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Legionnaires disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049017/legionnaires-disease-outbreaks-and-cooling-towers-new-york-city-new-york-usa
#1
Robert Fitzhenry, Don Weiss, Dan Cimini, Sharon Balter, Christopher Boyd, Lisa Alleyne, Renee Stewart, Natasha McIntosh, Andrea Econome, Ying Lin, Inessa Rubinstein, Teresa Passaretti, Anna Kidney, Pascal Lapierre, Daniel Kass, Jay K Varma
The incidence of Legionnaires' disease in the United States has been increasing since 2000. Outbreaks and clusters are associated with decorative, recreational, domestic, and industrial water systems, with the largest outbreaks being caused by cooling towers. Since 2006, 6 community-associated Legionnaires' disease outbreaks have occurred in New York City, resulting in 213 cases and 18 deaths. Three outbreaks occurred in 2015, including the largest on record (138 cases). Three outbreaks were linked to cooling towers by molecular comparison of human and environmental Legionella isolates, and the sources for the other 3 outbreaks were undetermined...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048287/legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-in-the-water-facilities-of-a-tertiary-healthcare-center-india
#2
Rama Chaudhry, K Sreenath, Valavane Arvind, E V Vinayaraj, Sagar Tanu
Proactive environmental surveillance for Legionella pneumophila in hospitals that treat immunocompromised patients is a useful strategy for preventing nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We report the presence of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in 15.2% of the water systems of our tertiary healthcare center, which should prompt health officials to formulate mitigation policies.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048281/street-cleaning-trucks-as-potential-sources-of-legionella-pneumophila
#3
Natalia Valero, Mercè de Simón, Pau Gallés, Neus Izquierdo, Jaume Arimon, Raquel González, Sandra Manzanares-Laya, Ingrid Avellanes, Anna Gómez
In 2015, Legionnaires' disease was diagnosed in a street cleaning worker. We found Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in the water and internal foam from the tanks of 2 trucks used by the worker during the incubation period. The internal foam was removed, and a Legionella prevention program was implemented.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048279/weather-dependent-risk-for-legionnaires-disease-united-states
#4
Jacob E Simmering, Linnea A Polgreen, Douglas B Hornick, Daniel K Sewell, Philip M Polgreen
Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and US weather data, we estimated the probability of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) being diagnosed as Legionnaires' disease (LD). LD risk increases when weather is warm and humid. With warm weather, we found a dose-response relationship between relative humidity and the odds for LD. When the mean temperature was 60°-80°F with high humidity (>80.0%), the odds for CAP being diagnosed with LD were 3.1 times higher than with lower levels of humidity (<50.0%). Thus, in some regions (e...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047425/legionnaires-disease-outbreak-caused-by-endemic-strain-of-legionella-pneumophila-new-york-new-york-usa-2015
#5
Pascal Lapierre, Elizabeth Nazarian, Yan Zhu, Danielle Wroblewski, Amy Saylors, Teresa Passaretti, Scott Hughes, Anthony Tran, Ying Lin, John Kornblum, Shatavia S Morrison, Jeffrey W Mercante, Robert Fitzhenry, Don Weiss, Brian H Raphael, Jay K Varma, Howard A Zucker, Jennifer L Rakeman, Kimberlee A Musser
During the summer of 2015, New York, New York, USA, had one of the largest and deadliest outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the history of the United States. A total of 138 cases and 16 deaths were linked to a single cooling tower in the South Bronx. Analysis of environmental samples and clinical isolates showed that sporadic cases of legionellosis before, during, and after the outbreak could be traced to a slowly evolving, single-ancestor strain. Detection of an ostensibly virulent Legionella strain endemic to the Bronx community suggests potential risk for future cases of legionellosis in the area...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040071/prevalence-and-direct-costs-of-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalizations-for-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states
#6
E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, J W Gargano, M J Beach
National emergency department (ED) visit prevalence and costs for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water were estimated using large healthcare databases (acute otitis externa, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, Escherichia coli infection, free-living ameba infection, giardiasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Legionnaires' disease, nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and vibriosis or cholera). An estimated 477,000 annual ED visits (95% CI: 459,000-494,000) were documented, with 21% (n = 101,000, 95% CI: 97,000-105,000) resulting in immediate hospital admission...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032771/short-term-effects-of-atmospheric-pressure-temperature-and-rainfall-on-notification-rate-of-community-acquired-legionnaires-disease-in-four-european-countries-corrigendum
#7
J Beauté, S Sandin, S A Uldum, M C Rota, P Brandsema, J Giesecke, P Sparén
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026871/tigecycline-as-a-second-line-agent-for-legionnaires-disease-in-severely-ill-patients
#8
Deepika Slawek, Diana Altshuler, Yanina Dubrovskaya, Eddie Louie
Treatment of Legionnaires' disease in severely ill or immunosuppressed patients presents a clinical challenge. Tigecycline (TG) achieves high concentrations intracellularly and has been shown to be effective against L. pneumophila in animal and cell models. We report our experience using TG as second-line therapy. Clinical response was seen in most patients after switching to TG alone or as a combination therapy.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022684/legionellosis-a-walk-through-to-identification-of-the-source-of-infection
#9
Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Vassilios Sandalakis, Maria Keramarou, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
OBJECTIVES: Although a number of human Legionnaires' disease in tourists are recorded annually in Europe, there are few cases where a direct link can be made between the infected person and the source of infection (hotel or other accommodation). We present a scheme followed in order to track down and identify the source of infection in a tourist suffering from L. pneumophila sg 5 infection, who was accommodated in seven different hotels during his holidays in the island of Crete, and we comment on various difficulties and draw-backs of the process...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982141/experimental-human-like-model-to-assess-the-part-of-viable-legionella-reaching-the-thoracic-region-after-nebulization
#10
Jérémie Pourchez, Lara Leclerc, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Nathalie Prevot, Séverine Allegra
The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella), we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i) recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii) a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964650/community-acquired-legionnaires-disease-at-a-medical-center-in-northern-taiwan
#11
Wei-Fang Kao, Jann-Tay Wang, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yee-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Legionella pneumophila had been recognized as an important pathogen for community-acquired pneumonia. We aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with Legionnaires' disease at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan. METHODS: From June 2012 to February 2017, a retrospective review of adult community-acquired. Legionnaires' disease at a medical center was conducted. All Legionella infections were confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen assay, sera indirect immunofluorescence assay, or sputum culture for Legionella...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948808/-legionellosis-and-its-diagnosis
#12
M Kotrbancová, M Špaleková, M Fulová, K Trnková, J Perželová
The diagnosis of legionellosis, especially of its severe, life-threatening form, Legionnaires' disease, is complicated, primarily because of non-typical symptoms of the infection, not always dominating atypical pneumonia, and often a very dramatic septic course of the disease with multiorgan failures. The diagnosis of the acute phase of the disease can be established by the detection of Legionella antigen in urine and by PCR/real-time PCR detection of Legionella DNA in serum and lower respiratory tract and urine samples...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944216/legionella-effector-ankx-disrupts-host-cell-endocytic-recycling-in-a-phosphocholination-dependent-manner
#13
Samual C Allgood, Barbara P Romero Dueñas, Rebecca R Noll, Colleen Pike, Sean Lein, M Ramona Neunuebel
The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935023/increase-in-legionnaires-disease-cases-associated-with-travel-to-dubai-among-travellers-from-the-united-kingdom-sweden-and-the-netherlands-october-2016-to-end-august-2017
#14
Gavin Dabrera, Petra Brandsema, Margareta Lofdahl, Falguni Naik, Ross Cameron, Jim McMenamin, Richard Pebody, Nick Phin
Between 1 October 2016 and 31 August 2017, 51 Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness.
September 21, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873330/differential-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-legionella-pneumophila-growing-in-acanthamoeba-and-human-monocytes
#15
Qianqian Mou, Polly H M Leung
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is widely distributed throughout natural and artificial water systems and can replicate in macrophages and amoebae. Amoebae are the natural hosts of L. pneumophila, whereas macrophages are incidentally infected. The life cycle of L. pneumophila comprises a replicative phase within the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) and a transmissive phase during which bacterial cells become motile and are released via killing of the host. Although the host death mechanisms induced by L...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870277/lessons-learned-from-implementing-an-incident-command-system-during-a-local-multiagency-response-to-a-legionnaires-disease-cluster-in-sydney-nsw
#16
Emma Quinn, Travers Johnstone, Zeina Najjar, Toni Cains, Geoff Tan, Essi Huhtinen, Sven Nilsson, Stuart Burgess, Matthew Dunn, Leena Gupta
The incident command system (ICS) provides a common structure to control and coordinate an emergency response, regardless of scale or predicted impact. The lessons learned from the application of an ICS for large infectious disease outbreaks are documented. However, there is scant evidence on the application of an ICS to manage a local multiagency response to a disease cluster with environmental health risks. The Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (PHU) in New South Wales, Australia, was notified of 5 cases of Legionnaires' disease during 2 weeks in May 2016...
September 5, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865995/formation-of-the-legionella-containing-vacuole-phosphoinositide-conversion-gtpase-modulation-and-er-dynamics
#17
REVIEW
Bernhard Steiner, Stephen Weber, Hubert Hilbi
The environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila replicates in free-living amoeba as well as in alveolar macrophages upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols. Resistance of the opportunistic pathogen to macrophages is a prerequisite to cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila grows intracellularly in a unique, ER-associated compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). The bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system represents an essential virulence factor, which translocates approximately 300 "effector proteins" into protozoan or mammalian host cells...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851372/diagnostic-testing-for-legionnaires-disease
#18
REVIEW
David M Pierre, Julianne Baron, Victor L Yu, Janet E Stout
Legionnaires' disease is commonly diagnosed clinically using a urinary antigen test. The urinary antigen test is highly accurate for L. pneumophila serogroup 1, however other diagnostic tests should also be utilized in conjunction with the urinary antigen as many other Legionella species and serogroups are pathogenic. Culturing of patient specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease. Selective media, BYCE with the addition of antibiotics, allows for a high sensitivity and specificity...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842705/the-legionella-effector-wipb-is-a-translocated-ser-thr-phosphatase-that-targets-the-host-lysosomal-nutrient-sensing-machinery
#19
Marie S Prevost, Nikos Pinotsis, Maud Dumoux, Richard D Hayward, Gabriel Waksman
Legionella pneumophila infects human alveolar macrophages and is responsible for Legionnaire's disease, a severe form of pneumonia. L. pneumophila encodes more than 300 putative effectors, which are translocated into the host cell via the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. These effectors highjack the host's cellular processes to allow bacterial intracellular growth and replication. Here we adopted a multidisciplinary approach to investigate WipB, a Dot/Icm effector of unknown function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain at 1...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821546/a-supervised-statistical-learning-approach-for-accurate-legionella-pneumophila-source-attribution-during-outbreaks
#20
Andrew H Buultjens, Kyra Y L Chua, Sarah L Baines, Jason Kwong, Wei Gao, Zoe Cutcher, Stuart Adcock, Susan Ballard, Mark B Schultz, Takehiro Tomita, Nela Subasinghe, Glen P Carter, Sacha J Pidot, Lucinda Franklin, Torsten Seemann, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires' disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) has an unusual population structure with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires' disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based onL...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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