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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829997/msx2-is-required-for-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-osteoblastic-differentiation-but-not-calcification-in-insulin-resistant-ob-ob-mice
#1
Maria Claudina Andrade, Luciana S Carmo, Elisangela Farias-Silva, Marcel Liberman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and diabetes potentiate vascular calcification by increasing vascular smooth muscle cells osteoblastic differentiation mediated by the transcription factor Msx2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 signaling. However, Bmp-2/Msx2 crosstalk to induce VSMC osteogenic phenotype transition and calcification is poorly understood in diabetes. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying Bmp-2-driven VSMC osteogenic differentiation and calcification in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice...
July 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829945/cycd-cdk4-and-discontinuities-in-dpp-signaling-activate-torc1-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#2
Jesús Romero-Pozuelo, Constantinos Demetriades, Phillip Schroeder, Aurelio A Teleman
The molecular mechanisms regulating animal tissue size during development are unclear. This question has been extensively studied in the Drosophila wing disc. Although cell growth is regulated by the kinase TORC1, no readout exists to visualize TORC1 activity in situ in Drosophila. Both the cell cycle and the morphogen Dpp are linked to tissue growth, but whether they regulate TORC1 activity is not known. We develop here an anti-phospho-dRpS6 antibody that detects TORC1 activity in situ. We find, unexpectedly, that TORC1 activity in the wing disc is patchy...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829944/spatial-activation-of-torc1-is-regulated-by-hedgehog-and-e2f1-signaling-in-the-drosophila-eye
#3
Wonho Kim, Yoon-Gu Jang, Jinsung Yang, Jongkyeong Chung
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) regulates cell growth in response to nutrients and growth factors. Although TORC1 signaling has been thoroughly studied at the cellular level, the regulation of TORC1 in multicellular tissues and organs has remained elusive. Here we found that TORC1 is selectively activated in the second mitotic wave (SMW), the terminal synchronous cell division, of the developing Drosophila eye. We demonstrated that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates TORC1 through E2F1 and the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex in the SMW, and this regulation is independent from insulin and amino acid signaling pathways...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829942/zygotic-genome-activation-in-vertebrates
#4
REVIEW
David Jukam, S Ali M Shariati, Jan M Skotheim
The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829890/mir-367-promotes-uveal-melanoma-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-regulating-pten
#5
J W Ling, P R Lu, Y B Zhang, S Jiang, Z C Zhang
We aimed to investigate the biological role of miR-367 in uveal melanoma cell growth and migration, and the underlying mechanism responsible. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate miR-367 expression in uveal melanoma tissue samples and cell lines. A miR-367 mimic, miR-367 inhibitor, and negative control oligonucleotide were transfected into these cells to investigate the function of this microRNA. In addition, the role of PTEN in miR-367-mediated uveal melanoma cell growth and migration was evaluated...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829888/mir-200c-inhibits-metastasis-of-breast-tumor-via-the-downregulation-of-foxf2
#6
T Zhang, J G Wan, J B Liu, M Deng
The forkhead box F2 (Foxf2) gene suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the modulation of transcription of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1) and epithelial (E)-cadherin, thereby inhibiting tumor metastasis. Additionally, the specific binding of microRNA (miR)-200c to Foxf2 mRNA impedes metastatic pulmonary cancer. However, the role of miR-200c in breast cancer is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, miR-200c mimics were transfected into the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829837/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-signaling-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-like-phenomena-cell-motility-and-cell-invasion-in-synovial-sarcoma-cells
#7
Yan Qi, Ning Wang, Yonglai He, Jun Zhang, Hong Zou, Wenjie Zhang, Wenyi Gu, Yalan Huang, Xiaojuan Lian, Jianming Hu, Jin Zhao, Xiaobin Cui, Lijuan Pang, Feng Li
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process (the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition [MET]) have been shown to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in different carcinomas. The EMT and MET have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenic processes of sarcomas, which are completely different from those of carcinomas. However, the definitive roles of the EMT in the tumorigenesis of synovial sarcomas remain unknown. Here, we explored whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, an important oncogenic event in synovial sarcoma, modulates tumor cell characteristics related to the EMT, such as cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829774/a-large-scale-plasmodium-vivax-saimiri-boliviensis-trophozoite-schizont-transition-proteome
#8
D C Anderson, Stacey A Lapp, John W Barnwell, Mary R Galinski
Plasmodium vivax is a complex protozoan parasite with over 6,500 genes and stage-specific differential expression. Much of the unique biology of this pathogen remains unknown, including how it modifies and restructures the host reticulocyte. Using a recently published P. vivax reference genome, we report the proteome from two biological replicates of infected Saimiri boliviensis host reticulocytes undergoing transition from the late trophozoite to early schizont stages. Using five database search engines, we identified a total of 2000 P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829761/rho-gtpase-activating-protein-18-a-biomarker-associated-with-good-prognosis-in-invasive-breast-cancer
#9
Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Sultan Sonbul, Rachel Surridge, Abhik Mukherjee, Carlos Caldas, Maria Diez-Rodriguez, Ibraheem Ashankyty, Khalil I Albrahim, Ahmed M Elmouna, Ritu Aneja, Stewart G Martin, Ian O Ellis, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in breast cancer (BC) has been demonstrated in several independent studies. However, identification of driver molecules for LVI remains a challenging task. Large-scale transcriptomic profiling of histologically validated LVI can potentially identify genes that regulate LVI. METHODS: Integrative bio-informatics analyses of the METABRIC study were performed utilising a subset of strictly defined LVI using histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) criteria...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829503/microrna-124-inhibits-cell-invasion-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-directly-repressing-snail2-in-gastric-cancer
#10
S-L Li, H-L Gao, X-K Lv, Y-R Hei, P-Z Li, J-X Zhang, N Lu
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical regulators of genes expression involved in tumor biological processes. The study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological role of miR-124 in gastric cancer (GC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: MiR-124 expression was analyzed from 88 GC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test was used to evaluate the association between miR-124 and the over survival (OS) time of GC patients...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829370/mir-30a-5p-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-upregulates-expression-of-tight-junction-protein-claudin-5-in-human-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-cells
#11
Yueh-Hua Chung, Sung-Chou Li, Ying-Hsien Kao, Hao-Lun Luo, Yuan-Tso Cheng, Pey-Ru Lin, Ming-Hong Tai, Po-Hui Chiang
The involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer development and their potential as prognostic biomarkers are becoming increasingly known. However, the signature of miRNAs and their regulatory roles in tumorigenesis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to profile the miRNA expression pattern in UTUC tumor tissues and identify candidate miRNAs with prognostic and/or therapeutic functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected 22 UTUC tissue and adjacent normal tissues samples from patients who underwent nephroureterectomy...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828681/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-involved-molecules-in-the-progression-of-cutaneous-melanoma
#12
Daniela Murtas, Cristina Maxia, Andrea Diana, Luca Pilloni, Claudia Corda, Luigi Minerba, Sara Tomei, Franca Piras, Caterina Ferreli, Maria Teresa Perra
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to have a driving role in the acquisition of a metastatic potential by melanoma cells. Important hallmarks of EMT include both E-cadherin downregulation and increased expression of N-cadherin. This switch in distinct classes of adhesion molecules leads melanoma cells to lose contact with adjacent keratinocytes and interact instead with stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells, thus promoting dermal and vascular melanoma invasion. Consequently, tumor cells migrate to distant host tissues and establish metastases...
August 21, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828439/the-influence-of-metal-centres-on-the-exchange-interaction-in-heterometallic-complexes-with-oxalate-bridged-cations
#13
Lidija Androš Dubraja, Marijana Jurić, Filip Torić, Damir Pajić
The reaction of bis(phenanthroline)metal(ii) cations (M = Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+)) with bis(oxalato)chromium(iii) anions in a water/ethanol solution gives rise to a series of compounds with oxalate-bridged cations, [{M(phen)2}2(μ-C2O4)][Cr(phen)(C2O4)2]2·4H2O [Mn2Cr2 (1), Co2Cr2 (2), Ni2Cr2 (3), Cu2Cr2 (4) and Zn2Cr2 (5)]. Their structural analysis reveals that all the prepared compounds crystallize in the triclinic system, space group P1[combining macron], having similar unit cell parameters, molecular structures and crystal packing features...
August 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828216/sciatic-nerve-repair-using-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-tubular-prosthesis-associated-with-nanoparticles-of-carbon-and-graphene
#14
Kyl Assaf, Claudenete Vieira Leal, Mariana Silveira Derami, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende Duek, Helder Jose Ceragioli, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Injuries to peripheral nerves generate disconnection between spinal neurons and the target organ. Due to retraction of the nerve stumps, end-to-end neurorrhaphy is usually unfeasible. In such cases, autologous grafts are widely used, nonetheless with some disadvantages, such as mismatching of donor nerve dimensions and formation of painful neuromas at the donor area. Tubulization, using bioresorbable polymers, can potentially replace nerve grafting, although improvements are still necessary...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828153/effect-of-polyethelene-oxide-on-the-thermal-degradation-of-cellulose-biofilm-low-cost-material-for-soft-tissue-repair-in-dentistry
#15
Anna Akkus, Rakim Tyler, David Schiraldi, Renato Roperto, Fady Faddoul, Sorin Teich
BACKGROUND: Bio cellulose is a byproduct of sweet tea fermentation known as kombusha. During the biosynthesis by bacteria cellulose chains are polymerized by enzyme from activated glucose. The single chains are then extruded through the bacterial cell wall. Interestingly, a potential of the Kombucha's byproduct bio cellulose (BC) as biomaterial had come into focus only in the past few decades. The unique physical and mechanical properties such as high purity, an ultrafine and highly crystalline network structure, a superior mechanical strength, flexibility, pronounced permeability to gases and liquids, and an excellent compatibility with living tissue that reinforced by biodegradability, biocompatibility, large swelling ratios...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827764/traf4-promotes-lung-cancer-aggressiveness-by-modulating-tumor-microenvironment-in-normal-fibroblasts
#16
EunGi Kim, Wanyeon Kim, Sungmin Lee, Jahyun Chun, JiHoon Kang, Gaeul Park, IkJoon Han, Hee Jung Yang, HyeSook Youn, BuHyun Youn
Normal fibroblasts surrounding tumor cells play a crucial role in cancer progression through formation of the tumor microenvironment. Because factors secreted from normal fibroblasts can modulate the tumor microenvironment, it is necessary to identify key factors associated with regulation of secreted factors and to investigate the molecular mechanisms contributing to the tumor microenvironment formation process. In this study, we found that radiation induced the expression and K63-linkage poly-ubiquitination of TRAF4 in normal lung fibroblasts...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827691/a-model-for-relative-biological-effectiveness-of-therapeutic-proton-beams-based-on-a-global-fit-of-cell-survival-data
#17
Ramin Abolfath, Christopher R Peeler, Mark Newpower, Lawrence Bronk, David Grosshans, Radhe Mohan
We introduce an approach for global fitting of the recently published high-throughput and high accuracy clonogenic cell-survival data for therapeutic scanned proton beams. Our fitting procedure accounts for the correlation between the cell-survival, the absorbed (physical) dose and the proton linear energy transfer (LET). The fitting polynomials and constraints have been constructed upon generalization of the microdosimetric kinetic model (gMKM) adapted to account for the low energy and high lineal-energy spectrum of the beam where the current radiobiological models may underestimate the reported relative biological effectiveness (RBE)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827661/sirt7-antagonizes-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-and-inhibits-breast-cancer-metastasis
#18
Xiaolong Tang, Lei Shi, Ni Xie, Zuojun Liu, Minxian Qian, Fanbiao Meng, Qingyang Xu, Mingyan Zhou, Xinyue Cao, Wei-Guo Zhu, Baohua Liu
Distant metastasis is the main cause of breast cancer-related death; however, effective therapeutic strategies targeting metastasis are still scarce. This is largely attributable to the spatiotemporal intratumor heterogeneity during metastasis. Here we show that protein deacetylase SIRT7 is significantly downregulated in breast cancer lung metastases in human and mice, and predicts metastasis-free survival. SIRT7 deficiency promotes breast cancer cell metastasis, while temporal expression of Sirt7 inhibits metastasis in polyomavirus middle T antigen breast cancer model...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827653/structural-stability-and-mechanism-of-compression-of-stoichiometric-b13c2-up-to-68gpa
#19
Irina Chuvashova, Elena Bykova, Maxim Bykov, Volodymyr Svitlyk, Leonid Dubrovinsky, Natalia Dubrovinskaia
Boron carbide is a ceramic material with unique properties widely used in numerous, including armor, applications. Its mechanical properties, mechanism of compression, and limits of stability are of both scientific and practical value. Here, we report the behavior of the stoichiometric boron carbide B13C2 studied on single crystals up to 68 GPa. As revealed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, B13C2 maintains its crystal structure and does not undergo phase transitions. Accurate measurements of the unit cell and B12 icosahedra volumes as a function of pressure led to conclusion that they reduce similarly upon compression that is typical for covalently bonded solids...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827139/reduced-glutathione-level-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-lens-epithelial-cells-via-a-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-mediated-pathway-relevance-for-cataract-therapy
#20
Zongbo Wei, Jane Caty, Jeremy Whitson, Amy D Zhang, Ramkumar Srinivasagan, Terrance J Kavanagh, Hong Yan, Xingjun Fan
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) owing to remnant lens epithelial cell proliferation, migration and transformation after cataract surgery. The latter, we hypothesize, may result in posterior capsule wrinkling and opacification due to a profound change in the lens growth environment via a 1000-fold reduction of extracellular glutathione (GSH) levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the EMT process in cell culture and GSH biosynthesis deficiency mouse models...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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