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Legionnaires disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436561/legionella-confirmation-in-cooling-tower-water-comparison-of-culture-real-time-pcr-and-next-generation-sequencing
#1
Maha Farhat, Raja A Shaheed, Haider H Al-Ali, Abdullah S Al-Ghamdi, Ghadeer M Al-Hamaqi, Hawraa S Maan, Zainab A Al-Mahfoodh, Hussain Z Al-Seba
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of Legionella spp in cooling tower water. Legionella proliferation in cooling tower water has serious public health implications as it can be transmitted to humans via aerosols and cause Legionnaires' disease. METHODS: Samples of cooling tower water were collected from King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2015/2016). The water samples were analyzed by a standard Legionella culture method, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing...
February 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433439/legionella-effector-ankx-interacts-with-host-nuclear-protein-plekhn1
#2
Xiaobo Yu, Rebecca R Noll, Barbara P Romero Dueñas, Samual C Allgood, Kristi Barker, Jeffrey L Caplan, Matthias P Machner, Joshua LaBaer, Ji Qiu, M Ramona Neunuebel
BACKGROUND: The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila proliferates in human alveolar macrophages, resulting in a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Throughout the course of infection, L. pneumophila remains enclosed in a specialized membrane compartment that evades fusion with lysosomes. The pathogen delivers over 300 effector proteins into the host cell, altering host pathways in a manner that sets the stage for efficient pathogen replication. The L. pneumophila effector protein AnkX targets host Rab GTPases and functions in preventing fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with lysosomes...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432149/assessment-of-the-legionnaires-disease-outbreak-in-flint-michigan
#3
Sammy Zahran, Shawn P McElmurry, Paul E Kilgore, David Mushinski, Jack Press, Nancy G Love, Richard C Sadler, Michele S Swanson
The 2014-2015 Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak in Genesee County, MI, and the outbreak resolution in 2016 coincided with changes in the source of drinking water to Flint's municipal water system. Following the switch in water supply from Detroit to Flint River water, the odds of a Flint resident presenting with LD increased 6.3-fold (95% CI: 2.5, 14.0). This risk subsided following boil water advisories, likely due to residents avoiding water, and returned to historically normal levels with the switch back in water supply...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429664/removal-of-bacteria-legionella-pneumophila-escherichia-coli-and-bacillus-subtilis-by-super-cavitation
#4
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427765/comparative-genome-analysis-reveals-a-complex-population-structure-of-legionella-pneumophila-subspecies
#5
Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Shatavia S Morrison, Jeffrey W Mercante, Maliha K Ishaq, Taccara Johnson, Jason Caravas, Claressa E Lucas, Ellen Brown, Brian H Raphael, Jonas M Winchell
The majority of Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila, a genetically heterogeneous species composed of at least 17 serogroups. Previously, it was demonstrated that L. pneumophila consists of three subspecies: pneumophila, fraseri and pascullei. During an LD outbreak investigation in 2012, we detected that representatives of both subspecies fraseri and pascullei colonized the same water system and that the outbreak-causing strain was a new member of the least represented subspecies pascullei...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412169/fever-of-unknown-origin-due-to-legionnaires-disease-a-diagnostic-challenge
#6
Thatchai Kampitak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404281/the-life-cycle-of-l-pneumophila-cellular-differentiation-is-linked-to-virulence-and-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Giulia Oliva, Tobias Sahr, Carmen Buchrieser
Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium that inhabits freshwater ecosystems, where it is present in biofilm or as planktonic form. L. pneumophila is mainly found associated with protozoa, which serve as protection from hostile environments and as replication niche. If inhaled within aerosols, L. pneumophila is also able to infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, eventually causing the Legionnaires' disease. The transition between intracellular and extracellular environments triggers a differentiation program in which metabolic as well as morphogenetic changes occur...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386076/outbreak-of-legionnaires-disease-associated-with-cooling-towers-at-a-california-state-prison-2015
#8
K D Lucas, C Wheeler, P McLendon, B N Leistikow, J C Mohle-Boetani
A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred at a California state prison in August 2015. We conducted environmental and epidemiological investigations to identify the most likely source of exposure and characterise morbidity. Sixty-four inmates had probable Legionnaires' disease; 14 had laboratory-confirmed legionellosis. Thirteen (17%) inmates were hospitalised; there were no deaths. Ill inmates were more likely to be ⩾65 years old (P < 0.01), have the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383455/study-of-the-radiologic-features-of-legionnaires-disease-with-mediastinal-adenopathy-legionella-or-lymphoma
#9
Burke A Cunha, Alena Varantsova, Ismail Jimada
An index case of Legionnaires's disease with mediastinal adenopathy prompted us to review our recent experience with Legionnaires' disease to determine the incidence of mediastinal adenopathy of this finding in Legionnaires' disease. We reviewed the radiographic findings of 90 hospitalized adults with Legionnaires' disease from 2015 to 2017. Excluded were 11 patients with mediastinal adenopathy due to non-Legionnaires' disease causes, e.g., lymphoma. Thirty-seven of the remaining patients had both chest films and chest computed tomography (CT) scans...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344101/healthcare-associated-legionnaires-disease-limitations-of-surveillance-definitions-and-importance-of-epidemiologic-investigation
#10
Laila M Castellino, Shantini D Gamage, Patti V Hoffman, Stephen M Kralovic, Mark Holodniy, Jack M Bernstein, Gary A Roselle
Healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease (HCA LD) causes significant morbidity and mortality, with varying guidance on prevention. We describe the evaluation of a case of possible HCA LD and note the pitfalls of relying solely on an epidemiologic definition for association of a case with a facility. Our detailed investigation led to the identification of a new Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 sequence type, confirmed a healthcare association and helped build the framework for our ongoing preventive efforts...
November 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311436/legionnaires-disease-as-an-occupational-risk-related-to-decontamination-work-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster-a-case-report
#11
Toyoaki Sawano, Masaharu Tsubokura, Akihiko Ozaki, Claire Leppold, Shigeaki Kato, Toshiyuki Kambe
OBJECTIVES: Legionnaires' disease (LD), which is atypical pneumonia with a broad variety of clinical symptoms, can lead to death despite its low incidence. There are multiple risk factors for LD, yet little information is available concerning what kind of environmental factors are linked to higher risk of LD development. We have experienced a fatal case of LD, which occurred in a decontamination worker after the Fukushima nuclear disaster. CASE: A 53-year-old Japanese male visited our hospital with symptoms of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and altered mental status, but not with respiratory manifestations...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298342/the-common-haq-sting-variant-impairs-cgas-dependent-antibacterial-responses-and-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-legionnaires-disease-in-humans
#12
Juan S Ruiz-Moreno, Lutz Hamann, Javeed A Shah, Annelies Verbon, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Jan Naujoks, Leif E Sander, Martin Witzenrath, John C Cambier, Norbert Suttorp, Ralf R Schumann, Lei Jin, Thomas R Hawn, Bastian Opitz
ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register.
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279237/temperature-driven-growth-of-legionella-in-lab-scale-activated-sludge-systems-and-interaction-with-protozoa
#13
C Caicedo, K-H Rosenwinkel, R Nogueira
The occurrence of Legionella pneumophila in activated sludge systems has been reported in the literature. However, the factors triggering its growth are not yet well understood. This knowledge is needed to develop strategies to minimize the risk of the spread of Legionnaires' disease that originates in these systems. In the present study, L. pneumophila multiplied exponentially at 35 °C in activated sludge, but lower temperatures (24 °C and 15 °C) did not favour the growth of the pathogen despite the presence of its protozoan hosts (free-living amoeba and ciliates)...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261791/distribution-of-legionella-and-bacterial-community-composition-among-regionally-diverse-us-cooling-towers
#14
Anna C Llewellyn, Claressa E Lucas, Sarah E Roberts, Ellen W Brown, Bina S Nayak, Brian H Raphael, Jonas M Winchell
Cooling towers (CTs) are a leading source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (LD), a severe form of pneumonia caused by inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. Accordingly, proper maintenance of CTs is vital for the prevention of LD. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Legionella in a subset of regionally diverse US CTs and characterize the associated microbial communities. Between July and September of 2016, we obtained aliquots from water samples collected for routine Legionella testing from 196 CTs located in eight of the nine continental US climate regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250488/from-many-hosts-one-accidental-pathogen-the-diverse-protozoan-hosts-of-legionella
#15
REVIEW
David K Boamah, Guangqi Zhou, Alexander W Ensminger, Tamara J O'Connor
The 1976 outbreak of Legionnaires' disease led to the discovery of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Given their impact on human health, Legionella species and the mechanisms responsible for their replication within host cells are often studied in alveolar macrophages, the primary human cell type associated with disease. Despite the potential severity of individual cases of disease, Legionella are not spread from person-to-person. Thus, from the pathogen's perspective, interactions with human cells are accidents of time and space-evolutionary dead ends with no impact on Legionella's long-term survival or pathogenic trajectory...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226035/molecular-evolution-of-virulence-genes-and-non-virulence-genes-in-clinical-natural-and-artificial-environmental-legionella-pneumophila-isolates
#16
Xiao-Yong Zhan, Qing-Yi Zhu
Background: L. pneumophila is the main causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Free-living amoeba in natural aquatic environments is the reservoir and shelter for L. pneumophila. From natural water sources, L. pneumophila can colonize artificial environments such as cooling towers and hot-water systems, and then spread in aerosols, infecting the susceptible person. Therefore, molecular phylogeny and genetic variability of L. pneumophila from different sources (natural water, artificial water, and human lung tissue) might be distinct because of the selection pressure in different environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225047/maldi-tof-ms-analysis-as-a-useful-tool-for-an-identification-of-legionella-pneumophila-a-facultatively-pathogenic-bacterium-interacting-with-free-living-amoebae-a-case-study-from-water-supply-system-of-hospitals-in-bratislava-slovakia
#17
Katarína Trnková, Martina Kotrbancová, Margita Špaleková, Miriam Fulová, Jana Boledovičová, Matej Vesteg
Legionellae, i.e. Legionella pneumophila, are human bacterial hydrophilic facultative pathogens causing pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease). Free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as natural hosts and thus as reservoirs of many amoebae-resistant bacteria. An encysted amoeba can contribute to the resistance of intracellular L. pneumophila to various chemical and physical treatments. Humans can be infected by droplets containing bacteria from an environmental source or human-made devices such as shower heads, bathtubs, air-conditioning units or whirlpools...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217420/antibody-test-for-legionella-pneumophila-detection
#18
Noemí Párraga-Niño, Sara Quero, Naroa Uria, Oscar Castillo-Fernandez, Josune Jimenez-Ezenarro, Francesc-Xavier Muñoz, Miquel Sabrià, Marian Garcia-Nuñez
Legionella pneumophila is responsible for Legionnaires' disease (LD). Its detection in both environmental and clinical samples is mainly performed by culture plate method which requires up to 10days to obtain results. Nowadays, there are commercial antibodies against this bacterium, but they have not been tested against all subgroups of L. pneumophila sg 1 or serogroups 1-16 or their cross-reactions with other non-Legionella bacteria. Indeed, many of these antibodies became available when only 8 serogroups of L...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215132/may-car-washing-represent-a-risk-for-legionella-infection
#19
T Baldovin, A Pierobon, C Bertoncello, E Destefani, M Gennari, A Stano, V Baldo
BACKGROUND: Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211873/association-between-sporadic-legionellosis-and-river-systems-in-connecticut
#20
Kelsie Cassell, Paul Gacek, Joshua L Warren, Peter A Raymond, Matthew Cartter, Daniel M Weinberger
Background: There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of sporadic legionnaires' disease in Connecticut since 1999, but the exact reasons for this are unknown. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand the drivers of legionnaires' disease in the community. In this study, we explored the relationship between the natural environment and the spatial and temporal distribution of legionellosis cases in Connecticut. Methods: We used spatial models and time series methods to evaluate factors associated with the increase and clustering of legionellosis in Connecticut...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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