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Cristian Axenie, Christoph Richter, Jörg Conradt
Biological and technical systems operate in a rich multimodal environment. Due to the diversity of incoming sensory streams a system perceives and the variety of motor capabilities a system exhibits there is no single representation and no singular unambiguous interpretation of such a complex scene. In this work we propose a novel sensory processing architecture, inspired by the distributed macro-architecture of the mammalian cortex. The underlying computation is performed by a network of computational maps, each representing a different sensory quantity...
October 20, 2016: Sensors
Huaping Liu, Jie Qin, Fuchun Sun, Di Guo
Tactile sensors play very important role for robot perception in the dynamic or unknown environment. However, the tactile object recognition exhibits great challenges in practical scenarios. In this paper, we address this problem by developing an extreme kernel sparse learning methodology. This method combines the advantages of extreme learning machine and kernel sparse learning by simultaneously addressing the dictionary learning and the classifier design problems. Furthermore, to tackle the intrinsic difficulties which are introduced by the representer theorem, we develop a reduced kernel dictionary learning method by introducing row-sparsity constraint...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Nantachai Sornkarn, Thrishantha Nanayakkara
When humans are asked to palpate a soft tissue to locate a hard nodule, they regulate the stiffness, speed, and force of the finger during examination. If we understand the relationship between these behavioral variables and haptic information gain (transfer entropy) during manual probing, we can improve the efficacy of soft robotic probes for soft tissue palpation, such as in tumor localization in minimally invasive surgery. Here, we recorded the muscle co-contraction activity of the finger using EMG sensors to address the question as to whether joint stiffness control during manual palpation plays an important role in the haptic information gain...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Seo Ki Kim, Jung-Woo Woo, Inhye Park, Jun Ho Lee, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim
PURPOSE: The da Vinci surgical robot system was developed to overcome the weaknesses of endoscopic surgery. However, whether robotic surgery is superior to endoscopic surgery remains uncertain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surgical and oncologic outcomes between endoscopic and robotic thyroidectomy using bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA). METHODS: Between January 2008 and June 2015, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection using endoscopic (n = 480) or robotic (n = 705) BABA were primarily reviewed...
October 24, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Ivan V Smirnov, Andrey V Golovin, Spyros D Chatziefthimiou, Anastasiya V Stepanova, Yingjie Peng, Olga I Zolotareva, Alexey A Belogurov, Inna N Kurkova, Natalie A Ponomarenko, Matthias Wilmanns, G Michael Blackburn, Alexander G Gabibov, Richard A Lerner
In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents...
October 2016: Science Advances
Tomokazu Yoshioka, Hisashi Sugaya, Shigeki Kubota, Mio Onishi, Akihiro Kanamori, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
The knee range of motion is an important outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to previous studies, the knee range of motion temporarily decreases for approximately 1 month after TKA due to postoperative pain and quadriceps dysfunction following surgical invasion into the knee extensor mechanism. We describe our experience with a knee-extension training program based on a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ, Cyberdyne Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) during the acute recovery phase after TKA. HAL-SJ is a wearable robot suit that facilitates the voluntary control of knee joint motion...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
D Digles, B Zdrazil, J-M Neefs, H Van Vlijmen, C Herhaus, A Caracoti, J Brea, B Roibás, M I Loza, N Queralt-Rosinach, L I Furlong, A Gaulton, L Bartek, S Senger, C Chichester, O Engkvist, C T Evelo, N I Franklin, D Marren, G F Ecker, E Jacoby
Phenotypic screening is in a renaissance phase and is expected by many academic and industry leaders to accelerate the discovery of new drugs for new biology. Given that phenotypic screening is per definition target agnostic, the emphasis of in silico and in vitro follow-up work is on the exploration of possible molecular mechanisms and efficacy targets underlying the biological processes interrogated by the phenotypic screening experiments. Herein, we present six exemplar computational protocols for the interpretation of cellular phenotypic screens based on the integration of compound, target, pathway, and disease data established by the IMI Open PHACTS project...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Xavier LeSaout, Matteo Costioli, Lynn Jordan, Jeremy Lambert, Ross Beighley, Laurel Provencher, Brian Gerwe, Kevin McGuire, Nico Verlinden, Andrew Barry
Small-scale protein purification presents opportunities for accelerated process development of biotherapeutic molecules. Miniaturization of purification conditions reduces time and allows for parallel processing of samples, thus offering increased statistical significance and greater breadth of variables. The ability of the miniaturized platform to be predictive of larger scale purification schemes is of critical importance. The PerkinElmer JANUS BioTx Pro and Pro-Plus workstations were developed as intuitive, flexible, and automated devices capable of performing parallel small-scale analytical protein purification...
March 2016: Engineering in Life Sciences
Elizabeth J Geller, Emma Babb, Andrea G Nackley, Denniz Zolnoun
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess incidence and risk factors for pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implantation. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of women with no baseline pelvic pain who underwent surgery with mesh implant for the treatment of prolapse and/or incontinence at least one year prior to study period. DESIGN: Classification: Canadian Task Force Level II-2 SETTING: Single university hospital PATIENTS: Women who have undergone surgery with pelvic mesh implant for treatment of pelvic floor disorders including prolapse and incontinence INTERVENTIONS: Telephone interviews to assess pain, sexual function and general health...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Tony Lu, Shayan Owji, Ponraj Chinnadurai, Thomas M Loh, Adeline Schwein, Alan B Lumsden, Jean Bismuth
A 62-year-old man with coronary artery disease and ischemic cardiomyopathy after coronary artery bypass grafting and insertion of a HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) presented with spontaneous incisional bleeding and an ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm. Aortic angiography revealed an anomalous connection between the pseudoaneurysm and the LVAD conduit. We were able to partially embolize the tract with standard techniques, but the patient returned with repeated bleeding...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Alison F Ward, Timothy Lee, Jennifer B Ogilvie, Kepal N Patel, Karen Hiotis, Costas Bizekis, Michael Zervos
One to two percent of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are found in the lower mediastinum and often these are best accessed via a sternotomy or thoracotomy. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is an alternative approach with less surgical trauma, decreased morbidity, shorter hospital stays, and superior cosmetic results. Ten years after the first VATS resection of an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid, a robot-assisted thoracoscopic approach was described. Here we describe a series of five robot assisted complete thymectomies in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenomas...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Takuma Kobayashi, Satoshi Yamakawa, Kota Watanabe, Kei Kimura, Daisuke Suzuki, Hidenori Otsubo, Atsushi Teramoto, Mineko Fujimiya, Hiromichi Fujie, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Numerous biomechanical studies of the lateral ankle ligaments have been reported; however, the isolated function of the calcaneofibular ligament has not been clarified. We hypothesize that the calcaneofibular ligament would stabilize the ankle joint complex under multidirectional loading, and that the in situ force in the calcaneofibular ligament would change in each flexed position. METHODS: Using seven fresh frozen cadaveric lower extremities, the motions and forces of the intact ankle under multidirectional loading were recorded using a 6-degree-of-freedom robotic system...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Nassier Harfouch, Tannous Fakhry, John Paul Gonzalvo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Sofoklis Panteleimonitis, Jamil Ahmed, Meghana Ramachandra, Muhammad Farooq, Mick Harper, Amjad Parvaiz
PURPOSE: Urological and sexual dysfunction are recognised risks of rectal cancer surgery; however, there is limited evidence regarding urogenital function comparing robotic to laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the urogenital functional outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Urological and sexual functions were assessed using gender-specific validated standardised questionnaires. Questionnaires were sent a minimum of 6 months after surgery, and patients were asked to report their urogenital function pre- and post-operatively, allowing changes in urogenital function to be identified...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
A Kanashiro, J M Gaya, J Palou, L Gausa, H Villavicencio
OBJECTIVES: To review our experience in robot-assisted radical cystectomy, assessing the complications and oncological and functional results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2014, we performed 67 robot-assisted radical cystectomies combined with lymphadenectomy in 61 cases. The operations were performed on 37 patients due to muscle-invasive tumours and on 30 due to high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumours. Urinary diversion was conducted extracorporeally, using a Studer neobladder in 47 cases...
October 18, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Higinio Mora, Jerónimo M Mora-Pascual, Alberto García-García, Pablo Martínez-González
The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm...
2016: PloS One
Mogeeb A El-Sheikh
PURPOSE: This work presents the mechanical design of 4 configurations of compliant fingers in order to address the need for commercially feasible prosthetic and robotic hands. METHODS: The fingers consist of a single part and utilize a compliant mechanism to reduce the cost and control complexity. The geometric parameters of the compliant finger designs follow the Fibonacci series. The first and second compliant fingers have 2 joints and 2 degrees of freedom. The others have 3 joints and 3 degrees of freedom...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Over the last decade there has been a resurgence in the use of plant protoplasts that range from model species to crop species, for analysis of signal transduction pathways, transcriptional regulatory networks, gene expression, genome-editing, and gene-silencing. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the regeneration of plants from protoplasts, which has generated even more interest in the use of these systems for plant genomics. In this work, a protocol has been developed for automation of protoplast isolation and transformation from a 'Bright Yellow' 2 (BY-2) tobacco suspension culture using a robotic platform...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John Turri
This paper addresses a fundamental question in folk metaphysics: how do we ordinarily view human agency? According to the transcendence account, we view human agency as standing outside of the causal order and imbued with exceptional powers. According to a naturalistic account, we view human agency as subject to the same physical laws as other objects and completely open to scientific investigation. According to exceptionalist naturalism, the truth lies somewhere in between: we view human agency as fitting broadly within the causal order while still being exceptional in important respects...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Masaaki Yanishi, Hidefumi Kinoshita, Takao Mishima, Hisanori Taniguchi, Kenji Yoshida, Yoshihiro Komai, Kaneki Yasuda, Masato Watanabe, Motohiko Sugi, Tadashi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Urinary biomarkers of renal injury urinary may identify loss of renal function following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This study was designed to evaluate whether urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein (l-FABP) is an early biomarker of loss of renal function after NSS. Specifically, the kinetics of urinary l-FABP level after NSS and its correlation with factors related to ischemic renal injury were analyzed. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated 18 patients who underwent NSS between July and December 2014, including 12 who underwent laparoscopic and six who underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
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