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Legionnaires disease

N C Knox, K A Weedmark, J Conly, A W Ensminger, F S Hosein, S J Drews
An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in an inner city district in Calgary, Canada. This outbreak spanned a 3-week period in November-December 2012, and a total of eight cases were identified. Four of these cases were critically ill requiring intensive care admission but there was no associated mortality. All cases tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) by urinary antigen testing. Five of the eight patients were culture positive for LP1 from respiratory specimens. These isolates were further identified as Knoxville monoclonal subtype and sequence subtype ST222...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Tamara V Smelaya, Olesya B Belopolskaya, Svetlana V Smirnova, Artem N Kuzovlev, Viktor V Moroz, Arkadiy M Golubev, Noel A Pabalan, Lyubov E Salnikova
The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Research
Burke A Cunha, John Gian
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized adults with fever and "pneumonia" can be a difficult diagnostic challenge particularly when the clinical findings may be due to different infectious diseases. METHODS: We recently had an elderly female who presented with fever, fatigue and dry cough with elevated serum transaminases and lung infiltrates. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis (IM) was made based on a positive Monospot test, elevated EBV VCA IgM titer, and highly elevated EBV viral load...
October 3, 2016: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Lee M Hampton, Laurel Garrison, Jessica Kattan, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Barry Fields, Nicole Fitzpatrick, Luis Sapian, Teresa Martin-Escobar, Stephen Waterman, Lauri A Hicks, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Hugo Lopez-Gatell
Background.  A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods.  Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Jeffrey W Mercante, Shatavia S Morrison, Heta P Desai, Brian H Raphael, Jonas M Winchell
Legionella pneumophila was first recognized as a cause of severe and potentially fatal pneumonia during a large-scale outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) at a Pennsylvania veterans' convention in Philadelphia, 1976. The ensuing investigation and recovery of four clinical isolates launched the fields of Legionella epidemiology and scientific research. Only one of the original isolates, "Philadelphia-1", has been widely distributed or extensively studied. Here we describe the whole-genome sequencing (WGS), complete assembly, and comparative analysis of all Philadelphia LD strains recovered from that investigation, along with L...
2016: PloS One
Séverine Allegra, Lara Leclerc, Pierre André Massard, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Jérémie Pourchez
Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires' disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sophia David, Christophe Rusniok, Massimo Mentasti, Laura Gomez-Valero, Simon R Harris, Pierre Lechat, John Lees, Christophe Ginevra, Philippe Glaser, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Anthony Underwood, Sophie Jarraud, Timothy G Harrison, Julian Parkhill, Carmen Buchrieser
Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium and the leading cause of Legionnaires' disease. Just five sequence types (ST), from >2000 currently described, cause nearly half of disease cases in North West Europe. Here we report the sequence and analyses of 364 L. pneumophila genomes including 337 from the five disease-associated STs and 27 representative of the species diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the five STs have independent origins within a highly diverse species. The number of de novo mutations is extremely low with maximum pairwise single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranging from 19 (ST47) to 127 (ST1), which suggests emergences within the last century...
September 23, 2016: Genome Research
Mia Potočnjak, Zlatko MagdaleniĆ, Marija Dijan, Danica RebiĆ, Ivana Gobin
INTRODUCTION: Legionella longbeachae, a causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, has often been associated with potting soil and gardening, a feature quite distinct from other Legionella species. The precise transmission mechanism is still unknown, although due to the ecological coherence of the soil and water there is a potential risk of infection by contaminated stagnant water in the garden. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the ability of L. longbeachae to survive in stagnant tap water usually used for watering in gardens...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Arnaud Bac, Ahmed Sabry Ramadan, Pierre Youatou, Pierre Mols, Dominique Cerf, William Ngatchou
Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial disease of the respiratory system caused by a gram-negative germ whose clinical manifestation can be benign limiting to flu-like syndrome or can be more severe being characterized by pneumonia which may be complicated by multisystem disease that can lead to death. We report the case of a 48 year-old patient with rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure following Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. We here highlight the pathophysiological aspects and treatment of this rare complication during Legionella infection...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Sandeep J Joseph, Daniel Cox, Bernard Wolff, Shatavia S Morrison, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Michael Frace, Xavier Didelot, Santiago Castillo-Ramirez, Jonas Winchell, Timothy D Read, Deborah Dean
Legionella species inhabit freshwater and soil ecosystems where they parasitize protozoa. L. pneumonphila (LP) serogroup-1 (Lp1) is the major cause of Legionnaires' Disease (LD), a life-threatening pulmonary infection that can spread systemically. The increased global frequency of LD caused by Lp and non-Lp species underscores the need to expand our knowledge of evolutionary forces underlying disease pathogenesis. Whole genome analyses of 43 strains, including all known Lp serogroups 1-17 and 17 emergent LD-causing Legionella species (of which 33 were sequenced in this study) in addition to 10 publicly available genomes, resolved the strains into four phylogenetic clades along host virulence demarcations...
2016: Scientific Reports
Adriana Peci, Anne-Luise Winter, Jonathan B Gubbay
Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire's disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
John P Springston, Liana Yocavitch
Legionellae are waterborne bacteria which are capable of causing potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease (LD), as well as Pontiac Fever. Public concern about Legionella exploded following the 1976 outbreak at the American Legion conference in Philadelphia, where 221 attendees contracted pneumonia and 34 died. Since that time, a variety of different control methods and strategies have been developed and implemented in an effort to eradicate Legionella from building water systems. Despite these efforts, the incidence of LD has been steadily increasing in the U...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Dick van der Kooij, Anke J Brouwer-Hanzens, Harm R Veenendaal, Bart A Wullings
: Legionella pneumophila proliferates in freshwater environments at temperatures ranging from 25 to 45°C. To investigate the preference of different sequence types (ST) for a specific temperature range, growth of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 ST1 (environmental strains), ST47 and ST62 (disease-associated strains) was measured in buffered yeast extract broth (BYEB) and biofilms grown on plasticized polyvinyl chloride in flowing heated drinking water originating from a groundwater supply...
September 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Racquel Kim Sherwood, Craig R Roy
The gram-negative bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila creates a novel organelle inside of eukaryotic host cells that supports intracellular replication. The L. pneumophila-containing vacuole evades fusion with lysosomes and interacts intimately with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although the natural hosts for L. pneumophila are free-living protozoa that reside in freshwater environments, the mechanisms that enable this pathogen to replicate intracellularly also function when mammalian macrophages phagocytose aerosolized bacteria, and infection of humans by L...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
Lucianna Vaccaro, Fernando Izquierdo, Angela Magnet, Carolina Hurtado, Mireya B Salinas, Thiago Santos Gomes, Santiago Angulo, Santiago Salso, Jesús Pelaez, Maria Isabel Tejeda, Almudena Alhambra, Carmen Gómez, Ana Enríquez, Eva Estirado, Soledad Fenoy, Carmen Del Aguila
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159726.].
2016: PloS One
Florian Seufert, Maximilian Kuhn, Michael Hein, Matthias Weiwad, Mirella Vivoli, Isobel H Norville, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Laura E Marshall, Kristian Schweimer, Heike Bruhn, Paul Rösch, Nicholas J Harmer, Christoph A Sotriffer, Ulrike Holzgrabe
The bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei and Legionella pneumophila cause severe diseases like melioidosis and Legionnaire's disease with high mortality rates despite antibiotic treatment. Due to increasing antibiotic resistances against these and other Gram-negative bacteria, alternative therapeutical strategies are in urgent demand. As a virulence factor, the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein constitutes an attractive target. The Mip proteins of B. pseudomallei and L. pneumophila exhibit peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity and belong to the PPIase superfamily...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Paul H Edelstein
A fatal case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella jamestowniensis is reported in a severely immunocompromised patient with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver and kidney transplants. L. jamestowniensis was cultured from two separate respiratory tract specimens and a PCR test for Legionella species was also positive from the same specimens. This is apparently the first reported case of human infection caused by L. jamestowniensis.
August 28, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Mary Speir, Kate E Lawlor, Stefan P Glaser, Gilu Abraham, Seong Chow, Adam Vogrin, Keith E Schulze, Ralf Schuelein, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Kylie Mason, Elizabeth L Hartland, Trevor Lithgow, Andreas Strasser, Guillaume Lessene, David C S Huang, James E Vince, Thomas Naderer
Human pathogenic Legionella replicate in alveolar macrophages and cause a potentially lethal form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease(1). Here, we have identified a host-directed therapeutic approach to eliminate intracellular Legionella infections. We demonstrate that the genetic deletion, or pharmacological inhibition, of the host cell pro-survival protein BCL-XL induces intrinsic apoptosis of macrophages infected with virulent Legionella strains, thereby abrogating Legionella replication. BCL-XL is essential for the survival of Legionella-infected macrophages due to bacterial inhibition of host-cell protein synthesis, resulting in reduced levels of the short-lived, related BCL-2 pro-survival family member, MCL-1...
2016: Nature Microbiology
J Beauté, S Sandin, S A Uldum, M C Rota, P Brandsema, J Giesecke, P Sparén
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is caused by the inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella, a Gram-negative bacteria. Previous national- or regional-level studies have suggested an impact of climate on LD incidence. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature, rainfall, and atmospheric pressure on short-term variations in LD notification rate. EU/EEA Member States report their LD surveillance data to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Community-acquired LD cases reported by Denmark, Germany, Italy, and The Netherlands with onset date in 2007-2012 were aggregated by onset week and region of residence...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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