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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344101/healthcare-associated-legionnaires-disease-limitations-of-surveillance-definitions-and-importance-of-epidemiologic-investigation
#1
Laila M Castellino, Shantini D Gamage, Patti V Hoffman, Stephen M Kralovic, Mark Holodniy, Jack M Bernstein, Gary A Roselle
Healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease (HCA LD) causes significant morbidity and mortality, with varying guidance on prevention. We describe the evaluation of a case of possible HCA LD and note the pitfalls of relying solely on an epidemiologic definition for association of a case with a facility. Our detailed investigation led to the identification of a new Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 sequence type, confirmed a healthcare association and helped build the framework for our ongoing preventive efforts...
November 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317310/amoebal-endosymbiont-neochlamydia-protects-host-amoebae-against-legionella-pneumophila-infection-by-preventing-legionella-entry
#2
Chinatsu Maita, Mizue Matsushita, Masahiro Miyoshi, Torahiko Okubo, Shinji Nakamura, Junji Matsuo, Masaharu Takemura, Masaki Miyake, Hiroki Nagai, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Acanthamoeba isolated from environmental soil harbors the obligate intracellular symbiont Neochlamydia, which has a critical role in host amoebal defense against Legionella pneumophila infection. Here, by using morphological analysis with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, proteome analyses with two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and transcriptome analysis with DNA microarray, we explored the mechanism by which the Neochlamydia effected this defense...
January 6, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304381/biofilms-in-shower-hoses
#3
Caitlin R Proctor, Mauro Reimann, Bas Vriens, Frederik Hammes
Shower hoses offer an excellent bacterial growth environment in close proximity to a critical end-user exposure route within building drinking water plumbing. However, the health risks associated with and processes underlying the development of biofilms in shower hoses are poorly studied. In a global survey, biofilms from 78 shower hoses from 11 countries were characterized in terms of cell concentration (4.1 × 104-5.8 × 108 cells/cm2), metal accumulation (including iron, lead, and copper), and microbiome composition (including presence of potential opportunistic pathogens)...
December 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304227/combining-environmental-investigation-and-a-dual-analytical-strategy-to-isolate-the-legionella-longbeachae-strain-linked-to-two-occupational-cases-of-legionellosis
#4
Genevieve Marchand, Judith Lord, Carole Pépin, Nancy Lacombe
Legionella has a global distribution, mainly in aquatic and man-made environments. Under the right conditions, this bacterium is a notorious human pathogen responsible for severe pulmonary illnesses. Legionellosis outbreaks are reported around the world, and exposure to water droplet aerosols containing Legionella pneumophila is usually the mechanism of its transmission. Even if L. pneumophila causes most outbreaks, Legionella longbeachae also accounts for some cases. Unlike most other Legionella strains, L...
January 3, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301934/the-legionella-pneumophila-effector-ceg4-is-a-phosphotyrosine-phosphatase-that-attenuates-activation-of-eukaryotic-mapk-pathways
#5
Andrew T Quaile, Peter J Stogios, Olga Egorova, Elena Evdokimova, Dylan Valleau, Boguslaw Nocek, Purnima S Kompella, Sergio Peisajovich, Alexander F Yakunin, Alexander W Ensminger, Alexei Savchenko
Host colonization by Gram negative pathogens often involves delivery of bacterial proteins called ″effectors″ into the host cell. The pneumonia-causing pathogen Legionella pneumophila delivers more than 330 effectors into the host cell via its type IVB Dot/Icm secretion system. The collective functions of these proteins is the establishment of a replicative niche from which Legionella can recruit cellular materials to grow while evading lysosomal fusion inhibiting its growth. Using a combination of structural, biochemical, and in vivo approaches, we show that one of these translocated effector proteins, Ceg4, is a phosphotyrosine phosphatase harboring a haloacid dehalogenase hydrolase domain...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299927/microbial-dynamics-in-multi-chamber-ozone-contactors-at-a-full-scale-drinking-water-treatment-plant
#6
Nadine Kotlarz, Nicole Rockey, Terese M Olson, Sarah-Jane Haig, Larry Sanford, John J LiPuma, Lutgarde Raskin
Concentrations of viable microbial cells were monitored using culture-based and culture-independent methods across multi-chamber ozone contactors in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. Membrane-intact and culturable cell concentrations in ozone contactor effluents ranged from 1,200 to 3,750 cells/mL and from 200 to 3,850 colony forming units/mL, respectively. Viable cell concentrations decreased significantly in the first ozone contact chamber, but rose, even as ozone exposure increased, in subsequent chambers...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291559/spatiotemporal-changes-in-bacterial-community-and-microbial-activity-in-a-full-scale-drinking-water-treatment-plant
#7
Luanfeng Hou, Qin Zhou, Qingping Wu, Qihui Gu, Ming Sun, Jumei Zhang
To gain insight into the bacterial dynamics present in drinking water treatment (DWT) systems, the microbial community and activity in a full-scale DWT plant (DWTP) in Guangzhou, South China, were investigated using Illumina Hiseq sequencing analyses combined with cultivation-based techniques during the wet and dry seasons. Illumina sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a large shift in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes during the treatment process, with the proportion of Actinobacteria decreased sharply, whereas that of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased and predominated in treated water...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285331/risk-assessment-of-colonization-of-legionella-spp-in-dental-unit-waterlines
#8
D Lauritano, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, V Candotto, F Carinci
The aerosol produced during the use of dental instruments can spread pathogens potentially harmful to health. Most of the pathogens found in hydraulic system are Gram-negative aerobic heterotrophic environmental bacterial species exhibiting very low pathogenicity, although they may be of concern in the treatment of vulnerable patients, such as immunocompromised, medically compromised individuals and dental team. Dental team can be exposed to pathogenic microorganisms including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus and Legionella spp...
July 2017: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279942/most-drinking-water-associated-disease-outbreaks-linked-to-legionella
#9
Rita Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279237/temperature-driven-growth-of-legionella-in-lab-scale-activated-sludge-systems-and-interaction-with-protozoa
#10
C Caicedo, K-H Rosenwinkel, R Nogueira
The occurrence of Legionella pneumophila in activated sludge systems has been reported in the literature. However, the factors triggering its growth are not yet well understood. This knowledge is needed to develop strategies to minimize the risk of the spread of Legionnaires' disease that originates in these systems. In the present study, L. pneumophila multiplied exponentially at 35 °C in activated sludge, but lower temperatures (24 °C and 15 °C) did not favour the growth of the pathogen despite the presence of its protozoan hosts (free-living amoeba and ciliates)...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277927/legionella-feeleii-an-unusual-organism-associated-with-cutaneous-infection-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#11
S Verykiou, C Goodhead, G Parry, S Meggitt
We report a 23-year-old immunocompromised woman who, following cardiac transplantation, presented with an unusual cutaneous eruption. She developed a widespread pustular rash, systemic symptoms and a high temperature with raised inflammatory markers. The diagnosis was reached when a skin biopsy was cultured onto Legionella agar (buffered charcoal yeast extract) and Legionella feeleii was isolated. The patient was treated with 6 weeks of moxifloxacin and her cutaneous lesions gradually resolved. Cutaneous Legionella infections are uncommon and usually affect immunocompromised patients...
December 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261791/distribution-of-legionella-and-bacterial-community-composition-among-regionally-diverse-us-cooling-towers
#12
Anna C Llewellyn, Claressa E Lucas, Sarah E Roberts, Ellen W Brown, Bina S Nayak, Brian H Raphael, Jonas M Winchell
Cooling towers (CTs) are a leading source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (LD), a severe form of pneumonia caused by inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. Accordingly, proper maintenance of CTs is vital for the prevention of LD. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Legionella in a subset of regionally diverse US CTs and characterize the associated microbial communities. Between July and September of 2016, we obtained aliquots from water samples collected for routine Legionella testing from 196 CTs located in eight of the nine continental US climate regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250489/identification-of-conserved-abc-importers-necessary-for-intracellular-survival-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-multiple-hosts
#13
Amrita Lama, Samuel L Drennan, Rudd C Johnson, Grace L Rubenstein, Eric D Cambronne
It is established that the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila becomes significantly augmented for infection of macrophages after intracellular growth in amoebae when compared to like-strains cultivated in laboratory media. Based on this observation, we reasoned that the most critical virulence determinants of L.p. are expressed by responding to stimuli generated by the protozoan host specifically; a process we term "protozoan-priming." We sought to identify L.p. virulence factors that were required for replication in amoebae in order to highlight the genes necessary for production of the most infectious form of the bacterium...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250488/from-many-hosts-one-accidental-pathogen-the-diverse-protozoan-hosts-of-legionella
#14
REVIEW
David K Boamah, Guangqi Zhou, Alexander W Ensminger, Tamara J O'Connor
The 1976 outbreak of Legionnaires' disease led to the discovery of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Given their impact on human health, Legionella species and the mechanisms responsible for their replication within host cells are often studied in alveolar macrophages, the primary human cell type associated with disease. Despite the potential severity of individual cases of disease, Legionella are not spread from person-to-person. Thus, from the pathogen's perspective, interactions with human cells are accidents of time and space-evolutionary dead ends with no impact on Legionella's long-term survival or pathogenic trajectory...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247056/genome-sequencing-links-persistent-outbreak-of-legionellosis-in-sydney-to-an-emerging-clone-of-legionella-pneumophila-st211
#15
Verlaine J Timms, Rebecca Rockett, Nathan L Bachmann, Elena Martinez, Qinning Wang, Sharon C-A Chen, Neisha Jeoffreys, Peter J Howard, Anna Smith, Sheena Adamson, Robin Gilmour, Vicky Sheppeard, Vitali Sintchenko
The city of Sydney, Australia, experienced a persistent outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) pneumonia in 2016. To elucidate the source and guide public health actions the genomes of clinical and environmental Lp1 isolates recovered over 7 weeks were examined. A total of 48 isolates from human cases and cooling towers were sequenced and compared using SNP-based, core-genome MLST and pangenome approaches. All three methods confirmed phylogenetic relatedness between isolates associated with outbreaks in the Central Business District (CBD) in March and May and Suburb 1...
December 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246951/metformin-mediates-protection-against-legionella-pneumonia-through-activation-of-ampk-and-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Chiaki Kajiwara, Yu Kusaka, Soichiro Kimura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Yuta Nanjo, Yoshikazu Ishii, Heiichiro Udono, Theodore J Standiford, Kazuhiro Tateda
In Legionella pneumophila infection, macrophages play a critical role in the host defense response. Metformin, an oral drug for type 2 diabetes, is attracting attention as a new supportive therapy against a variety of diseases, such as cancer and infectious diseases. The novel mechanisms for metformin actions include modulation of the effector functions of macrophages and other host immune cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of metformin on L. pneumophila infection in vitro and in vivo. Metformin treatment suppressed growth of L...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246145/legionella-pneumonia-due-to-non-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-usefulness-of-the-six-point-scoring-system
#17
Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida, Yasuyoshi Washio, Akio Yamazaki, Hiromasa Tachibana
BACKGROUND: Because of a limited number of reports, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with Legionella pneumonia due to non-Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and the diagnostic usefulness of the six-point scoring system for such patients compared with patients with pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 1. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patients diagnosed with Legionella pneumonia due to non-L. pneumophila serogroup 1 between March 2001 and June 2016...
December 16, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238576/a-case-of-legionella-pneumonia-caused-by-home-use-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#18
Ruby Schnirman, Nasifa Nur, Alice Bonitati, Gerardo Carino
A 67-year-old woman with morbid obesity and severe obstructive sleep apnea presented to the emergency department with 2 days of productive cough, fever, shortness of breath and loose stools. A chest x-ray showed extensive bilateral infiltrates, and she was quickly intubated for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. A urine legionella antigen test was positive, and she was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of severe legionella pneumonia. She improved over the next week with a course of levofloxacin...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235173/type-iv-secretion-in-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
Elisabeth Grohmann, Peter J Christie, Gabriel Waksman, Steffen Backert
Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are versatile multiprotein nanomachines spanning the entire bacterial cell envelope in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They play important roles through the contact-dependent secretion of effector molecules into eukaryotic hosts and conjugative transfer of mobile DNA elements as well as contact-independent exchange of DNA with the extracellular milieu. In the last few years, many details on the molecular mechanisms of T4SSs have been elucidated. Exciting structures of T4SS complexes from Escherichia coli plasmids R388 and pKM101, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila have been solved...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229824/molecular-mechanism-for-the-subversion-of-the-retromer-coat-by-the-legionella-effector-ridl
#20
Miguel Romano-Moreno, Adriana L Rojas, Chad D Williamson, David C Gershlick, María Lucas, Michail N Isupov, Juan S Bonifacino, Matthias P Machner, Aitor Hierro
Microbial pathogens employ sophisticated virulence strategies to cause infections in humans. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila encodes RidL to hijack the host scaffold protein VPS29, a component of retromer and retriever complexes critical for endosomal cargo recycling. Here, we determined the crystal structure of L. pneumophila RidL in complex with the human VPS29-VPS35 retromer subcomplex. A hairpin loop protruding from RidL inserts into a conserved pocket on VPS29 that is also used by cellular ligands, such as Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 domain family member 5 (TBC1D5) and VPS9-ankyrin repeat protein for VPS29 binding...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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