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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088543/transformation-of-terrestrial-organic-matter-along-thermokarst-affected-permafrost-coasts-in-the-arctic
#1
George Tanski, Hugues Lantuit, Saskia Ruttor, Christian Knoblauch, Boris Radosavljevic, Jens Strauss, Juliane Wolter, Anna M Irrgang, Justine Ramage, Michael Fritz
The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060931/earliest-human-presence-in-north-america-dated-to-the-last-glacial-maximum-new-radiocarbon-dates-from-bluefish-caves-canada
#2
Lauriane Bourgeon, Ariane Burke, Thomas Higham
The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory) from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory) occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058718/mitochondrial-dna-phylogeography-of-least-cisco-coregonus-sardinella-in-alaska
#3
V M Padula, D Causey, J A López
This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943291/distribution-and-ecology-of-lampreys-lethenteron-spp-in-interior-alaskan-rivers
#4
T M Sutton
This study describes phenetic characteristics and examines the life history of anadromous Arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum and freshwater-resident Alaskan brook lamprey Lethenteron alaskense in two tributaries of the middle Yukon River, Alaska. Larval lampreys could not be identified to species using pigmentation density patterns or trunk myomere counts, but adults could be identified to species based on colouration, body size and oral-disc dentition. Although larvae were patchily distributed in both rivers, there was a greater proportion of sample locations where Lethenteron spp...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879543/enzymopenic-congenital-methemoglobinemia-in-children-of-the-republic-of-sakha-yakutia
#5
Tatiana E Burtseva, Tatiana N Ammosova, Natalia N Protopopova, Svetlana Y Yakovleva, Maya P Slobodchikova
Type I congenital methemoglobinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder. A high frequency of congenital methemoglobinemia has been reported among Native Americans inhabiting the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Other rare cases of congenital methemoglobinemia of types I and II have been reported in Japan and other countries. In Russia-namely, in Yakutia-a high frequency of type I congenital methemoglobinemia has been reported. In 2009, the Consultation Polyclinic of the Pediatric Center in Yakutsk city established a registry of children with congenital methemoglobinemia...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669446/metabolic-responses-to-the-yukon-arctic-ultra-longest-and-coldest-in-the-world
#6
Robert H Coker, Alyssa N Weaver, Melynda S Coker, Carl J Murphy, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Mathias Steinach
PURPOSE: The Yukon Arctic Ultra is considered the longest and coldest ultraendurance event in the world. Cold exposure and exercise has been reported to influence circulating levels of myo-, adipo- and hepato-kines that may influence considerable alterations in the regulation of metabolism. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of the Yukon Arctic Ultra (430 mile event) on potential activators of brown fat, metabolites and body composition in healthy individuals. METHODS: Eight male and female participants (mean±SEM; age = 44±3 yr; BMI = 23...
September 16, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635312/you-can-hide-but-you-can-t-run-apparent-competition-predator-responses-and-the-decline-of-arctic-ground-squirrels-in-boreal-forests-of-the-southwest-yukon
#7
Jeffery R Werner, Elizabeth A Gillis, Rudy Boonstra, Charles J Krebs
Throughout much of North America's boreal forest, the cyclical fluctuations of snowshoe hare populations (Lepus americanus) may cause other herbivores to become entrained in similar cycles. Alternating apparent competition via prey switching followed by positive indirect effects are the mechanisms behind this interaction. Our purpose is to document a change in the role of indirect interactions between sympatric populations of hares and arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii plesius), and to emphasize the influence of predation for controlling ground squirrel numbers...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596687/bacterial-community-succession-in-a-high-altitude-sub-arctic-glacier-foreland-is-a-three-stage-process
#8
Sina Kazemi, Ido Hatam, Brian Lanoil
Alpine glaciers are retreating rapidly, exposing foreland minerals, which develop into soils. Bacterial communities in glacier forelands exhibit high rates of turnover and undergo dramatic shifts in composition within the first 50 years after deglaciation, followed by relative stabilization and convergence. This period of microbial development occurs simultaneously with plant colonization in most systems; thus, it remains unclear whether the changes in the bacterial communities occur primarily as the result of edaphic, climatic, or biotic factors...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465921/declines-in-traditional-marine-food-intake-and-vitamin-d-levels-from-the-1960s-to-present-in-young-alaska-native-women
#9
Diane M O'Brien, Kenneth E Thummel, Lisa R Bulkow, Zhican Wang, Brittany Corbin, Joseph Klejka, Scarlett E Hopkins, Bert B Boyer, Thomas W Hennessy, Rosalyn Singleton
OBJECTIVE: To measure the trends in traditional marine food intake and serum vitamin D levels in Alaska Native women of childbearing age (20-29 years old) from the 1960s to the present. DESIGN: We measured a biomarker of traditional food intake, the δ15N value, and vitamin D level, as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) concentration, in 100 serum samples from 20-29-year-old women archived in the Alaska Area Specimen Bank, selecting twenty-five per decade from the 1960s to the 1990s...
July 28, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404274/deciduous-trees-are-a-large-and-overlooked-sink-for-snowmelt-water-in-the-boreal-forest
#10
Jessica M Young-Robertson, W Robert Bolton, Uma S Bhatt, Jordi Cristóbal, Richard Thoman
The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21-25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed <1%...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395874/a-new-species-of-pseudochalcura-ashmead-chalcidoidea-eucharitidae-%C3%A2-from-argentina-with-descriptions-of-alternate-sexes-of-two-other-species
#11
Javier Torréns
Pseudochalcura Ashmead is a genus of parasitic wasps within Eucharitidae (Chalcidoidea) that are all parasitoids of ants. The genus is widespread in the New World, with different species known from the Yukon and Alaska to northern Chile and Argentina. Descriptions of the adults (both sexes) of Pseudochalcura carinata sp. nov. from Argentina, and of the males of P. pauca Heraty and P. prolata Heraty are provided. A revised identification key to species is included.
January 21, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387807/the-seasonal-fluctuations-and-accumulation-of-iodine-129-in-relation-to-the-hydrogeochemistry-of-the-wolf-creek-research-basin-a-discontinuous-permafrost-watershed
#12
Matthew N Herod, Tianjiao Li, André Pellerin, William E Kieser, Ian D Clark
The long lived radioisotope (129)I is a uranium fission product, and an environmental contaminant of the nuclear age. Consequently, it can trace anthropogenic releases of (129)I in watersheds, and has been identified as a potential means to distinguish water sources in discharge (Nimz, 1998). The purpose of this work was to identify the sources and mass input of (129)I and trace the transport, partitioning and mass balance of (129)I over time in a remote watershed. We monitored (129)I and other geochemical and isotope tracers (e...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373541/-they-made-me-go-through-like-weeks-of-appointments-and-everything-documenting-women-s-experiences-seeking-abortion-care-in-yukon-territory-canada
#13
Jennifer K Cano, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: Abortion has been legal without restriction in Canada since 1988 and is recognized as a medically necessary service. However, research indicates that women still face numerous barriers to accessing care, challenges which are amplified for women living in rural, remote, and northern regions in Canada. OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study aimed to document women's experiences seeking and obtaining abortion services while residing in Yukon Territory, identify financial and personal costs, and explore avenues through which services could be improved...
June 29, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360849/serum-myokine-levels-during-the-430-mile-yukon-arctic-ultra-2024-board-176-june-2-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#14
Alyssa N Weaver, Melynda S Coker, Mathias Steinach, Robert H Coker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350593/mitochondrial-population-structure-and-post-glacial-dispersal-of-longnose-sucker-catostomus-catostomus-in-labrador-canada-evidence-for-multiple-refugial-origins-and-limited-ongoing-gene-flow
#15
B L Langille, R Perry, D Keefe, O Barker, H D Marshall
Two hundred and eighty-seven longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus were collected from 14 lakes in Labrador, 52 from three lakes in Ontario, 43 from two lakes in British Columbia and 32 from a lake in Yukon; a total of 414 in all. The resulting 34 haplotypes (20 in Labrador) contained moderate haplotypic diversity (h = 0·657) and relatively low nucleotide diversity (π = 3·730 × 10(-3) . Mean ϕST (0·453, P < 0·05) over all populations revealed distinct genetic structuring among C. catostomus populations across Canada, based on province, which was validated by the analysis and spatial analysis of molecular variance (c...
August 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348112/spatial-variability-of-gastroschisis-in-canada-2006-2011-an-exploratory-analysis
#16
Kate L Bassil, Junmin Yang, Laura Arbour, Rahim Moineddin, Mary E Brindle, Emily Hazell, Erik D Skarsgard
OBJECTIVES: Gastroschisis is a serious birth defect of the abdominal wall that is associated with mortality and significant morbidity. Our understanding of the factors causing this defect is limited. The objective of this paper is to describe the geographic variation in incidence of gastroschisis and characterize the spatial pattern of all gastroschisis cases in Canada between 2006 and 2011. Specifically, we aimed to ascertain the differences in spatial patterns between geographic regions and identify significant clusters and their location...
27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272944/genome-wide-set-of-snps-reveals-evidence-for-two-glacial-refugia-and-admixture-from-postglacial-recolonization-in-an-alpine-ungulate
#17
Zijian Sim, Jocelyn C Hall, Bill Jex, Troy M Hegel, David W Coltman
Past glaciation events have played a major role in shaping the genetic diversity and distribution of wild sheep in North America. The advancement of glaciers can isolate populations in ice-free refugia, where they can survive until the recession of ice sheets. The major Beringian refugium is thought to have held thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli) populations during times of glacial advance. While isolation in the major refugium can account for much of the genetic and morphological diversity seen in extant thinhorn sheep populations, mounting evidence suggests the persistence of populations in smaller minor refugia...
August 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211673/potato-wound-healing-tissues-a-rich-source-of-natural-antioxidant-molecules-with-potential-for-food-preservation
#18
Keyvan Dastmalchi, Isabel Wang, Ruth E Stark
The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151918/improving-access-to-bariatric-surgery-early-surgical-and-patient-focused-outcomes-of-a-rural-obesity-clinic
#19
Angela W Chan, Julie Hopkins, Isabelle Gagnon, Daniel W Birch
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is typically offered in larger health care centers, forcing patients to travel long distances to access care. An adult obesity program was established in Whitehorse, Yukon based on the multidisciplinary adult bariatric clinic in Edmonton, to alleviate long-distance care difficulties. This study analyzes patient/health care staff satisfaction and surgical outcomes for this program. METHODS: A survey was administered to patients and health care staff at Edmonton and Whitehorse...
May 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132853/resistant-starch-analysis-of-commonly-consumed-potatoes-content-varies-by-cooking-method-and-service-temperature-but-not-by-variety
#20
Susan K Raatz, Laura Idso, LuAnn K Johnson, Matthew I Jackson, Gerald F Combs
Resistant starch (RS) has unique digestive and absorptive properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking method and service temperature. Potatoes of three common commercial varieties (Yukon Gold, Dark Red Norland, and Russet Burbank) were subjected to two methods of cooking (baking or boiling) and three service temperatures: hot (65°C), chilled (4°C) and reheated (4°C for 6d; reheated to 65°C) and analyzed the starch content by modification of a commercially available assay...
October 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
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