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Rosalina Djatmika, Chih-Chung Hsieh, Jhih-Ming Chen, Wang-Hsien Ding
An effective method for determining four commonly detected paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. This method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) before identification and quantification of the paraben preservatives via on-line acetylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of MSPD were optimized through a Box-Behnken design method. Under optimal condition, 0.5-g of freeze-dried seafood was mixed with 0...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Anilkumar Gunnam, Kuthuru Suresh, Ramesh Ganduri, Ashwini Nangia
The transformation of zwitterionic Sparfloxacin (SPX) to the neutral form is achieved by cocrystallization. Neutral forms of drugs are important for higher membrane permeability, while zwitterions are more soluble in water. The twin advantages of higher solubility/dissolution rate and good stability of neutral SPX are achieved in a molecular cocrystal compared to its zwitterionic SPX hydrate. The amine-phenol supramolecular synthon drives cocrystal formation, with the paraben ester acting as a "proton migrator" for the ionic to neutral transformation...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lesa L Aylward, Sean M Hays, Angelika Zidek
Population biomonitoring data sets such as the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collect and analyze spot urine samples for analysis for biomarkers of exposure to non-persistent chemicals. Estimation of population intakes using such data sets in a risk-assessment context requires consideration of intra- and inter-individual variability to understand the relationship between variation in the biomarker concentrations and variation in the underlying daily and longer-term intakes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
I Jiménez-Díaz, L M Iribarne-Durán, O Ocón, E Salamanca, M F Fernández, N Olea, E Barranco
Benzophenones and parabens are synthetic chemicals used in many personal care products, foods and pharmaceuticals. Benzophenones are used to protect the skin and materials from the adverse effects of UV-radiation, and parabens are used as preservatives. Despite their widespread occurrence and proven endocrine disrupting activity, relatively little is known about human exposure to these compounds. In the present work, an analytical method based on sample treatment using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, -2, -3, -6, -8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) and four parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl- paraben) from human menstrual blood samples, followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, is proposed and validated...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sean D Kodani, Haley B Overby, Christophe Morisseau, Jiangang Chen, Ling Zhao, Bruce D Hammock
Parabens are a class of small molecules that are regularly used as preservatives in a variety of personal care products. Several parabens, including butylparaben and benzylparaben, have been found to interfere with endocrine signaling and to stimulate adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized these biological effects could be due to interference with the endocannabinoid system and identified fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the direct molecular target of parabens. FAAH inhibition by parabens yields mixed-type and time-independent kinetics...
September 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Gita Saini, Shalini Pant, Tanveer Alam, A A Kazmi
The occurrence of emerging contaminants such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our water resources is of prime concern. With this context, fate and seasonal variation of six EDCs (testosterone, T; progesterone, P; diethyl phthalate, DEP; dibutyl phthalate, DBP; propyl-paraben, PP and butyl-paraben, BP) were assessed throughout the year, i.e. in rainy, winter, spring and summer seasons in the raw, treated wastewater and activated sludge in an activated sludge process (ASP) based sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Haridwar, India...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sudarat Jan-E, Yanawath Santaladchaiyakit, Rodjana Burakham
An ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification micro-extraction (UASEME) procedure has been developed for pre-concentration of benzoic acid (BA) and paraben preservatives, including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. Separations were performed on a Lichrospher RP-18 endcapped 5 µm, using an isocratic mobile phase of 40% acetonitile, at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) The selected UASEME conditions comprised the use of 10 mL sample extract, 125 µL 1-octanol as extraction solvent and 0...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Cécile Labadie, Céline Cerutti, Frédéric Carlin
AIM: Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products used in food and cosmetic industries, perfumery, pharmacy and aromatherapy. The ability of preservatives to control previously reported bacterial proliferation and spoilage was evaluated. All tested preservatives were authorized for food and cosmetic application. METHODS AND RESULTS: Major pathogens of concern for foods and cosmetics were poorly able to grow in rose and orange blossom hydrosols when inoculated and incubated at 30°C...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lei Chen, Xiaojia Huang
In this study, coextraction of acidic, basic and neutral pollutants was realized with a new adsorbent based on polymeric ionic liquid (PIL). In the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol, an ionic liquid, 1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoraborate was used as monomer to copolymerize with dual cross-linkers (divinylbenzene and N,N-methylene-bisacrylamide) to form the adsorbent for stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE). Phenols, aromatic amines and parabens were selected as acidic, basic and neutral model analytes, respectively...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Qianhui Mao, Feng Ji, Wei Wang, Qiquan Wang, Zhenhu Hu, Shoujun Yuan
The reactivity and fate of parabens during chlorination were investigated in this work. Chlorination kinetics of methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), and butylparaben (BuP) were studied in the pH range of 4.0 to 11.0 at 25 ± 1 °C. Apparent rate constants (k app) of 9.65 × 10(-3) M(-0.614)·s(-1), 1.77 × 10(-2) M(-1.019)·s(-1), 2.98 × 10(-2) M(-0.851)·s(-1), and 1.76 × 10(-2) M(-0.860)·s(-1) for MeP, EtP, PrP, and BuP, respectively, were obtained at pH 7.0. The rate constants depended on the solution pH, temperature, and NH4 (+) concentration...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Takashi Uchida, Masafumi Yakumaru, Keisuke Nishioka, Yoshihiro Higashi, Tomohiko Sano, Hiroaki Todo, Kenji Sugibayashi
We evaluated the effectiveness of a silicone membrane as an alternative to human skin using the skin permeation parameters of chemical compounds. An in vitro permeation study using 15 model compounds was conducted, and permeation parameters comprising permeability coefficient (P), diffusion parameter (DL(-2)), and partition parameter (KL) were calculated from each permeation profile. Significant correlations were obtained in log P, log DL(-2), and log KL values between the silicone membrane and human skin...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
N Yossa, G Arce, M-C J Huang, L Yin, E Brown, T Hammack
: Bacillus cereus has been associated with clinical infections and is also the cause of post-traumatic endophthalmitis as well as endogenous eye infections, which can result in blindness. Cosmetics, although preserved, can be contaminated during manufacture or use and thus cause serious health issues. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the detection factors of Bacillus in eye cream preserved with parabens, including the non-ionic surfactants used as neutralizers such as Tween 80, a blend of Tween 60 and Span 80, Tween 20 and selective media...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Jianan Feng, Xinying He, Xiaodan Liu, Xueni Sun, Yan Li
In this work, phenyl-functionalized magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites (MG-mSiO2-Ph) were prepared and applied as restricted access matrix solid phase extraction (RAM-SPE) adsorbents to determine the parabens in commercially available retail cosmetics. MG-mSiO2-Ph composites were synthesized by a surfactant-mediated co-condensation reaction in which mesoporous silica with phenyl-functionalized pore-walls was coated on a magnetic graphene sheet. The obtained nano-composites were proven to be of sufficient quality for an ideal RAM-SPE adsorbent with a large specific surface area of 369m(2)g(-1), uniform mesopores of 2...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Anna Z Pollack, Neil J Perkins, Lindsey Sjaarda, Sunni L Mumford, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Claire Philippat, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F Schisterman
BACKGROUND: Human exposure to phenols and parabens is widespread. Within-person variability of urinary concentrations in healthy women is not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the variability of urinary phenol and paraben concentrations across two months and evaluate the ability of a single spot urine sample to characterize exposure. METHODS: 143 women provided 509 spot urine samples collected across two months of study (3-5 samples/woman)...
August 24, 2016: Environmental Research
Tatiana A Vogel, Rakita W Heijnen, Pieter-Jan Coenraads, Marie-Louise A Schuttelaar
BACKGROUND: Cross-reactions and co-sensitizations are of great importance in understanding contact allergy and exposure sources. OBJECTIVES: To investigate common cross-reactions and co-sensitizations in p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized and toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA)-sensitized individuals. METHODS: From our patch test population, 8036 patients patch tested with the European baseline series were extracted. Readings had to be performed at least on day 3 according to ICDRG guidelines...
August 24, 2016: Contact Dermatitis
Erika T Chow, Shruthi Mahalingaiah
Cosmetics contain a vast number of chemicals, most of which are not under the regulatory purview of the Food and Drug Administration. Only a few of these chemicals have been evaluated for potential deleterious health impact: parabens, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and siloxanes. A review of the ingredients in the best-selling and top-rated products of the top beauty brands in the world, as well as a review of highlighted chemicals by nonprofit environmental organizations, reveals 11 chemicals and chemical families of concern: butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene, coal tar dyes, diethanolamine, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, phthalates, 1,4-dioxane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, talc/asbestos, and triclosan...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Pan Hu, Rebekah C Kennedy, Xin Chen, Jia Zhang, Chwan-Li Shen, Jiangang Chen, Ling Zhao
Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. We and others have reported that parabens promote adipogenesis in vitro. Here, we investigated the effects of post-weaning exposure to parabens (methylparaben and butylparaben) on body weight, white adipose tissue mass, and obesity associated metabolic biomarkers in female obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice fed with a chow diet or a high fat diet. Methylparaben exposure by daily oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day) increased adiposity and serum leptin levels compared to the controls when fed the chow diet, but not the high fat diet...
August 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fernando Vela-Soria, Inmaculada Jiménez-Díaz, Caridad Díaz, José Pérez, Luz María Iribarne-Durán, Laura Serrano-López, Juan Pedro Arrebola, Mariana Fátima Fernández, Nicolás Olea
AIM: Human populations are widely exposed to numerous so-called endocrine-disrupting chemicals, exogenous compounds able to interfere with the endocrine system. This exposure has been associated with several health disorders. New analytical procedures are needed for biomonitoring these xenobiotics in human matrices. A quick and inexpensive methodological procedure, based on sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, is proposed for the determination of bisphenols, parabens and benzophenones in samples...
September 2016: Bioanalysis
Monica Giulivo, Miren Lopez de Alda, Ettore Capri, Damià Barceló
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are released into the environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDCs have major risks for humans by targeting different organs and systems in the body (e.g. reproductive system, breast tissue, adipose tissue, pancreas, etc.). Due to the ubiquity of human exposure to these compounds the aim of this review is to describe the most recent data on the effects induced by phthalates, bisphenol A and parabens in a critical window of exposure: in utero, during pregnancy, infants, and children...
August 6, 2016: Environmental Research
Wan-Li Ma, Xue Zhao, Zhong-Yang Lin, Mohammed O A Mohammed, Zi-Feng Zhang, Li-Yan Liu, Wei-Wei Song, Yi-Fan Li
Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives during pharmaceutical production. However, little information is available regarding the occurrence of parabens in commercial pharmaceuticals and their implications for human exposure. In this study, six commonly used parabens were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with 100 commercial pharmaceuticals collected from China. Almost all of the pharmaceutical samples contained at least one kind of parabens with the detection frequency of 97%...
October 2016: Environment International
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