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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640202/evaluation-of-legionella-air-contamination-in-healthcare-facilities-by-different-sampling-methods-an-italian-multicenter-study
#1
Maria Teresa Montagna, Osvalda De Giglio, Maria Luisa Cristina, Christian Napoli, Claudia Pacifico, Antonella Agodi, Tatjana Baldovin, Beatrice Casini, Maria Anna Coniglio, Marcello Mario D'Errico, Santi Antonino Delia, Maria Grazia Deriu, Marco Guida, Pasqualina Laganà, Giorgio Liguori, Matteo Moro, Ida Mura, Francesca Pennino, Gaetano Privitera, Vincenzo Romano Spica, Silvia Sembeni, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Stefano Tardivo, Ida Torre, Federica Valeriani, Roberto Albertini, Cesira Pasquarella
Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis(®)μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis(®)μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639230/intracellular-pharmacokinetics-of-antibacterials-and-their-clinical-implications
#2
REVIEW
Federico Pea
The intracellular pharmacokinetics of the different classes of antimicrobials into surrogate markers of tissue accumulation (alveolar macrophages and/or total alveolar cells collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage or peripheral white blood cells) was reviewed. The aim of this review was to discuss the clinical implications of the intracellular pharmacokinetics of antibacterials, either from the therapeutic or toxicological perspective. The different pharmacokinetic behaviour of antimicrobials within cells is mainly related to their physicochemical properties (hydrophilicity and lipophilicity), and may have several clinical implications...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636488/workers-exposure-to-bioaerosols-from-three-different-types-of-composting-facilities
#3
Laetitia Bonifait, Geneviève Marchand, Marc Veillette, Hamza M'Bareche, Marie-Eve Dubuis, Carole Pépin, Yves Cloutier, Yves Bernard, Caroline Duchaine
Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634242/type-ii-secretion-substrates-of-legionella-pneumophila-translocate-out-of-the-pathogen-occupied-vacuole-via-a-semipermeable-membrane
#4
Hilary K Truchan, Harry D Christman, Richard C White, Nakisha S Rutledge, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Legionella pneumophila replicates in macrophages in a host-derived phagosome, termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). While the translocation of type IV secretion (T4S) effectors into the macrophage cytosol is well established, the location of type II secretion (T2S) substrates in the infected host cell is unknown. Here, we show that the T2S substrate ProA, a metalloprotease, translocates into the cytosol of human macrophages, where it associates with the LCV membrane (LCVM). Translocation is detected as early as 10 h postinoculation (p...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632996/taking-control-hijacking-of-rab-gtpases-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#5
Stefania Spanò, Jorge E Galán
Intracellular bacterial pathogens survive and replicate within specialized eukaryotic cell organelles. To establish their intracellular niches these pathogens have adopted sophisticated strategies to control intracellular membrane trafficking. Since Rab-family GTPases are critical regulators of endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking events, many intracellular pathogens have evolved specific mechanisms to modulate or hijack Rab GTPases dynamics and trafficking functions. One such strategy is the delivery of bacterial effectors through specialized machines to specifically target Rab GTPases...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628460/risk-factors-for-legionella-longbeachae-legionnaires-disease-new-zealand
#6
Emma Kenagy, Patricia C Priest, Claire M Cameron, Debbie Smith, Pippa Scott, Vicki Cho, Peter Mitchell, David R Murdoch
Legionella longbeachae, found in soil and compost-derived products, is a globally underdiagnosed cause of Legionnaires' disease. We conducted a case-control study of L. longbeachae Legionnaires' disease in Canterbury, New Zealand. Case-patients were persons hospitalized with L. longbeachae pneumonia, and controls were persons randomly sampled from the electoral roll for the area served by the participating hospital. Among 31 cases and 172 controls, risk factors for Legionnaires' disease were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of smoking >10 years, and exposure to compost or potting mix...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625225/legionella-longbeachae-detected-in-an-industrial-cooling-tower-linked-to-a-legionellosis-outbreak-new-zealand-2015-possible-waterborne-transmission
#7
C N Thornley, D J Harte, R P Weir, L J Allen, K J Knightbridge, P R T Wood
A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires' disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622979/whole-genome-sequencing-for-identification-of-the-source-in-hospital-acquired-legionnaires-disease
#8
A M Rosendahl Madsen, A Holm, T G Jensen, E Knudsen, H Lundgaard, M N Skov, S A Uldum, M Kemp
Acquisition of Legionnaires' disease is a serious complication of hospitalization. Rapid determination of whether or not the infection is caused by strains of Legionella pneumophila in the hospital environment is crucial to avoid further cases. This study investigated the use of whole-genome sequencing to identify the source of infection in hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relatedness between one patient isolate and a strain found in hospital water, confirming suspicion of nosocomial infection...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#9
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619815/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-legionella-longbeachae-serogroup-1-strain-isolated-from-a-patient-with-legionnaires-disease
#10
Sandy Slow, Trevor Anderson, James Miller, Siddharth Singh, David Murdoch, Patrick J Biggs
Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, predominantly found in soil and composted plant material, causes the majority of cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in New Zealand. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an L. longbeachae serogroup 1 (sg1) isolate derived from a patient hospitalized with LD in Christchurch, New Zealand.
June 15, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615983/legionnaires-disease-clinicoradiological-comparison-of-sporadic-versus-outbreak-cases
#11
Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi, Lakshmi Saladi, Frances Petersen, Misbahuddin Khaja, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: In 2015, New York City experienced the worst outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in the history of the city. We compare patients seen during the 2015 outbreak with sporadic cases of Legionella during the past 5 years. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with Legionnaires' disease, including sporadic cases of Legionella infection admitted from 2010 to 2015 (n = 55) and cases admitted during the 2015 outbreak (n = 35). RESULTS: We saw no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding demographics, smoking habits, alcohol intake, underlying medical disease, or residence type...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609649/resistance-of-legionella-and-acanthamoeba-mauritaniensis-to-heat-treatment-as-determined-by-relative-and-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reactions
#12
Penelope H Dobrowsky, Sehaam Khan, Wesaal Khan
Legionella and Acanthamoeba spp. persist in harvested rainwater pasteurized at high temperatures (> 72°C) and the interaction mechanisms exhibited between these organisms need to be elucidated. The resistance of two Legionella reference strains (Legionella pneumophila ATCC 33152 and Legionella longbeachae ATCC 33462), three environmental strains [Legionella longbeachae (env.), Legionella norrlandica (env.) and Legionella rowbothamii (env.)] and Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis ATCC 50676 to heat treatment (50-90°C) was determined by monitoring culturability and viability [ethidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR)]...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606287/-homology-of-legionella-strains-isolated-from-clinical-cases-and-environmental-water-in-shenyang
#13
S H Zhao, Y Chen, P Zhang, B Y Hou, L Zhao
Objective: To study the homology of Legionella pneumophila (LP) strains which were isolated from clinical specimens and environmental water. Methods: Twenty-two Legionella strains were collected in which 2 strains were isolated from 2 cases of LP infection patients, and others were isolated from domestic water or air conditioning cooling tower water of 2 hospitals and 13 companies from July 2012 to September 2014 in Shenyang. They were recovered and analyzed by the pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with AscⅠ restriction enzymes...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#14
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602386/respiratory-infections-associated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-agents
#15
REVIEW
E Blanchard, M-E Truchetet, I Machelart, J Séneschal, C Raherison-Semjen
Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. This excessive infection risk seems real, particularly in the first six months following treatment initiation, and higher for patients receiving anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies than for those receiving soluble TNFα receptor...
June 8, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599867/macrolide-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-due-to-atypical-pathogens-outcomes-assessment-at-an-early-time-point
#16
Thomas M File, Paul B Eckburg, George H Talbot, Lily Llorens, H David Friedland
BACKGROUND: Therapy directed against atypical pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often recommended. This post-hoc analysis evaluated the effect of addition of a macrolide to ceftaroline fosamil or ceftriaxone treatment in atypical CAP. METHODS: Two phase 3, double-blind, comparative safety and efficacy studies of ceftaroline fosamil vs. ceftriaxone, FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2, enrolled adults with CAP. Only FOCUS 1 included 24-h adjunctive clarithromycin therapy for all patients on day 1...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598348/mortality-from-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states-2003-2009
#17
J W Gargano, E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, S J Feinman, M J Beach
Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio)...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598344/occurrence-of-legionella-in-showers-at-recreational-facilities
#18
Patrizia De Filippis, Cinzia Mozzetti, Massimo Amicosante, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Alessandra Messina, Donatella Varrenti, Roberto Giammattei, Floriana Di Giorgio, Stefania Corradi, Alberto D'Auria, Roberta Fraietta, Rosanna Gabrieli
Critical environments, including water systems in recreational settings, represent an important source of Legionella pneumophila infection in humans. In order to assess the potential risk for legionellosis, we analyzed Legionella contamination of water distribution systems in 36 recreational facilities equipped with swimming pools. One hundred and sixty water samples were analyzed from shower heads or taps located in locker rooms or in bathrooms. By culture method and polymerase chain reaction, 41/160 samples were positive for Legionella from 12/36 recreational centers...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598235/lift-and-cut-anti-host-autophagy-mechanism-of-legionella-pneumophila
#19
Supansa Pantoom, Aimin Yang, Yao-Wen Wu
RavZ, an effector protein of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila, inhibits host macroautophagy/autophagy by deconjugation of lipidated LC3 proteins from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the autophagosome membrane. The mechanism for how RavZ specifically recognizes and deconjugates the lipidated LC3s is not clear. To understand the structure-function relationship of LC3-deconjugation by RavZ, we prepared semisynthetic LC3 proteins modified with different fragments of PE or 1-hexadecanol (C16). We find that RavZ activity is strictly dependent on the conjugated PE structure and RavZ extracts LC3-PE from the membrane before deconjugation...
June 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596545/rapid-on-site-monitoring-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-cooling-tower-water-using-a-portable-microfluidic-system
#20
Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Yusuke Tokunaga, Satoko Goto, Yudai Fujii, Fumiya Banno, Akiko Edagawa
Legionnaires' disease, predominantly caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, has increased in prevalence worldwide. The most common mode of transmission of Legionella is inhalation of contaminated aerosols, such as those generated by cooling towers. Simple, rapid and accurate methods to enumerate L. pneumophila are required to prevent the spread of this organism. Here, we applied a microfluidic device for on-chip fluorescent staining and semi-automated counting of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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