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Legionnaires disease

Sara Quero, Noemí Párraga-Niño, Irene Barrabeig, Maria Rosa Sala, M Luisa Pedro-Botet, Eduard Monsó, Mireia Jané, Miquel Sabrià, Marian Garcia-Núñez
Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease (LD). In Spain, Catalonia is the region with the highest incidence of LD cases. The characterisation of clinical and environmental isolates using molecular epidemiology techniques provides epidemiological data for a specific geographic region and makes it possible to carry out phylogenetic and population-based analyses. The aim of this study was to describe and compare environmental and clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila in Catalonia using sequence-based typing and monoclonal antibody subgrouping...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aji Peter, Edwin Routledge
Water-borne bacteria, found in cold water storage tanks, are causative agents for various human infections and diseases including Legionnaires' disease. Consequently, regular microbiological monitoring of tank water is undertaken as part of the regulatory framework used to control pathogenic bacteria. A key assumption is that a small volume of water taken from under the ball valve (where there is easy access to the stored water) will be representative of the entire tank. To test the reliability of this measure, domestic water samples taken from different locations of selected tanks in London properties between November 2015 and July 2016 were analysed for TVCs, Pseudomonas and Legionella at an accredited laboratory, according to regulatory requirements...
2018: PloS One
Paolo Carrer, Peder Wolkoff
There is an increasing concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) and its impact on health, comfort, and work-performance in office-like environments and their workers, which account for most of the labor force. The Scientific Committee on Indoor Air Quality and Health of the ICOH (Int. Comm. Occup. Health) has discussed the assessment and management of IAQ problems and proposed a stepwise approach to be conducted by a multidisciplinary team. It is recommended to integrate the building assessment, inspection by walk-through of the office workplace, questionnaire survey, and environmental measurements, in that order...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amanda Welin, Stephen Weber, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within amoebae and human macrophages by forming a Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). In an intricate process governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and a plethora of "effector proteins" the nascent LCV interferes with a number of intracellular trafficking pathways, including retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Conserved retrograde trafficking components such as the retromer coat complex or the phosphoinositide (PI) 5-phosphatase Dd5P4/OCRL restrict intracellular replication of L...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Antonios Papadakis, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Vassilios Sandalakis, Maria Keramarou, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
Several Travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) cases occur annually in Europe. Except from the most obvious sites (cooling towers and hot water systems), infections can also be associated with recreational, water feature, and garden areas of hotels. This argument is of great interest to better comprehend the colonization and to calculate the risk to human health of these sites. From July 2000-November 2017, the public health authorities of the Island of Crete (Greece) inspected 119 hotels associated with TALD, as reported through the European Legionnaires' Disease Surveillance Network...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ana Russo, Célia M Gouveia, Pedro M M Soares, Rita M Cardoso, Manuel T Mendes, Ricardo M Trigo
A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in November 2014 nearby Lisbon, Portugal. This epidemic infected 377 individuals by the Legionella pneumophila bacteria, resulting in 14 deaths. The primary source of transmission was contaminated aerosolized water which, when inhaled, lead to atypical pneumonia. The unseasonably warm temperatures during October 2014 may have played a role in the proliferation of Legionella species in cooling tower systems. The episode was further exacerbated by high relative humidity and a thermal inversion which limited the bacterial dispersion...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Hiroshi Miyamoto
Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, was first recognized in 1977 following an epidemic of acute pneumonia in Philadelphia, USA. Since then, a total of 59 Legionella species containing 80 serogroups have been characterized. Twenty-six of the Legionella species have been reported as pathogenic in humans. This review describes the microbiological characteristics of Legionella species, their habits in the environment, the source and route of infection, symptoms and diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease, and disease outbreaks in Japan...
March 25, 2018: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
C Raina MacIntyre, Amalie Dyda, Chau Minh Bui, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is reported from many parts of the world, mostly linked to drinking water sources or cooling towers. We reviewed two unusual rolling outbreaks in Sydney and New York, each clustered in time and space. Data on these outbreaks were collected from public sources and compared to previous outbreaks in Australia and the US. While recurrent outbreaks of LD over time linked to an identified single source have been described, multiple unrelated outbreaks clustered in time and geography have not been previously described...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
A Leoni Swart, Christopher F Harrison, Ludwig Eichinger, Michael Steinert, Hubert Hilbi
Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella naturally parasitize free-living amoebae. Upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols, the opportunistic pathogens grow intracellularly in alveolar macrophages and can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular replication in amoebae and macrophages takes place in a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates literally hundreds of "effector" proteins into host cells, where they modulate crucial cellular processes for the pathogen's benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sophia David, Massimo Mentasti, Julian Parkhill, Victoria J Chalker
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophila is the leading cause of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia acquired from environmental sources. Investigations of both sporadic cases and outbreaks mostly rely on analysis of a single to a few colony pick(s) isolated from each patient. However, due to the lack of data describing diversity within single patients, the optimal number of picks is unknown. Here, we investigated diversity within individual patients using sequence based typing (SBT) and whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yiu-Hong Leung, Shui-Wah Yau, Chau-Kuen Lam, Shuk-Kwan Chuang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Casey P Peterson, Cassidy Sauer, Christa H Chatfield
Human infection by bacteria of the genus Legionella most often result in the pneumonia known as Legionnaires Disease. Legionella is found as a resident of adherent biofilms in man-made water systems. Disinfection efforts to prevent Legionella infections require a better understanding of the structures that promote Legionella surface attachment and biofilm colonization. Various enzymatic treatments, including multiple carbohydrate-targeting mixtures, failed to disrupt Legionella biofilms, despite the presence of carbohydrates in the biofilms as shown by biochemical methods and concanavalin-A lectin staining...
February 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
G Descours, H Hannetel, J V Reynaud, A G Ranc, L Beraud, C Kolenda, C Campese, G Lina, C Ginevra, S Jarraud
The isolation of Legionella from respiratory samples is the gold standard for Legionnaires' disease (LD) diagnosis and enables epidemiological studies and outbreak investigations. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate the performance of an amoebic coculture procedure (the amoebae plate test, APT) to the recovery of Legionella strains from respiratory samples, in comparison with axenic culture and a liquid-based amoebic coculture (LAC). Axenic culture, LAC, and APT were prospectively performed on 133 respiratory samples from patients with LD...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Maha Farhat, Raja A Shaheed, Haider H Al-Ali, Abdullah S Al-Ghamdi, Ghadeer M Al-Hamaqi, Hawraa S Maan, Zainab A Al-Mahfoodh, Hussain Z Al-Seba
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of Legionella spp in cooling tower water. Legionella proliferation in cooling tower water has serious public health implications as it can be transmitted to humans via aerosols and cause Legionnaires' disease. METHODS: Samples of cooling tower water were collected from King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2015/2016). The water samples were analyzed by a standard Legionella culture method, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing...
February 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Xiaobo Yu, Rebecca R Noll, Barbara P Romero Dueñas, Samual C Allgood, Kristi Barker, Jeffrey L Caplan, Matthias P Machner, Joshua LaBaer, Ji Qiu, M Ramona Neunuebel
BACKGROUND: The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila proliferates in human alveolar macrophages, resulting in a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Throughout the course of infection, L. pneumophila remains enclosed in a specialized membrane compartment that evades fusion with lysosomes. The pathogen delivers over 300 effector proteins into the host cell, altering host pathways in a manner that sets the stage for efficient pathogen replication. The L. pneumophila effector protein AnkX targets host Rab GTPases and functions in preventing fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with lysosomes...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Sammy Zahran, Shawn P McElmurry, Paul E Kilgore, David Mushinski, Jack Press, Nancy G Love, Richard C Sadler, Michele S Swanson
The 2014-2015 Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak in Genesee County, MI, and the outbreak resolution in 2016 coincided with changes in the source of drinking water to Flint's municipal water system. Following the switch in water supply from Detroit to Flint River water, the odds of a Flint resident presenting with LD increased 6.3-fold (95% CI: 2.5, 14.0). This risk subsided following boil water advisories, likely due to residents avoiding water, and returned to historically normal levels with the switch back in water supply...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Shatavia S Morrison, Jeffrey W Mercante, Maliha K Ishaq, Taccara Johnson, Jason Caravas, Claressa E Lucas, Ellen Brown, Brian H Raphael, Jonas M Winchell
The majority of Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila, a genetically heterogeneous species composed of at least 17 serogroups. Previously, it was demonstrated that L. pneumophila consists of three subspecies: pneumophila, fraseri and pascullei. During an LD outbreak investigation in 2012, we detected that representatives of both subspecies fraseri and pascullei colonized the same water system and that the outbreak-causing strain was a new member of the least represented subspecies pascullei...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Thatchai Kampitak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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