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Pamela Kaufman, Julie Kang, Ryan David Kennedy, Pippa Beck, Roberta Ferrence
This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new) to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Lea C Rundfeldt, Martina A Maggioni, Robert H Coker, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Alain Riveros-Rivera, Adriane Schalt, Mathias Steinach
Studies on human physical performance in extreme environments have effectively approached the investigation of adaptation mechanisms and their physiological limits. As scientific interest in the interplay between physiological and psychological aspects of performance is growing, we aimed to investigate cardiac autonomic control, by means of heart rate variability, and psychological correlates, in competitors of a subarctic ultramarathon, taking place over a 690 km course (temperatures between +5 and -47°C)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelle Lisonek, Shiliang Liu, Susie Dzakpasu, Aideen M Moore, K S Joseph
Background: Recent reports show increases in rates of ankyloglossia and frenotomy in British Columbia. We carried out a study to determine temporal trends and regional variations in ankyloglossia and frenotomy in Canada. Methods: The study included all hospital-based live births in Canada (excluding Quebec) between April 2002 and March 2015, with information obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Information on ankyloglossia and frenotomy was obtained from records of hospital admission for childbirth...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J Longstaffe, Grant Zazula
A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and structural carbonate of some modern, Yukon, arctic ground squirrels with vegetation and bones from Late Pleistocene fossil arctic ground squirrel nests preserved in Yukon loess deposits...
2018: PloS One
Nicole J Wilson, Edda Mutter, Jody Inkster, Terre Satterfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Donald L Chi, Dane Lenaker, Lloyd Mancl, Matthew Dunbar, Michael Babb
OBJECTIVES: Dental Health Aide Therapists (DHATs) have been part of the dental workforce in Alaska's Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) Delta since 2006. They are trained to provide preventive and restorative care such as filling and extractions. In this study, we evaluated community-level dental outcomes associated with DHATs. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of Alaska Medicaid and electronic health record data for individuals in Alaska's YK Delta (2006-2015). The independent variable was the number of DHAT treatment days in each community...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Russell Clarence Callaghan, Marcos Sanches, Jodi Gatley, James K Cunningham, Michael Oliver Chaiton, Robert Schwartz, Susan Bondy, Claire Benny
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US Institute of Medicine has proposed that raising the minimum age for tobacco purchasing/sales to 21 years would likely lead to reductions in smoking behavior among young people. Surprisingly few studies, however, have assessed the potential impacts of minimum-age tobacco restrictions on youth smoking. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impacts of Canadian minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour. DESIGN: A regression-discontinuity design, using seven merged cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2014...
January 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Christopher Potter
BACKGROUND: In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high; LBS, MBS, HBS)...
January 8, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
David L Driscoll, Victoria R Barnes, Janet M Johnston, Richard Windsor, Ryan Ray
Aims: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of placing FASD prevention messages in the women's restrooms of establishments serving alcohol in Alaska and the Yukon, regions with high rates of FASD. Methods: Our team placed an FASD educational poster, and posters affixed to a pregnancy test dispenser, in women's restrooms of bars and restaurants. We compared drinking behaviors and knowledge and beliefs about FASD among participants at baseline and at follow-up...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Sarah E McCloskey, Brian D Uher-Koch, Joel A Schmutz, Thomas F Fondell
Identifying post-breeding migration and wintering distributions of migratory birds is important for understanding factors that may drive population dynamics. Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) are widely distributed across Alaska and currently have varying population trends, including some populations with recent periods of decline. To investigate population differentiation and the location of migration pathways and wintering areas, which may inform population trend patterns, we used satellite transmitters (n = 32) to describe migration patterns of four geographically separate breeding populations of Red-throated Loons in Alaska...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan T Hagstrum, Richard B Firestone, Allen West, James C Weaver, Ted E Bunch
Large quantities of impact-related microspherules have been found in fine-grained sediments retained within seven out of nine, radiocarbon-dated, Late Pleistocene mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and bison (Bison priscus) skull fragments. The well-preserved fossils were recovered from frozen "muck" deposits (organic-rich silt) exposed within the Fairbanks and Klondike mining districts of Alaska, USA, and the Yukon Territory, Canada. In addition, elevated platinum abundances were found in sediment analysed from three out of four fossil skulls...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vasyl V Tkach, John Mike Kinsella, Stephen E Greiman
Two new species of Staphylocystoides are described from masked shrews Sorex cinereus: Staphylocystis oligospinosus n. sp. was collected from the vicinity of Missoula, Montana, United States and Staphylocystoides parasphenomorphus n. sp. was collected from the vicinity of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada. Morphological differentiation from known species is provided. Both species are morphologically closest to Staphylocystoides sphenomorphus and to each other. Among other characters, Staphylocystoides oligospinosus n...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin, Thomas S Jung, Charles J Krebs, Shawn Taylor
Community and ecosystem changes are happening in the pristine boreal forest ecosystem of the Yukon for two reasons. First, climate change is affecting the abiotic environment (temperature, rainfall, growing season) and driving changes in plant productivity and predator-prey interactions. Secondly, simultaneously change is occurring because of mammal species reintroductions and rewilding. The key ecological question is the impact these faunal changes will have on trophic dynamics. Primary productivity in the boreal forest is increasing because of climatic warming, but plant species composition is unlikely to change significantly during the next 50-100 years...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Kathryn R Koller, Christie A Flanagan, Gretchen E Day, Christi Patten, Jason G Umans, Melissa A Austin, Scarlett E Hopkins, Cheryl Raindl, Bert B Boyer
Tobacco use prevalence among Alaska Native (AN) people living in Alaska is greater than the general population prevalence statewide and nationally. Better understanding of regional tobacco use is needed to improve cessation efforts and reduce prevalence. Using self-reported baseline data from the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health study, we describe tobacco use patterns among AN people in two western Alaska regions. Data were stratified by age group and sex. Dual- and multi-product use in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) region was stratified by concurrent vs sequential use...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
David P L Toews, Julian Heavyside, Darren E Irwin
Long-distance migration is a behavior that is exhibited by many animal groups. The evolution of novel migration routes can play an important role in range expansions, ecological interactions, and speciation. New migration routes may evolve in response to selection in favor of reducing distance between breeding and wintering areas, or avoiding navigational barriers. Many migratory changes are likely to evolve gradually and are therefore difficult to study. Here, we attempt to connect breeding and wintering populations of myrtle warblers (Setophaga coronata coronata) to better understand the possible evolution of distinct migration routes within this species...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
David Snadden, Mark Alexander Kunzli
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature evaluating generational change in the physician workforce and the adjustments required of practices, practitioners and the health care system as a whole. The purpose of this study was to explore rural practitioners' experiences of their current contexts relevant to recruitment and retention and to determine how practices are responding to changing aspirations of new practitioners. METHODS: We used qualitative methods. Participants were selected to ensure diversity of career stage...
September 12, 2017: CMAJ Open
Shimaa M Kteeba, Hala I El-Adawi, Osman A El-Rayis, Ahmed E El-Ghobashy, Jessica L Schuld, Kurt R Svoboda, Laodong Guo
Exposure experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the toxicity of ZnO-NPs (10-30 nm) and dissolved Zn at sub-lethal doses (50 and 5 ppm, respectively) to zebrafish (Danio rerio). Humic acid, alginic acid, bovine serum albumin and various natural DOM isolated from rivers as the Milwaukee River-WI (NOMW), Yukon River-AK (NOMA) and Suwannee River-GA DOM (NOMS) were used to represent humic substances (HA), carbohydrates (CHO), proteins (PTN), and natural organic matter (NOM), respectively...
November 2017: Environmental Pollution
Christina I Barrón-Ortiz, Antonia T Rodrigues, Jessica M Theodor, Brian P Kooyman, Dongya Y Yang, Camilla F Speller
Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction...
2017: PloS One
Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J Longstaffe, Grant Zazula, Bruce Bennett
We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with a positive shift occurring with depth in two soil profiles analyzed...
2017: PloS One
Nityananda Khanal, Geoffrey E Bray, Anna Grisnich, Barbara A Moffatt, Gordon R Gray
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure...
August 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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