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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932612/legionella-longbeachae-is-immunologically-silent-and-highly-virulent-in-vivo
#1
Liliana M Massis, Mariana A Assis-Marques, Fernanda V S Castanheira, Yasmin J Capobianco, Andiamira C Balestra, Pedro Escoll, Rebecca E Wood, Graziele Z Manin, Vani M A Correa, José C Alves-Filho, Fernando Q Cunha, Carmen Buchrieser, Marcos C Borges, Hayley J Newton, Dario S Zamboni
BACKGROUND: Legionella longbeachae (Llo) and Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) are the most common pneumonia-causing agents of the genus. Although both species can be lethal to humans and are highly prevalent, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of Llo infections. In murine models of infection, Lpn infection is self-limited whereas Llo infection is lethal. DESIGN/METHODS: We used mouse macrophages, human macrophages, human epithelial cells and mouse infections in vivo to evaluate multiple parameters of the infection...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929353/enhanced-survival-but-not-amplification-of-francisella-spp-in-the-presence-of-free-living-amoebae
#2
Helen Y Buse, Frank W Schaefer, Eugene W Rice
Transmission of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia, has been associated with various water sources. Survival of many waterborne pathogens within free-living amoeba (FLA) is well documented; however, the role of amoebae in the environmental persistence of F. tularensis is unclear. In this study, axenic FLA cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis were each inoculated with virulent strains of F. tularensis (Types A and B), the attenuated live vaccine strain, and Francisella novicida...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928939/developing-an-ecologically-relevant-heterogeneous-biofilm-model-for-dental-unit-waterlines
#3
Sham Lal, Mark Pearce, Undine E M Achilles-Day, John G Day, L H Glyn Morton, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
This study monitored the biodiversity of microbes cultured from a heterogeneous biofilm which had formed on the lumen of a section of dental waterline tubing over a period of 910 days. By day 2 bacterial counts on the outlet-water showed that contamination of the system had occurred. After 14 days, a biofilm comparable to that of clinical waterlines, consisting of bacteria, fungi and amoebae had formed. This showed that the proprietary silver coating applied to the luminal surface of the commercial waterline tubing failed to prevent biofilm formation...
December 8, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919312/lessons-from-an-outbreak-of-legionnaires-disease-on-a-hematology-oncology-unit
#4
Louise K Francois Watkins, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Aaron M Harris, Sherri Davidson, Stephanie Ayers-Millsap, Claressa E Lucas, Brian C Hubbard, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Edward Khan, Preeta K Kutty
OBJECTIVES To define the scope of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD), to identify the source, and to stop transmission. DESIGN AND SETTING Epidemiologic investigation of an LD outbreak among patients and a visitor exposed to a newly constructed hematology-oncology unit. METHODS An LD case was defined as radiographically confirmed pneumonia in a person with positive urinary antigen testing and/or respiratory culture for Legionella and exposure to the hematology-oncology unit after February 20, 2014. Cases were classified as definitely or probably healthcare-associated based on whether they were exposed to the unit for all or part of the incubation period (2-10 days)...
December 6, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#5
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912065/phosphoribosylation-of-ubiquitin-promotes-serine-ubiquitination-and-impairs-conventional-ubiquitination
#6
Sagar Bhogaraju, Sissy Kalayil, Yaobin Liu, Florian Bonn, Thomas Colby, Ivan Matic, Ivan Dikic
Conventional ubiquitination involves the ATP-dependent formation of amide bonds between the ubiquitin C terminus and primary amines in substrate proteins. Recently, SdeA, an effector protein of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila, was shown to mediate NAD-dependent and ATP-independent ubiquitin transfer to host proteins. Here, we identify a phosphodiesterase domain in SdeA that efficiently catalyzes phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin on a specific arginine via an ADP-ribose-ubiquitin intermediate. SdeA also catalyzes a chemically and structurally distinct type of substrate ubiquitination by conjugating phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serine residues of protein substrates via a phosphodiester bond...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#7
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#8
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904811/legionella-shows-a-diverse-secondary-metabolism-dependent-on-a-broad-spectrum-sfp-type-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase
#9
Nicholas J Tobias, Tilman Ahrendt, Ursula Schell, Melissa Miltenberger, Hubert Hilbi, Helge B Bode
Several members of the genus Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease, a potentially debilitating form of pneumonia. Studies frequently focus on the abundant number of virulence factors present in this genus. However, what is often overlooked is the role of secondary metabolites from Legionella. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled and annotated the Legionella parisiensis DSM 19216 genome. Together with 14 other members of the Legionella, we performed comparative genomics and analysed the secondary metabolite potential of each strain...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904113/fanconi-syndrome-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-two-patients-with-legionella-pneumonia
#10
Akihiro Ryuge, Yasuhiko Ito, Taishi Yamakawa, Hitoshi Tanaka, Hirotoshi Yasui, Shuko Mashimo, Kenshi Watanabe, Rie Nomura, Nobukazu Suganuma, Shoichi Maruyama
Legionella pneumophila is a cause of community-acquired pneumonia that is reported to induce electrolyte disorders, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. We herein report two Japanese men with Legionella pneumonia and hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. These findings were associated with an elevation of urinary low-molecular-weight tubular protein, including urinary β2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, the fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid, and the presence of glycosuria and panaminoaciduria, suggesting that their electrolyte disorders had been caused by Fanconi syndrome...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900922/-extracorporeal-life-support-for-legionella-pneumonia
#11
W A C Koekkoek, C Savelkoul, P R Wijnandts, M Platenkamp, D W Donker, D H T Tjan
BACKGROUND: Legionella species cause 5% of all community acquired pneumonias. However, Legionella pneumonia results relatively often in admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). A significant complication is the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The ICU mortality rate for Legionella pneumonia is > 30% with conventional treatments. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 64-year-old male was admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure due to Legionella pneumonia complicated by ARDS...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892503/trans-translation-is-essential-in-the-human-pathogen-legionella-pneumophila
#12
Romain Brunel, Xavier Charpentier
Trans-translation is a ubiquitous bacterial mechanism for ribosome rescue in the event of translation stalling. Although trans-translation is not essential in several bacterial species, it has been found essential for viability or virulence in a wide range of pathogens. We describe here that trans-translation is essential in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the etiologic agent of Legionnaire's disease (LD), a severe form of nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. The ssrA gene coding for tmRNA, the key component of trans-translation, could not be deleted in L...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890040/high-prevalence-of-legionella-in-non-passenger-merchant-vessels
#13
S L Collins, D Stevenson, M Mentasti, A Shaw, A Johnson, L Crossley, C Willis
There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865699/tnf-%C3%AE-inhibits-the-growth-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-airway-epithelial-cells-by-inducing-apoptosis
#14
Yasuhide Kawamoto, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Yumiko Kimura, Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara
BACKGROUND: TNF-α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumophila (Lp)-induced pneumonia. Patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy are at an increased risk of Lp infection. Lp infects both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells such as airway epithelial cells; however, the role of TNF-α in airway epithelial cells is unknown. METHODS: Human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 was infected with Lp NUL1 strain. After infection, both intracellular growth of Lp and cell death were evaluated after treating the cells with or without TNF-α...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851432/1797-use-of-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support-in-infant-survivor-with-legionella-pneumophila
#15
Eleanor Gradidge, Kitman Wai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851427/1792-severe-legionella-pneumophila-pneumonia-in-an-immunocompromised-child
#16
Kathleen Chiotos, Jessica Fowler, Eimear Kitt, Heather Wolfe, Nadir Yehya, Todd Kilbaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851294/1659-severe-legionella-pneumonia-from-occupational-exposure-requiring-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#17
Patrick McGonagill, Melissa Brunsvold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848164/septic-arthritis-due-to-legionella-cincinnatiensis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Florian Banderet, Annette Blaich, Evelin Soleman, Valeria Gaia, Michael Osthoff
Legionella spp. are an important cause of pulmonary and rarely extrapulmonary infections. L. cincinnatiensis has only been implicated in five cases to date. We herein report the first case of L. cincinnatiensis septic arthritis in a 90-year old lady with a past medical history of chronic kidney disease. She developed septic arthritis of her left wrist after having received intraarticular corticosteroid injections and oral corticosteroids administered for presumed chondrocalcinosis. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of L...
November 15, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845476/are-liquids-an-efficient-vehicle-of-healthcare-associated-infections-a-review-of-reported-cases-in-italy-2000-2014
#19
D D'Alessandro, A Nusca, C Napoli
INTRODUCTION: In the field of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), one of the most reported, studied and discussed sources of infections is water, partly due to its controllability, but also because healthcare facilities, especially hospitals, require a significant quantity of water per day. In addition to water, during healthcare procedures, other liquids can serve as source of infections. The present study reports a review of those HCAIs associated to liquid vehicles occurred in Italy during the period 2000-2014...
November 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836266/kinetic-analysis-of-legionella-inactivation-using-ozone-in-wastewater
#20
Jun Li, Kunquan Li, Yan Zhou, Xuebin Li, Tao Tao
Legionella inactivation using ozone was studied in wastewater using kinetic analysis and modeling. The experimental results indicate that the relationship between the ozone concentration, germ concentration, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be used to predict variations in germ and COD concentrations. The ozone reaction with COD and inactivation of Legionella occurred simultaneously, but the reaction with COD likely occurred at a higher rate than the inactivation, as COD is more easily oxidized by ozone than Legionella...
November 8, 2016: Chemosphere
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