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Legionnaires disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919312/lessons-from-an-outbreak-of-legionnaires-disease-on-a-hematology-oncology-unit
#1
Louise K Francois Watkins, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Aaron M Harris, Sherri Davidson, Stephanie Ayers-Millsap, Claressa E Lucas, Brian C Hubbard, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Edward Khan, Preeta K Kutty
OBJECTIVES To define the scope of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD), to identify the source, and to stop transmission. DESIGN AND SETTING Epidemiologic investigation of an LD outbreak among patients and a visitor exposed to a newly constructed hematology-oncology unit. METHODS An LD case was defined as radiographically confirmed pneumonia in a person with positive urinary antigen testing and/or respiratory culture for Legionella and exposure to the hematology-oncology unit after February 20, 2014. Cases were classified as definitely or probably healthcare-associated based on whether they were exposed to the unit for all or part of the incubation period (2-10 days)...
December 6, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916878/burkholderia-contaminans-colonization-from-contaminated-liquid-docusate-colace-in-a-immunocompetent-adult-with-legionnaire-s-disease-infection-control-implications-and-the-potential-role-of-candida-pellucosa
#2
Burke A Cunha, John Gian, Bertamaria Dieguez, Elsa Santos-Cruz, Daniela Matassa, Steve Gerson, Pat Daniels, Carlos Rosales, Rodger P Silletti
Objective:B. contaminans was cultured from respiratory secretions and liquid docusate (Colace) in a Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit (NICU) patient with community-acquired Legionnaire's disease but not from another bottle given to the patient. Unexpectedly, C. pelliculosa was cultured from two bottles, but not the B. contaminans bottle or respiratory secretions. Methods:B. cepacia, later identified as B. contaminans, was cultured from a bottle of liquid docusate (Colace) dispensed to a non-cystic fibrosis patient...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#3
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904811/legionella-shows-a-diverse-secondary-metabolism-dependent-on-a-broad-spectrum-sfp-type-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase
#4
Nicholas J Tobias, Tilman Ahrendt, Ursula Schell, Melissa Miltenberger, Hubert Hilbi, Helge B Bode
Several members of the genus Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease, a potentially debilitating form of pneumonia. Studies frequently focus on the abundant number of virulence factors present in this genus. However, what is often overlooked is the role of secondary metabolites from Legionella. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled and annotated the Legionella parisiensis DSM 19216 genome. Together with 14 other members of the Legionella, we performed comparative genomics and analysed the secondary metabolite potential of each strain...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892503/trans-translation-is-essential-in-the-human-pathogen-legionella-pneumophila
#5
Romain Brunel, Xavier Charpentier
Trans-translation is a ubiquitous bacterial mechanism for ribosome rescue in the event of translation stalling. Although trans-translation is not essential in several bacterial species, it has been found essential for viability or virulence in a wide range of pathogens. We describe here that trans-translation is essential in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the etiologic agent of Legionnaire's disease (LD), a severe form of nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. The ssrA gene coding for tmRNA, the key component of trans-translation, could not be deleted in L...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832057/announcement-world-pneumonia-day-november-12-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
November 12th marks the eighth annual World Pneumonia Day, observed to raise awareness of pneumonia as a global public health concern for persons of all ages and a leading infectious cause of death of children aged <5 years, causing approximately 900,000 child deaths annually (1). In the United States, the majority of the 53,000 annual pneumonia deaths occur in persons aged ≥65 years. Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, and Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria are among the leading causes of pneumonia; RSV annually causes an average of 177,000 hospitalizations and 14,000 deaths in adults aged ≥65 years in the United States (1,2)...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779835/legionellosis-in-poland-in-2014
#7
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and its prior versions along with the legionellosis case reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH. RESULTS: In Poland, both two forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of disease accompanied by pneumonia) and Pontiac fever (mild, influenza-like form of infection) - are routinely reported to the surveillance...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760576/unusual-legionnaires-outbreak-in-cool-dry-western-canada-an-investigation-using-genomic-epidemiology
#8
N C Knox, K A Weedmark, J Conly, A W Ensminger, F S Hosein, S J Drews
An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in an inner city district in Calgary, Canada. This outbreak spanned a 3-week period in November-December 2012, and a total of eight cases were identified. Four of these cases were critically ill requiring intensive care admission but there was no associated mortality. All cases tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) by urinary antigen testing. Five of the eight patients were culture positive for LP1 from respiratory specimens. These isolates were further identified as Knoxville monoclonal subtype and sequence subtype ST222...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725770/genetic-dissection-of-host-immune-response-in-pneumonia-development-and-progression
#9
Tamara V Smelaya, Olesya B Belopolskaya, Svetlana V Smirnova, Artem N Kuzovlev, Viktor V Moroz, Arkadiy M Golubev, Noel A Pabalan, Lyubov E Salnikova
The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717486/legionellosis-in-the-occupational-setting
#10
REVIEW
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712834/diagnostic-dilemma-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-infectious-mononucleosis-with-lung-involvement-or-co-infection-with-legionnaire-s-disease
#11
Burke A Cunha, John Gian
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized adults with fever and "pneumonia" can be a difficult diagnostic challenge particularly when the clinical findings may be due to different infectious diseases. METHODS: We recently had an elderly female who presented with fever, fatigue and dry cough with elevated serum transaminases and lung infiltrates. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis (IM) was made based on a positive Monospot test, elevated EBV VCA IgM titer, and highly elevated EBV viral load...
October 3, 2016: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704023/legionnaires-disease-outbreak-at-a-resort-in-cozumel-mexico
#12
Lee M Hampton, Laurel Garrison, Jessica Kattan, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Barry Fields, Nicole Fitzpatrick, Luis Sapian, Teresa Martin-Escobar, Stephen Waterman, Lauri A Hicks, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Hugo Lopez-Gatell
Background.  A Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreak at a resort on Cozumel Island in Mexico was investigated by a joint Mexico-United States team in 2010. This is the first reported LD outbreak in Mexico, where LD is not a reportable disease. Methods.  Reports of LD among travelers were solicited from US health departments and the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Records from the resort and Cozumel Island health facilities were searched for possible LD cases. In April 2010, the resort was searched for possible Legionella exposure sources...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684472/genomic-analysis-reveals-novel-diversity-among-the-1976-philadelphia-legionnaires-disease-outbreak-isolates-and-additional-st36-strains
#13
Jeffrey W Mercante, Shatavia S Morrison, Heta P Desai, Brian H Raphael, Jonas M Winchell
Legionella pneumophila was first recognized as a cause of severe and potentially fatal pneumonia during a large-scale outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) at a Pennsylvania veterans' convention in Philadelphia, 1976. The ensuing investigation and recovery of four clinical isolates launched the fields of Legionella epidemiology and scientific research. Only one of the original isolates, "Philadelphia-1", has been widely distributed or extensively studied. Here we describe the whole-genome sequencing (WGS), complete assembly, and comparative analysis of all Philadelphia LD strains recovered from that investigation, along with L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671446/characterization-of-aerosols-containing-legionella-generated-upon-nebulization
#14
Séverine Allegra, Lara Leclerc, Pierre André Massard, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Jérémie Pourchez
Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires' disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662900/multiple-major-disease-associated-clones-of-legionella-pneumophila-have-emerged-recently-and-independently
#15
Sophia David, Christophe Rusniok, Massimo Mentasti, Laura Gomez-Valero, Simon R Harris, Pierre Lechat, John Lees, Christophe Ginevra, Philippe Glaser, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Anthony Underwood, Sophie Jarraud, Timothy G Harrison, Julian Parkhill, Carmen Buchrieser
Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium and the leading cause of Legionnaires' disease. Just five sequence types (ST), from more than 2000 currently described, cause nearly half of disease cases in northwest Europe. Here, we report the sequence and analyses of 364 L. pneumophila genomes, including 337 from the five disease-associated STs and 27 representative of the species diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the five STs have independent origins within a highly diverse species. The number of de novo mutations is extremely low with maximum pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranging from 19 (ST47) to 127 (ST1), which suggests emergences within the last century...
November 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660867/environmental-factors-affecting-the-survival-of-soil-dwelling-legionella-longbeachae-in-water
#16
Mia Potočnjak, Zlatko MagdaleniĆ, Marija Dijan, Danica RebiĆ, Ivana Gobin
INTRODUCTION: Legionella longbeachae, a causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, has often been associated with potting soil and gardening, a feature quite distinct from other Legionella species. The precise transmission mechanism is still unknown, although due to the ecological coherence of the soil and water there is a potential risk of infection by contaminated stagnant water in the garden. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the ability of L. longbeachae to survive in stagnant tap water usually used for watering in gardens...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642464/-legionnaires-disease-complicated-by-rhabdomyolysis-and-acute-renal-failure-about-a-case
#17
Arnaud Bac, Ahmed Sabry Ramadan, Pierre Youatou, Pierre Mols, Dominique Cerf, William Ngatchou
Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial disease of the respiratory system caused by a gram-negative germ whose clinical manifestation can be benign limiting to flu-like syndrome or can be more severe being characterized by pneumonia which may be complicated by multisystem disease that can lead to death. We report the case of a 48 year-old patient with rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure following Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. We here highlight the pathophysiological aspects and treatment of this rare complication during Legionella infection...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633769/dynamics-of-genome-change-among-legionella-species
#18
Sandeep J Joseph, Daniel Cox, Bernard Wolff, Shatavia S Morrison, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Michael Frace, Xavier Didelot, Santiago Castillo-Ramirez, Jonas Winchell, Timothy D Read, Deborah Dean
Legionella species inhabit freshwater and soil ecosystems where they parasitize protozoa. L. pneumonphila (LP) serogroup-1 (Lp1) is the major cause of Legionnaires' Disease (LD), a life-threatening pulmonary infection that can spread systemically. The increased global frequency of LD caused by Lp and non-Lp species underscores the need to expand our knowledge of evolutionary forces underlying disease pathogenesis. Whole genome analyses of 43 strains, including all known Lp serogroups 1-17 and 17 emergent LD-causing Legionella species (of which 33 were sequenced in this study) in addition to 10 publicly available genomes, resolved the strains into four phylogenetic clades along host virulence demarcations...
September 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630979/evaluation-and-comparison-of-multiple-test-methods-including-real-time-pcr-for-legionella-detection-in-clinical-specimens
#19
Adriana Peci, Anne-Luise Winter, Jonathan B Gubbay
Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire's disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624495/existence-and-control-of-legionella-bacteria-in-building-water-systems-a-review
#20
John P Springston, Liana Yocavitch
Legionellae are waterborne bacteria which are capable of causing potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease (LD), as well as Pontiac Fever. Public concern about Legionella exploded following the 1976 outbreak at the American Legion conference in Philadelphia, where 221 attendees contracted pneumonia and 34 died. Since that time, a variety of different control methods and strategies have been developed and implemented in an effort to eradicate Legionella from building water systems. Despite these efforts, the incidence of LD has been steadily increasing in the U...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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