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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228458/seeing-the-signs-using-the-course-of-residual-depressive-symptomatology-to-predict-patterns-of-relapse-and-recurrence-of-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Floor E A Verhoeven, Klaas J Wardenaar, Henricus G Eric Ruhé, Henk Jan Conradi, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by high relapse/recurrence rates. Predicting individual patients' relapse/recurrence risk has proven hard, possibly due to course heterogeneity among patients. This study aimed to (1) identify homogeneous data-driven subgroups with different patterns of relapse/recurrence and (2) identify associated predictors. METHODS: For a year, we collected weekly depressive symptom ratings in 213 primary care MDD patients...
December 11, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#2
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost two centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to non-target species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228286/cut-and-paste-transposons-in-fungi-with-diverse-lifestyles
#3
Anna Muszewska, Kamil Steczkiewicz, Marta Stepniewska-Dziubinska, Krzysztof Ginalski
Transposons (TEs) shape genomes via recombination and transposition, lead to chromosomal rearrangements, create new gene neighbourhoods and alter gene expression. They play key roles in adaptation either to symbiosis in Amanita genus or to pathogenicity in Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Despite growing evidence of their importance, the abundance and distribution of mobile elements replicating in a "cut and paste" fashion is barely described so far. In order to improve our knowledge on this old and ubiquitous class of transposable elements, 1,730 fungal genomes were scanned using both de novo and homology-based approaches...
December 8, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228270/influenza-a-virus-subtype-h9n2-infection-disrupts-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-of-chickens
#4
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (Uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228206/airway-and-hard-tissue-dimensions-in-children-treated-with-early-and-later-timed-cervical-headgear-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Johanna Julku, Kirsi Pirilä-Parkkinen, Pertti Pirttiniemi
Background: A Kloehn-type cervical headgear (CH) aims to correct skeletal jaw discrepancy in Class II children. A few studies have reported CH treatment effects on airway dimensions, but none of them have been randomized according to timing. Objectives: To evaluate related craniofacial structures and pharyngeal airway dimensions in children with a Class II occlusion treated with CH and randomized into early and late treatment groups. Trial design: Randomized, parallel-group, prospective controlled trial...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228202/activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-problem-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-uk-2015-16
#6
David M Livermore, Danièle Meunier, Katie L Hopkins, Michel Doumith, Robert Hill, Rachel Pike, Peter Staves, Neil Woodford
Background: Ceftazidime/avibactam combines an established oxyimino-cephalosporin with the first diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor to enter clinical use. We reviewed its activity against Gram-negative isolates, predominantly from the UK, referred for resistance investigation in the first year of routine testing, beginning in July 2015. Methods: Isolates were as received from referring laboratories; there is a bias to submit those with suspected carbapenem resistance...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228100/test-retest-reliability-and-minimal-detectable-change-of-the-d2-test-of-attention-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Posen Lee, Wen-Shian Lu, Chin-Hsuan Liu, Hung-Yu Lin, Ching-Lin Hsieh
Objective: The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. Method: A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228051/white-blood-cell-differential-count-of-maturation-stages-in-bone-marrow-smear-using-dual-stage-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Jin Woo Choi, Yunseo Ku, Byeong Wook Yoo, Jung-Ah Kim, Dong Soon Lee, Young Jun Chai, Hyoun-Joong Kong, Hee Chan Kim
The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227830/cell-surface-markers-for-the-identification-and-study-of-human-naive-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Oliver Trusler, Ziyi Huang, Jacob Goodwin, Andrew L Laslett
Characterisation of mouse pluripotent stem cells has revealed two distinct pluripotent states, naive and primed, that maintain characteristics of the pre and post implanted epiblast respectively. Recent studies have developed several culture systems that seek to recapitulate the naive phenomenon in human pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, robust methods to isolate these cells will be fundamental to assess their potential in modelling human development and disease. Here we review current methods for human naive pluripotent culture and collate a list of cell surface antigens that have been identified as markers to differentiate naive from primed human pluripotent stem cells...
December 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227825/engineering-of-single-chain-antibodies-for-solubility
#10
Yaghoub Safdari
In the current study, we introduce a method to design intrinsically soluble single chain antibodies (scFvs) that can be easily produced in bacterial expression systems in a soluble form. Summarily, CDR loops are grafted on framework regions derived from intrinsically soluble subclass 3 (VH3 and VL3) human germline sequences. Framework-donor sequences should carry CDR loops of interest (in terms of canonical classes) and contain special residues in their hydrophobic cores. Recombinant variable fragments resultant from CDR grafting are subjected to 3D modeling, mutated (if necessary), and superposed to parental variable domains...
December 8, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227821/scan-rescan-reproducibility-of-ventricular-and-atrial-mri-feature-tracking-strain
#11
Jérôme Lamy, Gilles Soulat, Morgane Evin, Adrian Huber, Alain de Cesare, Alain Giron, Benoit Diebold, Alban Redheuil, Elie Mousseaux, Nadjia Kachenoura
BACKGROUND: A feature tracking (FT) was designed to simultaneously extract myocardial strains in main cardiac chambers from cine MRI images. Its inter-observer and scan-rescan reproducibility was assessed and sample sizes required to detect predefined longitudinal changes in strain values were provided. METHOD: FT was applied on left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles as well as left atrium (LA) of 21 individuals (66 ± 10 years) who underwent 2 MRIs 2 weeks apart...
November 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227789/identifying-patterns-of-tobacco-use-among-us-middle-and-high-school-students-a-latent-class-analysis
#12
Mansoo Yu, Paul Sacco, Hye Jeong Choi, Jenna Wintemberg
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to (a) understand patterns of tobacco use among US middle and high school students based on their lifetime or current use of tobacco products: cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, pipes, e-cigarettes, and hookah tobacco, and (b) examine differences in the underlying patterns by sociodemographic and tobacco-related characteristics (e.g., exposure to tobacco products, tobacco advertising, parental disapproval of tobacco use and feedback from healthcare providers)...
December 5, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227719/comparison-of-interactive-video-test-performance-to-overall-class-performance-in-a-biomechanics-course
#13
Guinevere S Bennett
OBJECTIVE: This study compared interactive video test performance and students' overall class performance. The hypothesis was that there would be a difference in video test performance compared to overall class performance. METHODS: A total of 30 students participated in the pilot study from a master's level biomechanics course. Students completed four interactive video tests using EduCanon; content of videos included base of support, lever systems, scapulohumeral rhythm, and postural analysis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227673/crystal-structure-of-cleaved-serp-1-a-myxomavirus-derived-immune-modulating-serpin-structural-design-of-serpin-reactive-center-loop-rcl-peptides-with-improved-therapeutic-function
#14
Brian P Mahon, Sriram Ambadapadi, Jordan R Yaron, Carrie L Lomelino, Melissa A Pinard, Shahar Keinan, Igor Kurnikov, Colin Macaulay, Liqiang Zhang, Westley Reeves, Grant McFadden, Scott Tibbetts, Robert McKenna, Alexandra Lucas
The Myxomavirus-derived protein Serp-1 has potent anti-inflammatory activity in models of vasculitis, lupus, viral sepsis, and transplant. Serp-1 has also been tested successfully in a Phase IIa clinical trial in unstable angina, representing a 'first-in-class' therapeutic. Recently, peptides derived from the reactive center loop (RCL) have been developed as stand-alone therapeutics for reducing vasculitis and improving survival in MHV68-infected mice. However, both Serp-1 and the RCL peptides lose activity in MHV68-infected mice after antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227648/quinazolinone-based-anticancer-agents-synthesis-anti-proliferative-sar-anti-tubulin-activity-and-tubulin-co-crystal-structure
#15
Wolfgang Dohle, Fabrice L Jourdan, Gregory Menchon, Andrea E Prota, Paul A Foster, Pascoe Mannion, Ernest Hamel, Mark P Thomas, Philip G Kasprzyk, Eric Ferrandis, Michel O Steinmetz, Mathew P Leese, Barry V L Potter
Quinazolinone-based anti-cancer agents were designed, decorated with functional groups from a 2-methoxyestradiol-based microtubule disruptor series, incorporating the aryl sulfamate motif of steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors. The steroidal AB-ring system was mimicked, favoring conformations with an N-2 substituent occupying D-ring space. Evaluation against breast and prostate tumor cell lines identified 7b with DU-145 anti-proliferative activity (GI50 300 nM). A preliminary structure-activity relationship afforded compounds (e...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227636/strategies-to-assemble-catenanes-with-multiple-interlocked-macrocycles
#16
Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Chi-Chung Yee, Antony Wing Hung Ng, Keling Hu
As a major class of mechanically interlocked molecules, not only are catenanes topologically intriguing targets that challenge the chemical synthesis to the efficient formation of mechanical bonds, but also the mechanical properties arising from the topology offer unique and attractive features for the development of novel functional molecular materials. Despite advancements in templated methods for different types of interlocked architectures, [n]catenane possessing multiple numbers of interlocked macrocycles still remains a difficult synthetic target with very few reported examples...
December 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227582/role-of-the-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-in-mediating-the-renal-effects-of-drugs-commonly-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Diabetes is characterized by an increased activity of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in the glomerulus and renal tubules, which contributes importantly to the development of nephropathy. Despite the established role played by the exchanger in experimental studies, it has not been specifically targeted by those seeking to develop novel pharmacological treatments for diabetes. This review demonstrates that many existing drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes act on the NHE1 and NHE3 isoforms in the kidney...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227550/live-cell-visualization-of-calcium-flux-in-vibratome-cut-thick-sections-of-viable-tumor-tissue
#18
James Koh, Joyce A Hogue, Julie A Sosa
This unit outlines a live-cell imaging approach developed for visualization of intracellular calcium flux in human parathyroid tumors following stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), a class C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The primary assay readout, intracellular calcium release induced by activation of the inositol triphosphate receptor, is potentially generalizable to multiple other GPCR signaling events that utilize this common downstream signal transduction pathway. Advantages of the approach include: (1) preservation of native tissue context and positional information, allowing direct visualization of intratumoral functional heterogeneity; (2) quantitative documentation of reactivity to a physiological stimulus in an experimentally tractable ex vivo system; and (3) generation of a dynamic, functional classifier of tumor biochemical behavior to augment static marker assessment...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227454/immediate-and-long-term-hearing-outcomes-with-the-middle-cranial-fossa-approach-for-vestibular-schwannoma-resection
#19
Sameer Ahmed, H Alexander Arts, Hussam El-Kashlan, Gregory J Basura, B Gregory Thompson, Steven A Telian
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate postoperative and long-term hearing outcome data in patients who have undergone hearing preservation attempts with the middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach for the resection of sporadic vestibular schwannoma. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of a surgical patient cohort. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENTS: Adult patients with unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannoma...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227409/differences-in-the-alignment-pattern-of-the-maxillary-dental-arch-following-fixed-orthodontic-treatment-in-patients-with-bilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-anteroposterior-collapsed-arch-versus-transverse-collapsed-arch
#20
Mihee Hong, Seung-Hak Baek
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the alignment pattern of the collapsed maxillary arch following fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) in bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) patients according to collapse type. Fifteen BCLP patients were divided into Group 1 (anteroposterior-collapsed arch, n = 7) and Group 2 (transverse-collapsed arch, n = 8) according to maxillary arch shape before FOT. Linear and angular variables of lateral cephalograms and dental models were evaluated before (T1) and after FOT (T2), and statistical analysis was performed...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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