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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#1
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#2
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650703/program-implementation-of-option-b%C3%A2-at-a-president-s-emergency-plan-for-aids-relief-supported-hiv-clinic-improves-clinical-indicators-but-not-retention-in-care-in-mbarara-uganda
#3
Kathleen Miller, Winnie Muyindike, Lynn T Matthews, Michael Kanyesigye, Mark J Siedner
2013 WHO guidelines for prevention of mother to child transmission recommend combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant women, regardless of CD4 count (Option B/B+). We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a government-operated HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda before and after implementation of Option B+ to assess the impact on retention in care. We limited our analysis to women not on ART at the time of their first reported pregnancy with CD4 count >350. We fit regression models to estimate relationships between calendar period (Option A vs...
June 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650698/the-rock-isoforms-differentially-regulate-the-morphological-characteristics-of-carcinoma-cells
#4
Rachel J Jerrell, Mitchell J Leih, Aron Parekh
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) activity drives cell migration via actomyosin contractility. During invasion, individual cancer cells can transition between two modes of migration, mesenchymal and amoeboid. Changes in ROCK activity can cause a switch between these migration phenotypes which are defined by distinct morphologies. However, recent studies have shown that the ROCK isoforms are not functionally redundant as previously thought. Therefore, it is unclear whether the ROCK isoforms play different roles in regulating migration phenotypes...
June 26, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650643/high-pressure-study-of-perovskites-and-postperovskites-in-the-mg-fe-geo3-system
#5
Camelia V Stan, Rajkrishna Dutta, Robert J Cava, Vitali B Prakapenka, Thomas S Duffy
The effect of incorporation of Fe(2+) on the perovskite (Pbnm) and postperovskite (Cmcm) structures was investigated in the (Mg,Fe)GeO3 system at high pressures and temperatures using laser-heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Samples with compositions of Mg# ≥ 48 were shown to transform to the perovskite (∼30 GPa and ∼1500 K) and postperovskite (>55 GPa, ∼1600-1800 K) structures. Compositions with Mg# ≥ 78 formed single-phase perovskite and postperovskite, whereas those with Mg# < 78 showed evidence for partial decomposition...
June 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650560/uncovering-the-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-head-and-neck-malignancies
#6
REVIEW
Juliana Kern de Moraes, Vivian Petersen Wagner, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Pablo Agustin Vargas, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Rafael Roesler, Manoela Domingues Martins
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors that was first known as responsible for sustain the growth, function and plasticity of neural cells. BDNF exerts its effects by binding to the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB). The BDNF/TrkB axis has been reported to be overexpressed in several neurogenic and non-neurogenic tumors. Its higher expression was associated with a poor prognosis to patients affected by different human malignancies, tumor growth, invasion and metastasis; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and resistance to chemotherapy...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650464/%C3%AE-catenin-downregulates-dicer-to-promote-ovarian-cancer-metastasis
#7
S K Y To, A S C Mak, Y M Eva Fung, C-M Che, S-S Li, W Deng, B Ru, J Zhang, A S T Wong
Ovarian cancer is a nearly uniform lethal disease and its highly aggressive metastatic phenotype portends a poor prognosis. Lack of a well-controlled, relevant experimental model has been a major obstacle to identifying key molecules causing metastasis. Here we describe the creation of a new isogenic model of spontaneous human ovarian cancer metastasis exhibiting opposite phenotypes-highly metastatic (HM) and non-metastatic (NM)-both in vitro and in vivo. HM was unique in its ability to metastasize consistently to the peritoneum, mimicking the major dissemination route of human ovarian cancer...
June 26, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650345/preexisting-endothelial-cells-mediate-cardiac-neovascularization-after-injury
#8
Lingjuan He, Xiuzhen Huang, Onur Kanisicak, Yi Li, Yue Wang, Yan Li, Wenjuan Pu, Qiaozhen Liu, Hui Zhang, Xueying Tian, Huan Zhao, Xiuxiu Liu, Shaohua Zhang, Yu Nie, Shengshou Hu, Xiang Miao, Qing-Dong Wang, Fengchao Wang, Ting Chen, Qingbo Xu, Kathy O Lui, Jeffery D Molkentin, Bin Zhou
The mechanisms that promote the generation of new coronary vasculature during cardiac homeostasis and after injury remain a fundamental and clinically important area of study in the cardiovascular field. Recently, it was reported that mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition (MEndoT) contributes to substantial numbers of coronary endothelial cells after myocardial infarction. Therefore, the MEndoT has been proposed as a paradigm mediating neovascularization and is considered a promising therapeutic target in cardiac regeneration...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650056/tailoring-the-local-environment-around-metal-ions-a-solution-chemical-and-structural-study-of-some-multidentate-tripodal-ligands
#9
Ferenc Matyuska, Attila Szorcsik, Nóra V May, Ágnes Dancs, Éva Kováts, Attila Bényei, Tamás Gajda
Manganese(ii), copper(ii) and zinc(ii) complexes of four polydentate tripodal ligands (tachpyr (N,N',N''-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane), trenpyr (tris[2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]amine, tach3pyr (N,N',N''-tris(3-pyridylmethyl)-cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane) and tren3pyr (tris[2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]amine)) were characterized in both solution and solid states. A combined evaluation of potentiometric, UV-VIS, NMR and EPR data allowed the conclusion of both thermodynamic and structural information about the complexes formed in solution...
June 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649800/revisiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-metastasis-the-connection-between-epithelial-plasticity-and-stemness
#10
REVIEW
Tsai-Tsen Liao, Muh-Hwa Yang
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in embryonic development, fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. During cancer progression, the activation of EMT permits cancer cells to acquire migratory, invasive, and stem-like properties. A growing body of evidence supports the critical link between EMT and cancer stemness. However, contradictory results have indicated that the inhibition of EMT also promotes cancer stemness, and that mesenchymal-epithelial transition, the reverse process of EMT, is associated with the tumor-initiating ability required for metastatic colonization...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649777/organization-of-the-catecholaminergic-systems-in-the-brain-of-lungfishes-the-closest-living-relatives-of-terrestrial-vertebrates
#11
Jesús M López, Agustín González
Lungfishes are a group of sarcopterygian fishes currently considered the closest living relatives of tetrapods, and represent an interesting group for the study of evolutionary traits in the transition from fishes to tetrapods. Catecholaminergic systems in the brain are among the most carefully analyzed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of most vertebrate groups. Their organization shows major shared characteristics, although traits particular to each vertebrate class have also been found, primarily between anamniotes and amniotes...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649736/high-aspect-ratio-sub-micrometer-channels-using-wet-etching-application-to-the-dynamics-of-red-blood-cell-transiting-through-biomimetic-splenic-slits
#12
Priya Gambhire, Scott Atwell, Cécile Iss, Frédéric Bedu, Igor Ozerov, Catherine Badens, Emmanuèle Helfer, Annie Viallat, Anne Charrier
Nanoparticles delivering drugs, disseminating cancer cells, and red blood cells (RBCs) during splenic filtration must deform and pass through the sub-micrometer and high aspect ratio interstices between the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. The dynamics of passage of particles/cells through these slit-like interstices remain poorly understood because the in vitro reproduction of slits with physiological dimensions in devices compatible with optical microscopy observations requires expensive technologies...
June 26, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649443/a-multiscale-model-of-early-cell-lineage-specification-including-cell-division
#13
Alen Tosenberger, Didier Gonze, Sylvain Bessonnard, Michel Cohen-Tannoudji, Claire Chazaud, Geneviève Dupont
Embryonic development is a self-organised process during which cells divide, interact, change fate according to a complex gene regulatory network and organise themselves in a three-dimensional space. Here, we model this complex dynamic phenomenon in the context of the acquisition of epiblast and primitive endoderm identities within the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo in the mouse. The multiscale model describes cell division and interactions between cells, as well as biochemical reactions inside each individual cell and in the extracellular matrix...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649129/c33-s-a-novel-pde9a-inhibitor-protects-against-rat-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-upregulating-cgmp-signaling
#14
Pan-Xia Wang, Zhuo-Ming Li, Si-Dong Cai, Jing-Yan Li, Ping He, Yi Huang, Guo-Shuai Feng, Hai-Bin Luo, Shao-Rui Chen, Pei-Qing Liu
Phosphodiesterase-9A (PDE9A) expression is upregulated during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests that PDE9A might be a promising therapeutic target for heart diseases. The present study sought to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of C33(S), a novel selective PDE9A inhibitor, on cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) with PE (100 μmol/L) or ISO (1 μmol/L) induced cardiac hypertrophy characterized by significantly increased cell surface areas and increased expression of fetal genes (ANF and BNP)...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649002/cpla2%C3%AE-activates-pi3k-akt-and-inhibits-smad2-3-during-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#15
Hui Fu, Yuchao He, Lisha Qi, Lu Chen, Yi Luo, Liwei Chen, Yongmei Li, Ning Zhang, Hua Guo
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), a key phospholipase that regulates lipid metabolism, plays an important role in tumor progression. In the present study of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cPLA2α was overexpressed in highly metastatic HCC cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining showed increased levels of cPLA2α at the invasive edges of HCC, and a clinicopathological analysis of samples from 111 patients revealed that its expression level was linked with micro-vascular invasion and cirrhosis. Knockdown of cPLA2α inhibited migration, probably due to its role in actin polymerization...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648994/dynamic-and-differential-expression-of-the-gonadal-aromatase-during-the-process-of-sexual-differentiation-in-a-novel-transgenic-cyp19a1a-egfp-zebrafish-line
#16
Nathalie Hinfray, Frédéric Sohm, Morgane Caulier, Edith Chadili, Benjamin Piccini, Camille Torchy, Jean-Marc Porcher, Yann Guiguen, François Brion
In zebrafish, there exists a clear need for new tools to study sex differentiation dynamic and its perturbation by endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this context, we developed and characterized a novel transgenic zebrafish line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1a (gonadal aromatase) promoter. In most gonochoristic fish species including zebrafish, cyp19a1a, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens, has been shown to play a critical role in the processes of reproduction and sexual differentiation...
June 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648944/tubulin-beta-3-and-4-are-involved-in-the-generation-of-early-fibrotic-stages
#17
Marta E Wawro, Katarzyna Sobierajska, Wojciech M Ciszewski, Waldemar Wagner, Marta Frontczak, Katarzyna Wieczorek, Jolanta Niewiarowska
The endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a fundamental cellular mechanism that occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions and includes the fibrotic stages of numerous organs, namely, the skin, kidneys, heart, lungs and liver. Endothelial cells that undergo EndMT are one of the main source of (myo)fibroblasts in fibrotic tissues. A critical step in cellular transdifferentiation is morphological change, which is engineered by the reorganization of cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648941/low-grade-fibromyxoid-sarcoma-clinical-morphologic-and-genetic-features
#18
REVIEW
Mustafa Mohamed, Cyril Fisher, Khin Thway
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a bland spindle cell neoplasm that typically arises in the deep soft tissues of the proximal extremities or trunk of young adults. The majority of LGFMS are characterized by a recurrent (7;16)(q34;p11) translocation, resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene, which generates a chimeric protein with transcriptional regulatory activity. Small numbers harbor a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion resulting from t(11;16)(p11;p11), whilst rare cases harbor the EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion. LGFMS is of low to moderate cellularity and consists of bland spindle cells with small, angulated nuclei and scant, wispy cytoplasm, arranged in a whorled growth pattern and typically showing abrupt transition from myxoid to fibrous areas...
June 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648822/novel-predators-reshape-holozoan-phylogeny-and-reveal-the-presence-of-a-two-component-signaling-system-in-the-ancestor-of-animals
#19
Elisabeth Hehenberger, Denis V Tikhonenkov, Martin Kolisko, Javier Del Campo, Anton S Esaulov, Alexander P Mylnikov, Patrick J Keeling
Our understanding of the origin of animals has been transformed by characterizing their most closely related, unicellular sisters: the choanoflagellates, filastereans, and ichthyosporeans. Together with animals, these lineages make up the Holozoa [1, 2]. Many traits previously considered "animal specific" were subsequently found in other holozoans [3, 4], showing that they evolved before animals, although exactly when is currently uncertain because several key relationships remain unresolved [2, 5]. Here we report the morphology and transcriptome sequencing from three novel unicellular holozoans: Pigoraptor vietnamica and Pigoraptor chileana, which are related to filastereans, and Syssomonas multiformis, which forms a new lineage with Corallochytrium in phylogenomic analyses...
June 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648733/-is-transplantation-an-alternative-to-the-transfusional-impasse-in-sickle-cell-disease
#20
F Bernaudin, M Kuentz
Sickle cell disease is the most frequent genetic disease in France, concerning 400 newborns each year. The management of these Afro-Caribbean patients requires frequent transfusions from Caucasian donors. Due to important erythroid antigenic differences between Caucasian and African, the prevalence of allo-immunization is high in this population with a risk of transfusional impasse. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for this disease and the replacement of red cells and lymphocytes of the sickle cell patient by those of the donor can also resolve the transfusional impasse...
June 22, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
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