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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908237/a-role-for-lin-28-in-growth-and-metamorphosis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908210/the-tgf%C3%AE-induced-lncrna-tbila-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-via-cis-regulating-hgal-and-activating-s100a7-jab1-signaling
#2
Zhiliang Lu, Yuan Li, Yun Che, Jianbing Huang, Shouguo Sun, Shuangshuang Mao, Yuanyuan Lei, Ning Li, Nan Sun, Jie He
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in multiple cellular processes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the involvement of lncRNAs in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway, the critical tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis pathway, remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we compared the lncRNAs expression patterns of NSCLC cells treated with and without TGFβ1 treatment. We observed that one of the most prominent hits, TGFβ-induced lncRNA (TBILA), promoted NSCLC progression and was upregulated in tumor tissues...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#3
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908118/upregulation-of-twist-is-involved-in-gli1-induced-migration-and-invasion-of-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#4
Juan Li, Yuting He, Yuan Cao, Yan Yu, Xiaolong Chen, Xiaojuan Gao, Qiuyue Hu
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while its detailed mechanisms are not well illustrated. Our present study revealed that the expression of Gli1, while not Gli2 or Gli3, is significantly increased in HCC cell lines and 20/28 (71.4%) HCC tissues as compared with their corresponding controls. Over expression of Gli1 can promote the migration, invasion, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells. Gli1 can increase the expression of Twist, while not other EMT transcription factors such as Snail, ZEB1, or Slug...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907971/loss-of-specificity-variants-of-wzxc-suggest-that-substrate-recognition-is-coupled-with-transporter-opening-in-mop-family-flippases
#5
Lok To Sham, Sanduo Zheng, Anastasiya A Yakhnina, Andrew C Kruse, Thomas G Bernhardt
Bacteria produce a variety of surface-exposed polysaccharides important for cell integrity, biofilm formation, and evasion of the host immune response. Synthesis of these polymers often involves the assembly of monomer oligosaccharide units on the lipid carrier undecaprenyl-phosphate at the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane. For many polymers, including cell wall peptidoglycan, the lipid-linked precursors must be transported across the membrane by flippases to facilitate polymerization at the membrane surface...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907883/b-cell-development-is-critically-dependent-on-nfatc1-activity
#6
Sabrina Giampaolo, Gabriela Wójcik, Stefan Klein-Hessling, Edgar Serfling, Amiya K Patra
B cell development in bone marrow is a precisely regulated complex process. Through successive stages of differentiation, which are regulated by a multitude of signaling pathways and an array of lineage-specific transcription factors, the common lymphoid progenitors ultimately give rise to mature B cells. Similar to early thymocyte development in the thymus, early B cell development in bone marrow is critically dependent on IL-7 signaling. During this IL-7-dependent stage of differentiation, several transcription factors, such as E2A, EBF1, and Pax5, among others, play indispensable roles in B lineage specification and maintenance...
June 15, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907869/bves-is-required-for-maintenance-of-colonic-epithelial-integrity-in-experimental-colitis-by-modifying-intestinal-permeability
#7
Yash A Choksi, Vishruth K Reddy, Kshipra Singh, Caitlyn W Barrett, Sarah P Short, Bobak Parang, Cody E Keating, Joshua J Thompson, Thomas G Verriere, Rachel E Brown, M Blanca Piazuelo, David M Bader, M Kay Washington, Mukul K Mittal, Thomas Brand, Alain P Gobert, Lori A Coburn, Keith T Wilson, Christopher S Williams
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES), or POPDC1, is a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein that modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via junctional signaling pathways. There have been no in vivo studies investigating the role of BVES in colitis. We hypothesized that BVES is critical for maintaining colonic epithelial integrity. At baseline, Bves -/- mouse colons demonstrate increased crypt height, elevated proliferation, decreased apoptosis, altered intestinal lineage allocation, and dysregulation of tight junctions with functional deficits in permeability and altered intestinal immunity...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907856/deletion-of-ddb1-and-cul4-associated-factor-17-dcaf17-gene-causes-spermatogenesis-defects-and-male-infertility-in-mice
#8
Asmaa Ali, Bhavesh V Mistry, Hala A Ahmed, Razan Abdulla, Hassan A Amer, Abdelbary Prince, Anas M Alazami, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Abdullah Assiri
DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 17 (Dcaf17) is a member of DCAF family genes that encode substrate receptor proteins for Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases, which play critical roles in many cellular processes. To unravel the function of DCAF17, we performed expression profiling of Dcaf17 in different tissues of wild type mouse by qRT-PCR and generated Dcaf17 knockout mice by gene targeting. Expression profiling of Dcaf17 showed highest expression in testis. Analyses of Dcaf17 transcripts during post-natal development of testis at different ages displayed gradual increase in Dcaf17 mRNA levels with the age...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907642/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-coordinates-with-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-a-feedback-loop-to-define-properties-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#9
Ahmed El-Badawy, Nehal I Ghoneim, Mohamed A Nasr, Hoda Elkhenany, Toka A Ahmed, Sara M Ahmed, Nagwa El-Badri
Telomerase and its core component, telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), are critical for stem cell compartment integrity. Normal adult stem cells have the longest telomeres in a given tissue, a property mediated by high hTERT expression and high telomerase enzymatic activity. In contrast, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have short telomeres despite high expression of hTERT, indicating that the role of hTERT in CSCs is not limited to telomere elongation and/or maintenance. The function of hTERT in CSCs remains poorly understood...
June 15, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907570/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-hrd1-controls-a-critical-checkpoint-in-b-cell-development-in-mice
#10
Yi Yang, Sinyi Kong, Yana Zhang, Johanna Melo-Cardenas, Beixue Gao, Yusi Zhang, Donna D Zhang, Bin Zhang, JianXun Song, Edward Thorp, Kezhong Zhang, Jinping Zhang, Deyu Fang
Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints that occur duringin B-cell development, maturation, and activation. The pre--B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) is expressed following the productive recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy- chain gene, and. sSignalsing through the pre-BCR are is required for the differentiation of pre-B cells into immature B cells. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the pre-BCR expression and signaling strength remain undefined. Herein, we probed the role of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated, stress-activated E3 ubiquitin ligase HMG-CoA reductase degradation 1 (Hrd1) in B-cell differentiation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907569/arginine-methylation-of-smad7-by-prmt1-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-epithelial-stem-cell-generation
#11
Yoko Katsuno, Jian Qin, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Hongjun Wang, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Tingwei Zhang, Samy Lamouille, Jian Wu, A L L Burlingame, Jian Xu, Rik Derynck
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development, and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression, and has been associated with the epithelial stem cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine TGF-β drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated Smad3 as major effector. TGF-β-induced Smad3 activation is inhibited by Smad7 and to a lesser extent by Smad6, and Smad6 and Smad7 both inhibit Smad1 and Smad5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907568/structure-of-human-adp-ribosyl-acceptor-hydrolase-3-bound-to-adp-ribose-reveals-a-conformational-switch-that-enables-specific-substrate-recognition
#12
Yasin Pourfarjam, Jessica Ventura, Igor Kurinov, Ahra Cho, Joel Moss, In-Kwon Kim
ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolase 3 (ARH3) plays important roles in regulation of poly(ADP-ribosy)lation, a reversible post-translational modification, and in maintenance of genomic integrity. ARH3 degrades poly(ADP-ribose) to protect cells from poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent cell death, reverses serine-mono(ADP-ribosy)lation, and hydrolyzes O -acetyl-ADP-ribose, a product of Sirtuin-catalyzed histone deacetylation. ARH3 preferentially hydrolyzes O-linkages attached to the anomeric C1″ of ADP-ribose; however, how ARH3 specifically recognizes and cleaves structurally diverse substrates remains unknown...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906891/geometry-packing-and-evolutionary-paths-to-increased-multicellular-size
#13
Shane Jacobeen, Elyes C Graba, Colin G Brandys, Thomas C Day, William C Ratcliff, Peter J Yunker
The evolutionary transition to multicellularity transformed life on earth, heralding the evolution of large, complex organisms. Recent experiments demonstrated that laboratory-evolved multicellular "snowflake yeast" readily overcome the physical barriers that limit cluster size by modifying cellular geometry [Jacobeen et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 286 (2018)10.1038/s41567-017-0002-y]. However, it is unclear why this route to large size is observed, rather than an evolved increase in intercellular bond strength...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906834/motion-of-kinesin-in-a-viscoelastic-medium
#14
Gert Knoops, Carlo Vanderzande
Kinesin is a molecular motor that transports cargo along microtubules. The results of many in vitro experiments on kinesin-1 are described by kinetic models in which one transition corresponds to the forward motion and subsequent binding of the tethered motor head. We argue that in a viscoelastic medium like the cytosol of a cell this step is not Markov and has to be described by a nonexponential waiting time distribution. We introduce a semi-Markov kinetic model for kinesin that takes this effect into account...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906744/microrna-302c-represses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-by-targeting-transcription-factor-ap-4-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Wenqi Ma, Bailing Liu, Jie Li, Jue Jiang, Ru Zhou, Lili Huang, Xiaopeng Li, Xin He, Qi Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to tumorigenesis and progression via acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in human cancer. Aberrant expression of miR-302c has been reported in various types of cancer except colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, our study was aimed to verify the expression of miR-302c and its functional role in CRC. We found a significant reduced expression of miR-302c in CRC tissues compared to tumor-adjacent tissues. Low miR-302c level was remarkably correlated with deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906716/methanogenic-community-shifts-during-the-transition-from-sewage-mono-digestion-to-co-digestion-of-grass-biomass
#16
Justus Hardegen, Adriel Latorre-Pérez, Cristina Vilanova, Thomas Günther, Manuel Porcar, Olaf Luschnig, Claudia Simeonov, Christian Abendroth
In this work, liquid and solid fractions of grass biomass were used as co-substrates for anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge. The input of grass biomass was increased gradually, and the underlying methanogenic microbiome was assessed by means of microscopy-based cell counting and full-length 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, proving for the first time the suitability of nanopore-based portable sequencers as a monitoring tool for anaerobic digestion systems. In both cases co-fermentation resulted in an increased number of bacteria and methanogenic archaea...
June 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906404/collagen-1a1-col1a1-promotes-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-and-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#17
Jing Liu, Jia-Xin Shen, Hua-Tao Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Xiao-Fen Wen, Cai-Wen Du, Guo-Jun Zhang
PURPOSE: Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important component of tumor microenvironment and plays critical roles in cancer development and metastasis, in which collagen is the major structural protein. Collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) is reportedly associated with the development of several human diseases. However, the functions and mechanisms of cellular expression of COL1A1 in breast cancer remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular expression of COL1A1 in breast cancer cells and patients, and its role in the development and metastasis of breast cancer...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906283/classification-of-red-blood-cell-shapes-in-flow-using-outlier-tolerant-machine-learning
#18
Alexander Kihm, Lars Kaestner, Christian Wagner, Stephan Quint
The manual evaluation, classification and counting of biological objects demands for an enormous expenditure of time and subjective human input may be a source of error. Investigating the shape of red blood cells (RBCs) in microcapillary Poiseuille flow, we overcome this drawback by introducing a convolutional neural regression network for an automatic, outlier tolerant shape classification. From our experiments we expect two stable geometries: the so-called 'slipper' and 'croissant' shapes depending on the prevailing flow conditions and the cell-intrinsic parameters...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906225/scleraxis-regulates-twist1-and-snai1-expression-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Danah S Al-Hattab, Hamza A Safi, Raghu S Nagalingam, Rushita A Bagchi, Matthew Taras Stecy, Michael Paul Czubryt
Numerous physiological and pathological events, from organ development to cancer and fibrosis, are characterized by Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), whereby adherent epithelial cells convert to migratory mesenchymal cells. During cardiac development, pro-epicardial organ epithelial cells undergo EMT to generate fibroblasts. Subsequent stress or damage induces further phenotype conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, causing fibrosis via synthesis of excessive extracellular matrix. We previously showed that the transcription factor scleraxis is both sufficient and necessary for the conversion of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and found that scleraxis knockout reduced cardiac fibroblast number by 50%, possibly via EMT attenuation...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906101/dopamine-oxidation-products-as-mitochondrial-endotoxins-a-potential-molecular-mechanism-for-preferential-neurodegeneration-in-parkinson-disease
#20
Alice Biosa, Irene Arduini, Maria Eugenia Soriano, Valentina Giorgio, Paolo Bernardi, Marco Bisaglia, Luigi Bubacco
The preferential degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is responsible for the motor impairment associated with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine is a highly reactive molecule, which is usually stored inside synaptic vesicles where it is stabilized by the ambient low pH. However, free cytosolic dopamine can auto-oxidize, generating reactive oxygen species, and lead to the formation of toxic quinones. In the present work, we have analyzed the mechanisms through which the dysfunction of dopamine homeostasis could induce cell toxicity, by focusing in particular on the damage induced by dopamine oxidation products at the mitochondrial level...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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