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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799928/greywater-characterization-and-handling-practices-among-urban-households-in-ghana-the-case-of-three-communities-in-kumasi-metropolis
#1
Bismark Dwumfour-Asare, Philomina Adantey, Kwabena Biritwum Nyarko, Eugene Appiah-Effah
Greywater management in Ghana receives little or no attention although untreated greywater is associated with environmental and public health risks. This paper assesses greywater characteristics and handling practices among urban households in three selected communities in Kumasi, the second largest city of Ghana. The study involved in-depth surveys (interviews and observations) with 90 households, and collection of 18 greywater samples from nine greywater sources for laboratory analysis. Average greywater generation is 43...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764904/photosensitized-methyl-paraben-induces-apoptosis-via-caspase-dependent-pathway-under-ambient-uvb-exposure-in-human-skin-cells
#2
Divya Dubey, Deepti Chopra, Jyoti Singh, Ajeet K Srivastav, Smita Kumari, Ankit Verma, Ratan Singh Ray
Methyl paraben (MP), is a widely used preservative in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic products. Its molecular mechanism under ambient ultraviolet radiation is not well understood. We investigated photosensitizing mechanism of MP under ambient UVB (0.6 mW/cm(2)) intensity. MP showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability of human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) by MTT and NRU assays. Study showed 40% reduction in antimicrobial activity of UVB irradiated MP through E. coli culture. Photosensitized MP (25 μg/ml) significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS generation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758506/exposure-to-modern-widespread-environmental-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-their-effect-on-the-reproductive-potential-of-women-an-overview-of-current-epidemiological-evidence
#3
Anetta Karwacka, Dorota Zamkowska, Michał Radwan, Joanna Jurewicz
Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature...
July 31, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753508/photocatalytic-ozonation-using-doped-tio2-catalysts-for-the-removal-of-parabens-in-water
#4
João F Gomes, Inês Leal, Katarzyna Bednarczyk, Marta Gmurek, Marek Stelmachowski, Magdalena Diak, M Emília Quinta-Ferreira, Raquel Costa, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, Rui C Martins
Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient for the removal of parabens. The aim of this study was finding a suitable solution using ozone and UVA irradiation combined with TiO2 catalysts doped with different noble metals (Ag, Pt, Pd, Au). Photocatalytic ozonation required lower amounts of ozone for higher efficiency on the removal of parabens, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). The best catalyst for the initial contaminants degradation was 0.5% Ag-TiO2 leading to total parabens removal using 46mgO3/L...
July 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738570/determination-of-selected-bisphenols-parabens-and-estrogens-in-human-plasma-using-lc-ms-ms
#5
Lucie Kolatorova Sosvorova, Tereza Chlupacova, Jana Vitku, Martin Vlk, Jiri Heracek, Luboslav Starka, David Saman, Marketa Simkova, Richard Hampl
In this study, a novel liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols (BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF), parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, benzyl-paraben) and estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estriol) in human plasma is presented. Since all analytes possess the phenolic group, dansyl chloride derivatization was applied in order to gain high sensitivity. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines, and all validation requirements were satisfactory...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720224/development-of-a-1-0-mm-id-temperature-assisted-focusing-precolumn-for-use-with-2-1-mm-id-columns
#6
Stephen R Groskreutz, Anthony R Horner, Stephen G Weber
On-column solute focusing is a simple and powerful method to decrease the influence of precolumn band spreading and increase the allowable volume injected increasing sensitivity. It relies on creating conditions so that the retention factor, k', is transiently increased during the injection process. Both solvent composition and temperature control can be used to effect solute focusing. In the case of temperature, the release of the transiently delayed solute band requires increasing the temperature rapidly and with a minimum of radial thermal gradients...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719376/stability-of-spironolactone-oral-suspension-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#7
Richard Graves, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal, Yashoda V Pramar
Spironolactone (Aldactone) is a potassium-sparing diuretic used to treat hypertension and heart failure and may also be used to treat edema resulting from kidney disease, low potassium levels, or excess aldosterone. No commercial liquid dosage form of spironolactone exists. An extemporaneously compounded suspension from pure drug powder or commercial tablets would provide an alternative option to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of spironolactone in the PCCA base SuspendIt...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709372/occurrence-of-and-human-exposure-to-parabens-benzophenones-benzotriazoles-triclosan-and-triclocarban-in-outdoor-swimming-pool-water-in-changsha-china
#8
Jing Lu, Huiyue Mao, Haipu Li, Qiang Wang, Zhaoguang Yang
The entry of personal care products (PCPs) into the environment has, in turn, caused negative influences to human health. Public swimming pools are places that have attracted increasing concerns. In this article, 35 outdoor swimming pools in Changsha City (China) were examined in view of the occurrence of 22 target PCPs contaminants, which fall into four categories: preservatives, UV filters, anticorrosion agents, and antimicrobials. Out of them, 16 compounds were detected in the collected samples. The preservatives was the most dominant category, with methyl paraben being the top compound (a...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709092/exposure-to-benzophenones-parabens-and-triclosan-among-pregnant-women-in-different-trimesters
#9
Hongzhi Zhao, Wenqian Huo, Jiufeng Li, Xinli Ma, Wei Xia, Zhengji Pang, Mingyi Xie, Shunqing Xu, Zongwei Cai
Humans are potentially exposed to many environmental pollutants, many of which may cause adverse health effects, especially to pregnant women and their fetuses. In this study, 11 environmental pollutants from three different chemical classes, including benzophenones, parabens and triclosan were measured in 627 urine samples collected from 209 pregnant women to evaluate exposure and trends as a function of pregnancy stage. Methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben, propylparaben (PrP), butylparaben, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were detected in >50% samples...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705618/the-impact-of-guest-compounds-on-cyclodextrin-aggregation-behavior-a-series-of-structurally-related-parabens
#10
Jef Stappaerts, Thao Do Thi, Elena Dominguez-Vega, Govert W Somsen, Guy Van den Mooter, Patrick Augustijns
Several studies have demonstrated the presence of aggregates in aqueous cyclodextrin containing solutions. The presence of guest compounds has been shown to influence this cyclodextrin aggregation process. In an attempt to gain insight into the effect of the physicochemical properties of the guest compound on 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin aggregation formation, a series of structurally related parabens was selected as model compounds. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and phase solubility studies, these parabens, differing only in side chain length, were demonstrated to form inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695774/regulatory-risk-assessments-is-there-a-need-to-reduce-uncertainty-and-enhance-robustness-update-on-propylparaben-in-relation-to-its-eu-regulatory-status
#11
D Snodin
Over 10 years ago, propylparaben (propyl- p-hydroxybenzoate; PP) was withdrawn as a permitted food preservative in the EU based entirely on findings reported in a single dietary study in juvenile rats claiming to show adverse effects on male reproductive parameters [Oishi S. Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system. Food Chem Toxicol 2002; 40(12): 1807 -1813]. Subsequent data reviews have cast serious doubt on the validity of the Oishi results, mainly in relation to aberrant concurrent-control values, and in two further comprehensive studies using neonatal and juvenile rats there were no adverse effects in males at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692609/human-semen-quality-sperm-dna-damage-and-the-level-of-reproductive-hormones-in-relation-to-urinary-concentrations-of-parabens
#12
Joanna Jurewicz, Michał Radwan, Bartosz Wielgomas, Emila Dziewirska, Anetta Karwacka, Anna Klimowska, Paweł Kałużny, Paweł Radwan, Michał Bochenek, Wojciech Hanke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between environmental exposure to parabens and semen quality parameters [main semen parameters, computer-aided semen analysis (CASA parameters], sperm chromatin structure, and the level of reproductive hormones in men [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, estradiol]. METHODS: Urine samples collected from 315 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 15 to 300 mln/mL were analyzed for five parabens concentrations using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689150/association-of-urinary-phenolic-compounds-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-chronic-diarrheal-symptoms-evidence-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#13
Punyanganie S de Silva, Xuan Yang, Joshua R Korzenik, Rose H Goldman, Kristopher L Arheart, Alberto J Caban-Martinez
Endocrine disruptors such as phenolic compounds and parabens may be involved in chronic non-infective disease. While products incorporating these compounds are extensively utilized in consumer and personal products, little is known about their effect on bowel health. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - consisting of the diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - and irritable bowel syndrome are common chronic non-infectious diarrheal diseases. Despite limited knowledge on the etiology of IBD, these diseases have increased prevalence in industrialized countries and cause significant impairment to quality of life...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688846/evaluation-of-nitrate-effects-in-the-aqueous-photodegradability-of-selected-phenolic-pollutants
#14
G Castro, I Rodríguez, M Ramil, R Cela
The effect of nitrate in the aqueous photodegradation of five phenolic environmental pollutants (ortho-phenylphenol, OPP; methyl paraben, MeP; propyl paraben, PrP; Triclosan, TCS and bisphenol A, BPA) is evaluated. Time-course of precursor compounds and formation of transformation products (TPs) were investigated by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Nitrate showed a positive effect in the removal of selected pollutants. Observed TPs resulted from hydroxylation, aromatic nitration (with or without molecule cleavage) and nitro dehalogenation processes...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674248/a-nanoparticle-based-ophthalmic-formulation-of-dexamethasone-enhances-corneal-permeability-of-the-drug-and-prolongs-its-corneal-residence-time
#15
Noriaki Nagai, Yosuke Nakazawa, Yoshimasa Ito, Kazutaka Kanai, Norio Okamoto, Yoshikazu Shimomura
We designed ophthalmic formulations containing dexamethasone-loaded solid nanoparticles (DEXnano dispersion), and investigated corneal permeability and toxicity. 0.1% dexamethasone (DEX) powder (DEX microparticles), 0.026% methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MP), 0.014% propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PP), and 0.5% methylcellulose were used, and the DEXnano dispersion was prepared by the bead mill method. The mean particle size of DEXnano dispersion was 78 nm. Antimicrobial activity of the DEXnano dispersion were measured by using Escherichia coli, and the corneal epithelium-debrided rat model and HCE-T cells (immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line) were used to estimate the corneal toxicity...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673419/preservatives-in-personal-hygiene-and-cosmetic-products-topical-medications-and-household-cleaners-in-spain
#16
María Antonia Pastor-Nieto, Francisco Alcántara-Nicolás, Virginia Melgar-Molero, Raquel Pérez-Mesonero, Aránzazu Vergara-Sánchez, Adriana Martín-Fuentes, Patricia González-Muñoz, Ester de Eusebio-Murillo
INTRODUCTION: Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop...
June 30, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651165/considering-common-sources-of-exposure-in-association-studies-urinary-benzophenone-3-and-dehp-metabolites-are-associated-with-altered-thyroid-hormone-balance-in-the-nhanes-2007-2008
#17
Sujin Kim, Sunmi Kim, Sungho Won, Kyungho Choi
Epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid hormone balances can be disrupted by chemical exposure. However, many association studies have often failed to consider multiple chemicals with possible common sources of exposure, rendering their conclusions less reliable. In the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the U.S.A., urinary levels of environmental phenols, parabens, and phthalate metabolites as well as serum thyroid hormones were measured in a general U.S. population (≥12years old, n=1829)...
June 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609180/environmental-exposure-to-parabens-and-sperm-chromosome-disomy
#18
Joanna Jurewicz, Michał Radwan, Bartosz Wielgomas, Anna Klimowska, Paweł Kałużny, Paweł Radwan, Lucjusz Jakubowski, Wojciech Hanke
Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage processing due to their board spectrum of activity, inertness, and low cost. The study population consisted of 156 men under 45 years of age who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The parabens concentrations: ethyl paraben (EP), butyl paraben (BP), methyl paraben (MP), and iso-butyl paraben (iBuP) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602299/fabrication-of-polymeric-ionic-liquid-modified-magnetic-adsorbent-for-extraction-of-apolar-and-polar-pollutants-in-complicated-samples
#19
Cheng Liu, Yingmin Liao, Xiaojia Huang
A new polymeric ionic liquid-modified magnetic adsorbent (PIL-MA) was successfully fabricated and used to extract apolar and polar pollutants with magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The PIL-MA was prepared by simple free radical copolymerization of 1-vinylbenzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, divinylbenzene and silica-coated magnetite. Several characterized techniques including infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic measurement were used to characterize the PIL-MA...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583316/formulation-development-and-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-polyherbal-gel
#20
S D Bhinge, M A Bhutkar, D S Randive, G H Wadkar, S S Todkar, P M Kakade, P M Kadam
OBJECTIVE: In the recent years, there has been a gradual revival of interest in the use of medicinal plants in developing countries because herbal medicines have been reported safe with minimal adverse side effect especially when compared with synthetic drugs. METHOD: In the present study we prepared gel formulations (formulations A and B) which comprised of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Allium sativum, Ocimum sactum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum nees and Tamarindus indica in a concentration of 0...
June 2, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
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