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Legionnaires disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226035/molecular-evolution-of-virulence-genes-and-non-virulence-genes-in-clinical-natural-and-artificial-environmental-legionella-pneumophila-isolates
#1
Xiao-Yong Zhan, Qing-Yi Zhu
Background: L. pneumophila is the main causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Free-living amoeba in natural aquatic environments is the reservoir and shelter for L. pneumophila. From natural water sources, L. pneumophila can colonize artificial environments such as cooling towers and hot-water systems, and then spread in aerosols, infecting the susceptible person. Therefore, molecular phylogeny and genetic variability of L. pneumophila from different sources (natural water, artificial water, and human lung tissue) might be distinct because of the selection pressure in different environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225047/maldi-tof-ms-analysis-as-a-useful-tool-for-an-identification-of-legionella-pneumophila-a-facultatively-pathogenic-bacterium-interacting-with-free-living-amoebae-a-case-study-from-water-supply-system-of-hospitals-in-bratislava-slovakia
#2
Katarína Trnková, Martina Kotrbancová, Margita Špaleková, Miriam Fulová, Jana Boledovičová, Matej Vesteg
Legionellae, i.e. Legionella pneumophila, are human bacterial hydrophilic facultative pathogens causing pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease). Free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as natural hosts and thus as reservoirs of many amoebae-resistant bacteria. An encysted amoeba can contribute to the resistance of intracellular L. pneumophila to various chemical and physical treatments. Humans can be infected by droplets containing bacteria from an environmental source or human-made devices such as shower heads, bathtubs, air-conditioning units or whirlpools...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217420/antibody-test-for-legionella-pneumophila-detection
#3
Noemí Párraga-Niño, Sara Quero, Naroa Uria, Oscar Castillo-Fernandez, Josune Jimenez-Ezenarro, Francesc-Xavier Muñoz, Miquel Sabrià, Marian Garcia-Nuñez
Legionella pneumophila is responsible for Legionnaires' disease (LD). Its detection in both environmental and clinical samples is mainly performed by culture plate method which requires up to 10days to obtain results. Nowadays, there are commercial antibodies against this bacterium, but they have not been tested against all subgroups of L. pneumophila sg 1 or serogroups 1-16 or their cross-reactions with other non-Legionella bacteria. Indeed, many of these antibodies became available when only 8 serogroups of L...
November 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215132/may-car-washing-represent-a-risk-for-legionella-infection
#4
T Baldovin, A Pierobon, C Bertoncello, E Destefani, M Gennari, A Stano, V Baldo
BACKGROUND: Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211873/association-between-sporadic-legionellosis-and-river-systems-in-connecticut
#5
Kelsie Cassell, Paul Gacek, Joshua L Warren, Peter A Raymond, Matthew Cartter, Daniel M Weinberger
Background: There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of sporadic legionnaires' disease in Connecticut since 1999, but the exact reasons for this are unknown. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand the drivers of legionnaires' disease in the community. In this study, we explored the relationship between the natural environment and the spatial and temporal distribution of legionellosis cases in Connecticut. Methods: We used spatial models and time series methods to evaluate factors associated with the increase and clustering of legionellosis in Connecticut...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194478/male-neonate-with-legionellosis
#6
Adam M Szewc, Steve Taylor, Gary D Cage, Daphne de Mello
Legionellaceae are composed of a single genus, Legionella, which is currently comprised of over 52 species. L. pneumophila, L. micdadei, L. longbeachae, and L. dumoffi are clinically considered the most important, with L. pneumophila causing >90%1,7 of cases of legionnaires disease (LD). Since LD's recognition in 1976 following an outbreak of pneumonia involving delegates of an American Legion convention in Philadelphia, there has been increased awareness and importance of the isolation, detection, and reporting of these cases...
November 28, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190490/legionella-quorum-sensing-and-its-role-in-pathogen-host-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Nicolas Personnic, Bianca Striednig, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila is a water-borne opportunistic pathogen causing a life-threatening pneumonia called 'Legionnaires' disease'. The Legionella quorum sensing (Lqs) system produces and responds to the α-hydroxyketone signaling molecule 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one (Legionella autoinducer-1, LAI-1). The Lqs system controls the switch between the replicative/non-virulent and the transmissive/virulent phase of L. pneumophila, and it is a major regulator of natural competence, motility and virulence of the pathogen...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181967/legionellosis-in-poland-in-2015
#8
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the preceding years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” and its prior versions along with the legionellosis case reports sent from Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH. RESULTS: In Poland, both two forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of disease accompanied by pneumonia) and Pontiac fever (mild, influenza-like form of infection) - are notifiable...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175332/ankyrin-repeats-as-a-dimerization-module
#9
Guennadi Kozlov, Kathy Wong, Wenxuan Wang, Pavol Skubák, Juliana Muñoz-Escobar, Yue Liu, Nadeem Siddiqui, Navraj S Pannu, Kalle Gehring
Legionella pneumophila is a pathogen, causing severe pneumonia in humans called Legionnaires' disease. AnkC (LegA12) is a poorly characterized 495-residue effector protein conserved in multiple Legionella species. Here, we report the crystal structure of a C-terminally truncated AnkC (2-384) at 3.2 Å resolution. The structure shows seven ankyrin repeats (ARs) with unique structural features. AnkC forms a dimer along the outer surface of loops between ARs. The dimer exists both in the crystal form and in solution, as shown by analytical ultracentrifugation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173230/water-cultures-are-more-sensitive-than-swab-cultures-for-the-detection-of-environmental-legionella
#10
Brooke K Decker, Patricia L Harris, Diana L Toy, Robert R Muder, Ali F Sonel, Cornelius J Clancy
Water cultures were significantly more sensitive than concurrently collected swab cultures (n=2,147 each) in detecting Legionella pneumophila within a Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Sensitivity for water versus swab cultures was 90% versus 30% overall, 83% versus 48% during a nosocomial Legionnaires' disease outbreak, and 93% versus 22% post outbreak. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
November 27, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173188/innate-immune-surveillance-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-legionella-pneumophila-infection
#11
Pasqualina Lagana, Luca Soraci, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
Innate immune response represents a common event in many neuroinflammatory diseases. The resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of sensing and reacting to both infections and sterile trauma. Peripheral immune cell migration into CNS is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although peripheral immune cells can invade CNS through meninges, choroid plexus, perivascular spaces, and cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, in the brain immune reactions can be mediated by both resident and peripheral immune cells...
November 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166595/positive-and-negative-regulation-of-the-master-metabolic-regulator-mtorc1-by-two-families-of-legionella-pneumophila-effectors
#12
Justin A De Leon, Jiazhang Qiu, Christopher J Nicolai, Jessica L Counihan, Kevin C Barry, Li Xu, Rosalie E Lawrence, Brian M Castellano, Roberto Zoncu, Daniel K Nomura, Zhao-Qing Luo, Russell E Vance
All pathogens must acquire nutrients from their hosts. The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, requires host amino acids for growth within cells. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of host amino acid metabolism. Here, we identify two families of translocated L. pneumophila effector proteins that exhibit opposing effects on mTORC1 activity. The Legionella glucosyltransferase (Lgt) effector family activates mTORC1, through inhibition of host translation, whereas the SidE/SdeABC (SidE) effector family acts as mTORC1 inhibitors...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162202/epidemiological-information-is-key-when-interpreting-whole-genome-sequence-data-lessons-learned-from-a-large-legionella-pneumophila-outbreak-in-warstein-germany-2013
#13
Markus Petzold, Karola Prior, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Dag Harmsen, Christian Lück
IntroductionWhole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used in Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak investigations, owing to its higher resolution than sequence-based typing, the gold standard typing method for Legionella pneumophila, in the analysis of endemic strains. Recently, a gene-by-gene typing approach based on 1,521 core genes called core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) was described that enables a robust and standardised typing of L. pneumophila. Methods: We applied this cgMLST scheme to isolates obtained during the largest outbreak of LD reported so far in Germany...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159828/crystal-structure-of-the-legionella-effector-lem22
#14
Guennadi Kozlov, Kathy Wong, Kalle Gehring
Legionella pneumophila is a pathogen causing severe pneumonia in humans called Legionnaires' disease. Lem22 is a previously uncharacterized effector protein conserved in multiple Legionella strains. Here, we report the crystal structure of Lem22 from the Philadelphia strain, also known as lpg2328, at 1.40 Å resolution. The structure shows an up-and-down three-helical bundle with a significant structural similarity to a number of protein-binding domains involved in apoptosis and membrane trafficking. Sequence conservation identifies a putative functional site on the interface of helices 2 and 3...
November 21, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158279/kkl-35-exhibits-potent-antibiotic-activity-against-legionella-species-independently-of-trans-translation-inhibition
#15
Romain Brunel, Ghislaine Descours, Isabelle Durieux, Patricia Doublet, Sophie Jarraud, Xavier Charpentier
Trans-translation is a ribosome rescue system that is ubiquitous in bacteria. Small molecules defining a new family of oxadiazole compounds that inhibit trans-translation have been found to have broad-spectrum antibiotic activity. We sought to determine the activity of KKL-35, a potent member of the oxadiazole family, against the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila and other related species that can also cause Legionnaires disease (LD). Consistent with the essential nature of trans-translation in L. pneumophila, KKL-35 inhibits growth of all tested strains at sub-micromolar concentrations...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146912/structural-insights-into-legionella-ridl-vps29-retromer-subunit-interaction-reveal-displacement-of-the-regulator-tbc1d5
#16
Kevin Bärlocher, Cedric A J Hutter, A Leoni Swart, Bernhard Steiner, Amanda Welin, Michael Hohl, François Letourneur, Markus A Seeger, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila can cause Legionnaires' disease and replicates intracellularly in a distinct Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation is a complex process that involves a plethora of type IV-secreted effector proteins. The effector RidL binds the Vps29 retromer subunit, blocks retrograde vesicle trafficking, and promotes intracellular bacterial replication. Here, we reveal that the 29-kDa N-terminal domain of RidL (RidL2-281) adopts a "foot-like" fold comprising a protruding β-hairpin at its "heel"...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133401/multiple-legionella-pneumophila-effector-virulence-phenotypes-revealed-through-high-throughput-analysis-of-targeted-mutant-libraries
#17
Stephanie R Shames, Luying Liu, James C Havey, Whitman B Schofield, Andrew L Goodman, Craig R Roy
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. A single strain of L. pneumophila encodes a repertoire of over 300 different effector proteins that are delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system during infection. The large number of L. pneumophila effectors has been a limiting factor in assessing the importance of individual effectors for virulence. Here, a transposon insertion sequencing technology called INSeq was used to analyze replication of a pool of effector mutants in parallel both in a mouse model of infection and in cultured host cells...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109879/legionnaires-disease-complicated-with-rhabdomyolysis-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-aids-patient
#18
Karan Seegobin, Satish Maharaj, Cherisse Baldeo, Julio Perez Downes, Pramod Reddy
Objective: To present a case of an uncommon triad of Legionella pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure, with review of the relevant literature. Case: A 51-year-old with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypertension presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath over four days. Chest X-ray showed consolidation in left lower lung field; urine was positive for Legionella antigen and myoglobin; creatine kinase was 51092U/L; creatine was 6...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108710/secreted-phospholipases-of-the-lung-pathogen-legionella-pneumophila
#19
REVIEW
Miriam Hiller, Christina Lang, Wiebke Michel, Antje Flieger
Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen and the main causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal pneumonia. The bacteria infect both mammalian cells and environmental hosts, such as amoeba. Inside host cells, the bacteria withstand the multifaceted defenses of the phagocyte and replicate within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). For establishment and maintenance of the infection, L. pneumophila secretes many proteins including effector proteins by means of different secretion systems and outer membrane vesicles...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104349/ten-questions-concerning-the-aerosolization-and-transmission-of-legionella-in-the-built-environment
#20
Aaron J Prussin, David Otto Schwake, Linsey C Marr
Legionella is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. Legionella can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Incidence of the disease is higher in the summertime, possibly because of increased use of cooling towers for air conditioning systems and differences in water chemistry when outdoor temperatures are higher...
October 2017: Building and Environment
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