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are mitogenic signal mediators that induce cell proliferation and survival. Although cardiac myocytes are post-mitotic, they have been shown to be able to respond to local and circulating FGFs. While precise molecular mechanisms are not well characterized, some FGF family members have been shown to induce cardiac remodeling under physiologic conditions by mediating hypertrophic growth in cardiac myocytes and by promoting angiogenesis, both events leading to increased cardiac function and output...
October 7, 2016: Bone
Jason R Cuomo, Gyanendra K Sharma, Preston D Conger, Neal L Weintraub
Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors who have undergone mediastinal radiation therapy (RT). Cardiovascular complications include effusive or constrictive pericarditis, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and coronary/vascular disease. These are pathophysiologically distinct disease entities whose prevalence varies depending on the timing and extent of radiation exposure to the heart and great vessels. Although refinements in RT dosimetry and shielding will inevitably limit future cases of RICVD, the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, including those treated with older higher-dose RT regimens, will ensure a steady flow of afflicted patients for the foreseeable future...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Michiaki Nagai, Keigo Dote, Masaya Kato, Shota Sasaki, Noboru Oda, Eisuke Kagawa, Yoshinori Nakano, Aya Yamane, Tasuku Higashihara
Transient left ventricular dysfunction in patients under emotional stress, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity. Recent studies have supported the concept notion that the cardiovascular system is regulated by cortical modulation. A network consisting of the insular cortex (Ic), anterior cingulate gyrus, and amygdala plays a crucial role in the regulation of the central autonomic nervous system in relation to emotional stress such as anxiety, fear and sadness...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hugo Andr S Mantilla, Felix Ramón Montes, William F Amaya
Stress cardiomyopathy, or Takotsubo syndrome, is a widely recognized cardiac pathology with a clinical presentation similar to acute coronary syndrome and related to physical or emotional stress. Perioperatively, it is challenging to identify it given the variety of forms and scenarios in which it can present. We describe a 22-year-old patient with an atypical presentation of Takotsubo syndrome during anesthesia induction, which highlights the usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography for the initial diagnosis...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
X Qi, A Xu, Y Gao, Y Shi, X Sun, J Xu, J Liu, Q Lan, L Chang, C Zhang, H Yu
Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) has been found to be an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme closely related to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases caused by oxidative stress. In this study, the functional changes of the Grx1 redox system in blood of hyperglycemic patients were examined. Furthermore, using a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)- and high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes, we explored the correlation between functional changes of the Grx1 redox system in the left ventricular tissue and blood of the diabetic rats...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jiang Liu, Jiang Tian, Muhammad Chaudhry, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Xiaoliang Wang, Preeya T Shah, Asad A Khawaja, Rebecca Martin, Tylor J Robinette, Adee El-Hamdani, Michael W Dodrill, Komal Sodhi, Christopher A Drummond, Steven T Haller, David J Kennedy, Nader G Abraham, Zijian Xie, Joseph I Shapiro
We have previously reported that the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) can effect the amplification of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined whether attenuation of oxidant stress by antagonism of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification might ameliorate experimental uremic cardiomyopathy induced by partial nephrectomy (PNx). PNx induced the development of cardiac morphological and biochemical changes consistent with human uremic cardiomyopathy. Both inhibition of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification with pNaKtide and induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) markedly attenuated the development of phenotypical features of uremic cardiomyopathy...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Mavrogeni, L Koutsogeorgopoulou, T Dimitroulas, G Markousis-Mavrogenis, G Kolovou
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been documented in >50% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, due to a complex interplay between traditional risk factors and SLE-related factors. Various processes, such as coronary artery disease, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, vasculitis, valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, account for CVD complications in SLE. METHODS: Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography (echo), nuclear techniques, cardiac computed tomography (CT), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterization (CCa) can detect CVD in SLE at an early stage...
September 29, 2016: Lupus
Won-Jung Shin, Jun-Gol Song, In-Gu Jun, Young-Jin Moon, Hye-Mee Kwon, Kyeowoon Jung, Seon-Ok Kim, Gyu-Sam Hwang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ventriculo-arterial coupling (VAC) reflects the interaction between ventricular performance and effective arterial load. Current criteria for cirrhotic cardiomyopathy focus only on cardiac function without addressing the effect of hyperdynamic, low-resistance circulation. We investigated alterations in VAC in cirrhotic patients and their associations with post-liver transplant all-cause mortality. METHODS: In this single institution cohort study, cirrhotic patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) (n = 914) were retrospectively compared with healthy matched controls using noninvasively measured end-systolic ventricular elastance (Ees), arterial elastance (Ea), and VAC (Ea/Ees)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Julieta Diaz-Juarez, Jorge Suarez, Federico Cividini, Brian T Scott, Tanja Diemer, Anzhi Dai, Wolfgang H Dillmann
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with metabolic changes including decreased glucose oxidation (Gox) and increased fatty acid oxidation (FAox), which result in cardiac energetic deficiency. Diabetic hyperglycemia is a pathophysiological mechanism that triggers multiple maladaptive phenomena. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is the channel responsible for Ca(2+) uptake in mitochondria and free mitochondrial calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) regulates mitochondrial metabolism. Experiments with cardiac myocytes (CM) exposed to simulated hyperglycemia revealed both reduced [Ca(2+)]m and MCU protein levels...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
A Dias, E Franco, S Janzer, Nikoloz Koshkelashvili, V Bhalla, Manolo Rubio, Sarah Amanullah, Kathy Hebert, Vincent M Figueredo
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of stroke. We sought to assess the incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event (peri-index event stroke) in a heterogeneous TTS population...
July 2016: Functional Neurology
A Sabisz, N Treder, M Fijałkowska, M Sieminski, J Fijałkowska, P Naumczyk, R Nowak, M Jaguszewski, N Cwalina, M Gruchała, E Szurowska, M Fijałkowski
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is often triggered by emotional or physical stress factors. Psychological variables can have an impact on the physical manifestations of heart disease. TTC may reflect stunned myocardium from a neurogenic source. Anatomical connections between different parts of the brain can be visualized by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and thus, expressed by diffusion coefficient - fractional anisotropy (FA). A novel tool used to evaluate brain function in the absence of task is resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI)...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Xuezhong Zhao, Fengsheng Li, Wanqing Sun, Ling Gao, Ki Soo Kim, Kyoung Tae Kim, Lu Cai, Zhiguo Zhang, Yang Zheng
Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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