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M Saquib Hasnain, Poonam Rishishwar, Sanjay Rishishwar, Sadath Ali, Amit Kumar Nayak
In the current work, the usefulness of extracted cashew tree gum (CG) as pharmaceutical excipient in dental pastes containing AC (for the pain management in the periodontitis) was investigated. CG was extracted from crude exudate of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, family: Anacardiaceae) (yield 19.22%). Physicochemical characteristics like colour, odour, taste, solubility, pH and viscosity of extracted CG were estimated; the phytochemical identification tests indicated the presence of carbohydrates and mucilage within it...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haudrey Assier, Pierre Wolkenstein, Olivier Chosidow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Carmen M López-Ortiz, Irene Sentana-Gadea, Pedro Varó-Galvañ, Salvador E Maestre-Pérez, Daniel Prats-Rico
In this study, the removal of parabens from waters, using a combined treatment of magnetic ion exchange resins and subsequent filtration through nanofiltration membranes, was investigated. The selected parabens were methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben. Two different magnetic anionic exchanger resins, MIEX® DOC and MIEX® GOLD, and two nanofiltration membranes (NF), NF-90 and DESAL-HL, were tested. The study was carried out using mono and multicomponent systems, using deionized water and natural waters sampled from two different rivers...
May 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ronit Machtinger, Tamar Berman, Michal Adir, Abdallah Mansur, Andrea A Baccarelli, Catherine Racowsky, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Ravit Nahum
Mounting evidence suggests possible adverse effects of intrauterine exposure to certain phenols and phthalates, two classes of endocrine disruptor chemicals, on the developing fetus, with consequences into later life. These findings have contributed to the replacement of some chemicals, such as di‑2‑ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA), in consumer products. For the current study we quantified urinary concentrations of biomarkers of exposure among 50 pregnant women in Israel to several phthalates, bisphenols and personal care product chemicals, as well as DEHP and BPA alternatives...
May 10, 2018: Environment International
Wen-Ling Chen, Jiun-Yi Cheng, Xiao-Qian Lin
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an emerging concern because of the large amount of PPCPs that is discharged and its potential ecological effects on the aquatic environment. Chlorination has proven efficient for removing some aromatic PPCPs from wastewater, but the formation of by-products has not been thoroughly investigated partly because of analytical difficulties. This study developed a method for systematically screening and identifying the transformation products (TPs) of multiple aromatic PPCPs through high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Wang, Tianzhen Liu, Hongwen Sun, Qixing Zhou
Hydrolysis is generally considered as the main pathway for the degradation of ester-type pollutants in aquatic environments. In this study, we found that when methanol or ethanol presented as the external carbon in the activated sludge, transesterification is very important for the degradation of para-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens). In the activated sludge solutions with 1% methanol added, contribution of transesterification to the degradation of the propyl substituted paraben (PrP) and ethyl substituted paraben (EtP) accounted for 46% and 83%, respectively, in the early stage of the reaction...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Philip T Leftwich, Naomi V E Clarke, Matthew I Hutchings, Tracey Chapman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
María Ramos Payán, Elia Santigosa Murillo, Jordi Coello, Miguel Ángel Bello López
A new geometry for a versatile microfluidic-chip device based liquid phase microextraction was developed in order to enhance the preconcentration in microfluidic chips and also to enable double-flow and stopped-flow working modes. The microchip device was combined with a HPLC procedure for the simultaneous determination of two different families as model analytes, which were parabens and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs): Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (Et-P), Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (Pr-P), Butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (Bu-P), IsoButyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (iBu-P), salycilic acid (SAC), ketoprofen (KET), naproxen (NAX), diclofenac (DIC) and ibuprofen (IBU) in urine samples...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Cong Huang, Liu-Hong Wu, Guo-Qiang Liu, Lei Shi, Ying Guo
Chemicals in the water of urban areas are representative of the occurrence of these chemicals in the city surrounding water systems and reflect recent human or industrial usage of those chemicals in the sampling areas. In this study, the levels of eight endocrine-disrupting chemicals [including bisphenol analogues, parabens, and triclosan (TCS)] were determined in urban river water and sediments in Guangzhou, South China, and their related ecological risks were evaluated. The eight target chemicals were frequently detected in our samples, with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 65,600 ng/L and from ND to 492 ng/g dw in river water and sediments, respectively...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S V A C Samarasinghe, K Krishnan, R Naidu, M Megharaj, K Miller, B Fraser, R J Aitken
Parabens are used as antimicrobial preservative agent in many commercial products including cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Weak oestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities have been attributed to parabens in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this study, human spermatozoa were exposed to different concentrations of an equimolar paraben mixture containing methyl, ethyl, propyl and butylparaben as well as to methylparaben alone at a concentration that is typical of commercially available vaginal lubricants. The induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage was then assessed at different time points...
May 2, 2018: Andrology
Shigeyuki Kitamura
 The endocrine-disrupting activities of various environmental chemicals are metabolically activated. For example, diphenyls, styrene oligomers, chalcones, trans-stilbene and 2-nitrofluorene are not estrogens, but after incubation with liver microsomes, their metabolites show estrogenic activities. Thus, these chemicals are estrogenically activated by the cytochrome P450 system. In contrast, the antiandrogenic activity of fenthion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is abolished after metabolism to sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Yung-Yu Liu, Yi-Siou Lin, Chia-Hung Yen, Chang-Ling Miaw, Ting-Chien Chen, Meng-Chun Wu, Chi-Ying Hsieh
We assessed 22 selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and other emerging, potentially endocrine-active compounds with estrogenic activity from the waters of the Wuluo River, southern Taiwan. This watershed receives high amounts of livestock and untreated household wastewaters. The river is surrounded by concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs). River water samples were analyzed for selected compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay, and E-screen cell proliferation in vitro bioassay...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jessica S Helm, Marcia Nishioka, Julia Green Brody, Ruthann A Rudel, Robin E Dodson
BACKGROUND: Personal care products are a source of exposure to endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals. Because use of hair products differs by race/ethnicity, these products may contribute to exposure and disease disparities. OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study investigates the endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemical content of hair products used by U.S. Black women. METHODS: We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to test 18 hair products in 6 categories used by Black women: hot oil treatment, anti-frizz/polish, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator, hair lotion, and relaxer...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Research
Bruno A Rocha, Alexandros G Asimakopoulos, Masato Honda, Nattane L da Costa, Rommel M Barbosa, Fernando Barbosa, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has received considerable attention over the last three decades. However, little is known about the influence of co-exposure to multiple EDCs on effect-biomarkers such as oxidative stress in Brazilian children. In this study, concentrations of 40 EDCs were determined in urine samples collected from 300 Brazilian children of ages 6-14 years and data were analyzed by advanced data mining techniques. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated from the urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHDG)...
April 25, 2018: Environment International
Guo Feng, Yun-Long Chen, Wei Li, Lai-Lai Li, Zeng-Guang Wu, Zi-Jun Wu, Yue Hai, Si-Chao Zhang, Chuan-Qi Zheng, Chang-Xiao Liu, Xin He
BACKGROUND: Radix Wikstroemia indica (RWI), named "Liao Ge Wang" in Chinese, is a kind of toxic Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) commonly used in Miao nationality of South China. "Sweat soaking method" processed RWI could effectively decrease its toxicity and preserve therapeutic effect. However, the underlying mechanism of processing is still not clear, and the Q-markers database for processed RWI has not been established. PURPOSE: Our study is to investigate and establish the quality evaluation system and potential Q-markers based on "effect-toxicity-chemicals" relationship of RWI for quality/safety assessment of "sweat soaking method" processing...
March 28, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jia Zhong, Andrea A Baccarelli, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Ravit Nahum, Russ Hauser, Valentina Bollati, Catherine Racowsky, Ronit Machtinger
Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerts both short- and long-term adverse effects on the developing fetus. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be uncovered. Maternal-fetal signaling is mediated in part by signaling molecules (eg, microRNAs [miRNAs]) contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are released by the placenta into the maternal circulation. We investigated whether maternal exposure to the EDCs phthalates and personal care products alters the miRNA profile of placental-derived EVs circulating in maternal blood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü
Parabens (PBs) are p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compounds commonly employed as antimicrobial preservatives, mainly in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of some paraben esters (butyl paraben, propyl paraben, isobutyl paraben, and isopropyl paraben) on human peripheral lymphocytes, using in vitro sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA), and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) tests. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with four concentrations of PBs (100, 50, 25 and 10 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Elif Yıldız, Hasan Çabuk
An analytical method is presented for the determination of paraben preservatives in semi-solid cream samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with supramolecular solvent-based microextraction. Due to the oily and sticky nature of the sample matrix, parabens were first extracted from the samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion using silica as sorbent material with a clean-up performed with tetrahydrofuran in the elution step. The eluate (500 μL), 1-decanol (120 μL) and water (4.4 mL) were then mixed in a polyethylene pipette to form supramolecular solvent...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Fonthip Makkliang, Proespichaya Kanatharana, Panote Thavarungkul, Chongdee Thammakhet-Buranachai
A portable and simple microextractor device was constructed by aligning six miniaturized multi-stir-rod microextractors. Each microextractor was prepared from rod-like multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with a carboxylic group (MWCNTs-COOH) in composite monoliths that were bundled together and connected to a small DC motor. Using six of these microextractors, the device could extract six samples at the same time. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the MWCNTs-COOH well distributed throughout the highly porous structure of the monolith-MWCNTs-COOH-stir-rod...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Jibin An, Chunqiu Xia, Jiahong He, Huixia Feng
Propyl paraben (propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, PPB), one of the typically used paraben species in various pharmaceutical and personal care products, has been found in different aquatic environment, which could affect the water quality and human health. In this paper, the degradation of PPB by aqueous ferrate (Fe(VI)) was investigated in different water matrix and reaction kinetics as a function of pH was determined. Intermediate products of the degradation process were isolated and characterized by the high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry techniques...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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