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Madhur Nayan, Michael A S Jewett, Lynn Anson-Cartwright, Philippe L Bedard, Malcolm Moore, Peter Chung, Padraig Warde, Joan Sweet, Martin O'Malley, Robert J Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: Institutional experience has been associated with improved outcomes for various malignancies, including testicular cancer. The present study evaluated whether institution at orchiectomy was associated with outcomes on active surveillance (AS) for clinical stage (CS) I germ cell tumours (GCT). METHODS: 815 patients with CSI GCT managed with AS at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre were identified. Princess Margaret is a tertiary academic institution with a multidisciplinary testicular cancer clinic involving radiation oncologists, medical oncologists, and urologists, and has research experience in testicular cancer care...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Shalin Shah, James E Ward, Riyue Bao, Curtis R Hall, Bruce E Brockstein, Jason J Luke
Anti-Programed Death 1 (PD-1) is standard immunotherapy for multiple cancers and the expression of one of its ligands, PD-L1, has been described in germ cell tumors (GCTs). Neither the clinical activity of anti-PD-1 nor the incidence of an immunoresponsive tumor microenvironment has been described for GCTs. A patient initially diagnosed with melanoma via fine needle aspiration was treated with one dose of antibody to PD-1. A core needle biopsy was subsequently performed to acquire sufficient tissue for molecular analysis, which led to a change in diagnosis to metastatic embryonal carcinoma...
September 16, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Karim Fizazi
The last 2 years (2014 and 2015) have witnessed major advances in the treatment of genitourinary malignancies. Of note and in marked contrast to previous years, all four major cancers (prostate cancer, testicular cancer, kidney cancer, and bladder cancer) have benefited from this progress. In prostate cancer, it was clearly demonstrated that a local treatment should be administered for high-risk localised disease. The standard of care was changed for patients with upfront metastatic disease with combined androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel becoming the new standard for fit patients with multiple bony metastases...
October 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Arya Amini, Timothy V Waxweiler, Paul D Maroni, Elizabeth R Kessler, Carrye R Cost, Brian S Greffe, Timothy P Garrington, Arthur K Liu, Nicholas G Cost
BACKGROUND: In adolescents, approximately 90% of testicular germ cell tumors (T-GCTs) are non-seminomas (NS T-GCTs). Few studies have evaluated the impact of age, specifically in adolescence, on outcomes of NS T-GCTs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review all patients diagnosed with NS T-GCTs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate the association between age (adolescents vs. adults) and survival outcomes. METHOD: The SEER database was queried for individuals ≥13 years old diagnosed with NS T-GCTs from 1995 to 2012...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Camila Maria da Silva Martinelli, André van Helvoort Lengert, Flavio Mavignier Cárcano, Eduardo Caetano Albino Silva, Mariana Brait, Luiz Fernando Lopes, Daniel Onofre Vidal
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the second main cause of cancer-related death in young men. Despite high cure rates, refractory disease results in poor prognosis. Epigenetic reprogramming occurs during the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of these tumors would represent an important advance in the search for new TGCT molecular markers. Hence the frequency of methylation of a gene panel (VGF, MGMT, ADAMTS1, CALCA, HOXA9, CDKN2B, CDO1 and NANOG) was evaluated in 72 primary TGCT by quantitative methylation specific PCR...
August 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Ton van Agthoven, Leendert H J Looijenga
Multiple studies, including various methods and overall limited numbers of mostly heterogeneous cases, indicate that the level of embryonic stem cell microRNAs (miRs) (e.g. 371a-3p, 372-3p, 373-3p, and 367-3p) are increased in serum at primary diagnosis of almost all testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC).Here we determine the status of three of these miRs in serum samples of 250 TGCC patients, collected at time of primary diagnosis, compared with 60 non-TGCC patients and 104 male healthy donors. The levels of miRs were measured by the robust ampTSmiR test, including magnetic bead-based miR isolation and target specific pre-amplification followed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detection...
July 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Daniel Nettersheim, Isabell Arndt, Rakesh Sharma, Stefanie Riesenberg, Sina Jostes, Simon Schneider, Michael Hölzel, Glen Kristiansen, Hubert Schorle
BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis-antigens (CTAs) are specifically expressed in human malignancies and testis tissue, but their molecular functions are poorly understood. CTAs serve as regulators of gene expression, cell cycle and spermatogenesis, as well as targets for immune-based therapies. The CTA PRAME is expressed in various cancers, antagonises retinoic acid signalling and is regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. METHODS: We analysed the molecular function of the CTA PRAME in primordial germ cells (PGC) and testicular germ cell cancers (GCC)...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Robert J Biggar, Peter D Baade, Jiandong Sun, Lindsay E Brandon, Michael Kimlin
International patterns suggest germ cell testicular cancer (GCTC) incidence may be lower in lower latitudes. To investigate this possibility, we examined GCTC incidence by latitude (population centroid in 2000) for men ≥15 years within two reasonably homogeneous countries, the United States and Australia. In the United States, we examined age-adjusted incidence/latitude trends using data from states (2001-2010) and local-area registries (1980-2011). In Australia, we evaluated incidence/latitude trends in 61 Statistical Divisions (2000-2009)...
September 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Inga Flor, Meike Spiekermann, Thomas Löning, Klaus-Peter Dieckmann, Gazanfer Belge, Jörn Bullerdiek
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the most common tumours in men aged from 20 to 40 years, with a steadily increasing incidence. This study aimed to characterize the expression of the miRNA cluster C19MC in TGCT and to evaluate the suitability of a C19MC miRNA as a serum biomarker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we measured the expression of miR-517a-3p, miR-519a-3p, and miR-519c 3p in tissue samples of 25 TGCTs and the level of miR-517a-3p in serum samples obtained pre- and postoperatively from the same patients...
July 2016: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
Daniel Nettersheim, Alena Heimsoeth, Sina Jostes, Simon Schneider, Martin Fellermeyer, Andrea Hofmann, Hubert Schorle
Type II germ cell cancers (GCC) are divided into seminomas, which are highly similar to primordial germ cells and embryonal carcinomas (EC), often described as malignant counterparts to embryonic stem cells.Previously, we demonstrated that the development of GCCs is a highly plastic process and strongly influenced by the microenvironment. While orthotopic transplantation into the testis promotes seminomatous growth of the seminoma-like cell line TCam-2, ectopic xenotransplantation into the flank initiates reprogramming into an EC-like fate...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Blanka Tariba, Tanja Živković, Vlatka Filipović Marijić, Marijana Erk, Marija Gamulin, Alica Pizent
Increased levels of metallothionein (MT) have recently been found in the blood serum of men with newly diagnosed testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). In light of previously published results, the aim of this study was to investigate the difference in serum MT levels among patients with different stages of TGCT and compare MT with commonly used markers (α-fetoprotein, β-human chorionic gonadotropin and lactate dehydrogenase). The concentration of total MT was determined in the serum of 25 men with TGCT (seminoma or non-seminoma) by differential pulse voltammetry...
April 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Eyal Klang, Noa Rozendorn, Steve Raskin, Orith Portnoy, Miri Sklair, Edith M Marom, Eli Konen, Michal M Amitai
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. METHODS: Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient)...
May 26, 2016: European Radiology
Paolo Chieffi
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20-40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and non-seminomas germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences in clinical features, therapy, and prognosis, and both show characteristics of the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs)...
May 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Mohammed Talha Shekhani, John R Barber, Stephania M Bezerra, Christopher M Heaphy, Nilda Diana Gonzalez Roibon, Diana Taheri, Leonardo O Reis, Gunes Guner, Corinne E Joshu, George J Netto, Alan K Meeker
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignancy of young men. Most patients are completely cured, which distinguishes these from most other malignancies. Orchiectomy specimens (n=76) were evaluated using high-resolution (single-cell discriminative) telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with simultaneous Oct4 immunofluorescence to describe telomere length phenotype in TGCT neoplastic cells. For the first time, the TGCT precursor lesion, germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) is also evaluated in depth...
August 2016: Human Pathology
Jonas Busch, Christoph Seidel, Friedemann Zengerling
Male extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCTs) are characterized by a malignant transformation of germ cells without the presence of a gonadal primary tumor. EGCTs represent up to 5% of all germ cell tumors (GCTs) with an incidence around 1/1,000,000. It is assumed that EGCTs either derive from a malignant transformation of germ cells that were misdirected during embryogenesis, or from germ cells that have spread throughout the body during embryogenesis to fulfil different roles in immunological processes or distinct organ functions...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
Øivind Kvammen, Tor Å Myklebust, Arne Solberg, Bjørn Møller, Olbjørn H Klepp, Sophie D Fosså, Torgrim Tandstad
BACKGROUND: Long-term relative survival (RS) data for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients are scarce. We aimed to analyze long-term RS among TGCT patients diagnosed in Norway, between 1953 and 2012. METHODS: Data sources were the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. TGCT patients diagnosed during 1953 to 2012 were classified by time of diagnosis, histology, age, and disease extent at diagnosis. Estimates for RS were obtained, and a test comparing overall RS was performed...
May 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Weijun Jiang, Jing Zhang, Qing Zhou, Shuaimei Liu, Mengxia Ni, Peiran Zhu, Qiuyue Wu, Weiwei Li, Mingchao Zhang, Xinyi Xia
The risk of testicular cancer (TC) is markedly increased in subjects with androgen insensitivity, and previous studies have proposed that GGN and CAG repeats in androgen receptors (AR) could be related to the risk of TC. To evaluate the association between the length of GGN and CAG repeats in AR and TC, a meta-analysis involving 3255 TC cases and 2804 controls was performed. The results suggested that long GGN repeats are associated with an increased risk of TC compared with those < 23 [odds ratio (OR) = 1...
March 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Nicholas G Cost, Brian T Caldwell, Mehrad Adibi, Ganesh V Raj, Arthur I Sagalowsky, Vitaly Margulis
PURPOSE: Oncologic outcomes in advanced testicular cancer (TC) depend on appropriate and timely care. Often this care is referred to tertiary academic medical centers (AMCs). The aim of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with TC treated from the outset at an AMC to those whose care was initiated elsewhere with subsequent referral. METHODS: An institutional TC database was reviewed, and those AYA patients initiating TC care either inside or outside an AMC were compared...
September 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Sam Neufeld, Tadeusz Kroczak, Darrel Drachenberg
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment.
November 2015: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Liam C Macleod, Saneal Rajanahally, Jasmir G Nayak, Brodie A Parent, Jorge D Ramos, George R Schade, Sarah K Holt, Atreya Dash, John L Gore, Daniel W Lin
OBJECTIVE: To characterize morbidity of postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) for testis cancer, we analyze a contemporary national database. PC-RPLND is the standard for residual radiographic masses ≥1 cm (nonseminoma) and positron emission tomography-avid masses ≥3 cm (seminoma). Morbidity for PC-RPLND is greater than primary RPLND, which may be mitigated by performing surgery at a high-volume cancer center. METHODS: Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition codes identified men with testis cancer undergoing PC- or primary RPLND in MarketScan (2007-2012)...
May 2016: Urology
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