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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317932/bacterial-secretion-system-skews-the-fate-of-legionella-containing-vacuoles-towards-lc3-associated-phagocytosis
#1
Andree Hubber, Tomoko Kubori, Cevayir Coban, Takeshi Matsuzawa, Michinaga Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Hiroki Nagai
The evolutionarily conserved processes of endosome-lysosome maturation and macroautophagy are established mechanisms that limit survival of intracellular bacteria. Similarly, another emerging mechanism is LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Here we report that an intracellular vacuolar pathogen, Legionella dumoffii, is specifically targeted by LAP over classical endocytic maturation and macroautophagy pathways. Upon infection, the majority of L. dumoffii resides in ER-like vacuoles and replicate within this niche, which involves inhibition of classical endosomal maturation...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296394/longitudinal-and-source-to-tap-new-orleans-la-usa-drinking-water-microbiology
#2
Natalie Marie Hull, Eric P Holinger, Kimberly A Ross, Charles E Robertson, J Kirk Harris, Mark J Stevens, Norman R Pace
The two municipal drinking water systems of New Orleans, LA, USA were sampled to compare microbiology of independent systems that treat the same surface water from the Mississippi River. To better understand temporal trends and sources of microbiology delivered to taps, these treatment plants and distribution systems were subjected to source-to-tap sampling over four years. Both plants employ traditional treatment by chloramination, applied during or after settling, followed by filtration before distribution in a warm, low water age system...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287548/legionella-pneumophila-outer-membrane-vesicles-isolation-and-analysis-of-their-pro-inflammatory-potential-on-macrophages
#3
Anna Lena Jung, Kerstin Hoffmann, Christina E Herkt, Christine Schulz, Wilhelm Bertrams, Bernd Schmeck
Bacteria are able to secrete a variety of molecules via various secretory systems. Besides the secretion of molecules into the extracellular space or directly into another cell, Gram-negative bacteria can also form outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). These membrane vesicles can deliver their cargo over long distances, and the cargo is protected from degradation by proteases and nucleases. Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is an intracellular, Gram-negative pathogen that causes a severe form of pneumonia. In humans, it infects alveolar macrophages, where it blocks lysosomal degradation and forms a specialized replication vacuole...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286615/detection-of-legionella-pneumophila-in-urine-and-serum-specimens-of-neutropenic-febrile-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#4
Nastaran Farzi, Zahra Abrehdari-Tafreshi, Omid Zarei, Leili Chamani-Tabriz
Background: Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is a gram-negative bacterium which causes ‎Legionnaires' disease as well as Pontiac fever. The Legionella infections in patients suffering from ‎neutropenia- as a common complication of cancer chemotherapy- can distribute rapidly. We ‎aimed to detect of L. pneumophila in haematological malignancy suffering patients with ‎neutropenic fever by targeting the (macrophage infectivity potentiator) mip gene. Subjects andMethods: Serum and ‎urine specimens were obtained from 80 patients and presence of mip gene of L...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285860/a-discussion-about-public-health-lead-and-legionella-pneumophila-in-drinking-water-supplies-in-the-united-states
#5
Michael B Rosen, Lok R Pokhrel, Mark H Weir
Lead (Pb) in public drinking water supplies has garnered much attention since the outset of the Flint water crisis. Pb is a known hazard in multiple environmental matrices, exposure from which results in long-term deleterious health effects in humans. This discussion paper aims to provide a succinct account of environmental Pb exposures with a focus on water Pb levels (WLLs) in the United States. It is understood that there is a strong correlation between WLLs and blood Pb levels (BLLs), and the associated health effects...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282040/impact-of-water-heater-temperature-setting-and-water-use-frequency-on-the-building-plumbing-microbiome
#6
Pan Ji, William J Rhoads, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Hot water plumbing is an important conduit of microbes into the indoor environment and can increase risk of opportunistic pathogens (for example, Legionella pneumophila). We examined the combined effects of water heater temperature (39, 42, 48, 51 and 58 °C), pipe orientation (upward/downward), and water use frequency (21, 3 and 1 flush per week) on the microbial composition at the tap using a pilot-scale pipe rig. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that bulk water and corresponding biofilm typically had distinct taxonomic compositions (R(2)Adonis=0...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267637/levofloxacin-versus-azithromycin-for-treating-legionella-pneumonia-a-propensity-score-analysis
#7
Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Irene Sanchez-Rodriguez, Antonella Francesca Simonetti, Joaquín Burgos, Diego Viasus, Maria Teresa Martin, Vicenç Falco, Jordi Carratalà
OBJECTIVES: Concerns have arisen regarding the equivalence of levofloxacin and some macrolides for treating community-acquired legionella pneumonia (LP). We aimed to compare the outcomes of current patients with LP treated with levofloxacin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. METHODS: Observational retrospective multicenter study of consecutive patients with LP requiring hospitalization (2000-2014) conducted in two hospitals. The primary outcome assessed was 30-day mortality...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264910/the-expanding-role-of-type-ii-secretion-in-bacterial-pathogenesis-and-beyond
#8
Nicholas P Cianciotto, Richard C White
Type II secretion (T2S) is one means by which Gram-negative pathogens secrete proteins into the extracellular milieu and/or host organisms. Based upon recent genome sequencing, it is clear that T2S is largely restricted to the Proteobacteria, occurring in many, but not all genera in the α-, β-, γ-, and δ- classes. Prominent human and/or animal pathogens that express a T2S system(s) include Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydia trachomatis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia enterocolitica T2S-expressing plant pathogens include Dickeya dadantii, Erwinia amylovora, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Xylella fastidiosa T2S also occurs in non-pathogenic bacteria, facilitating symbioses, among other things...
March 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264909/promotion-and-rescue-of-intracellular-brucella-neotomae-replication-during-co-infection-with-legionella-pneumophila
#9
Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
We established a new Brucella neotomaein vitro model system for study of type IV secretion system-dependent (T4SS) pathogenesis in the Brucella genus. Importantly, B. neotomae is a rodent pathogen and, unlike B. abortus, melitensis, and suis, has not been observed to infect humans. It therefore can be handled more facilely using biosafety level 2 practices. More particularly, using a series of novel fluorescent protein and lux operon reporter systems to differentially label pathogens and track intracellular replication, we confirmed T4SS-dependent intracellular growth of B...
March 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264171/role-of-the-luxr-family-transcriptional-regulator-lpg2524-in-the-survival-of-i-legionella-pneumophila-i-in-water
#10
Laam Li, Sébastien P Faucher
The water-borne Gram-negative bacterium <i>Legionella pneumophila</i> (<i>Lp</i>) is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. <i>Lp</i> is typically transmitted to human from water systems, where it grows inside amoebae. Survival of <i>Lp</i> in water is central to its transmission to humans. A transcriptomic study previously identified many genes induced by <i>Lp</i> in water. One of such gene, <i>lpg2524</i>, encodes a putative LuxR family transcriptional regulator...
March 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264165/from-source-to-filter-changes-in-bacterial-community-composition-during-potable-water-treatment
#11
Enisa Zanacic, Dena W McMartin, John Stavrinides
Rural communities rely on surface water reservoirs for potable water. Effective removal of chemical contaminants and bacterial pathogens from these reservoirs requires an understanding of the bacterial community diversity that is present. In this study, we carried out a 16S rRNA-based profiling approach to describe the bacterial consortia in the raw surface water entering the water treatment plants of two rural communities. Our results show that source water is dominated by the <i>Proteobacteria</i>, <i>Bacteroidetes</i>, and <i>Cyanobacteria </i>with some evidence of seasonal effects altering the predominant groups at each location...
March 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261625/isolation-and-identification-of-legionella-spp-from-different-aquatic-sources-in-south-west-of-iran-by-molecular-culture-methods
#12
Mohammad Tabatabaei, Zahra Hemati, Maryam-O-Sadat Moezzi, Negar Azimzadeh
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' diseases (LD) is usually transmitted to humans via inhalation of aerosols from contaminated natural and manmade water sources. These organisms may become fatal especially in immunocompromised patients and LD is the one of the important disease from a public health perspective. This survey investigated the frequency of Legionella spp. including L. pneumophila, in some cold and warm water systems in South-West of Iran by culture and PCR methods. Thirty four water samples were collected from diverse water supply systems...
December 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261564/legionella-pneumophila-strain-130b-evades-macrophage-cell-death-independent-of-the-effector-sidf-in-the-absence-of-flagellin
#13
Mary Speir, Adam Vogrin, Azadeh Seidi, Gilu Abraham, Stéphane Hunot, Qingqing Han, Gerald W Dorn, Seth L Masters, Richard A Flavell, James E Vince, Thomas Naderer
The human pathogen Legionella pneumophila must evade host cell death signaling to enable replication in lung macrophages and to cause disease. After bacterial growth, however, L. pneumophila is thought to induce apoptosis during egress from macrophages. The bacterial effector protein, SidF, has been shown to control host cell survival and death by inhibiting pro-apoptotic BNIP3 and BCL-RAMBO signaling. Using live-cell imaging to follow the L. pneumophila-macrophage interaction, we now demonstrate that L. pneumophila evades host cell apoptosis independent of SidF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259636/the-typical-presentation-of-an-atypical-pathogen-during-an-outbreak-of-legionnaires-disease-in-vila-franca-de-xira-portugal-2014
#14
A Dias, A Cysneiros, F T Lopes, B von Amann, C Costa, P Dionísio, J Carvalho, V Durão, G Carvalho, F Paula, M Serrado, B Nunes, T Marques, F Froes, C Bárbara
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, with 403 cases was identified on the 7th November 2014 in Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal. Outbreak source was the wet cooling system of a local factory. Hospital Pulido Valente was one of the hospitals receiving patients with Legionnaires' disease (LD). METHODS: We describe the clinical findings and diagnostic methods used among the 43 confirmed or probable cases admitted to our department. RESULTS: 60...
March 1, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259635/characterization-of-the-cryptic-plasmid-pofk55-from-legionella-pneumophila-and-construction-of-a-pofk55-derived-shuttle-vector
#15
Takashi Nishida, Kenta Watanabe, Masato Tachibana, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
In this study, a cryptic plasmid pOfk55 from Legionella pneumophila was isolated and characterized. pOfk55 comprised 2584bp with a GC content of 37.3% and contained three putative open reading frames (ORFs). orf1 encoded a protein of 195 amino acids and the putative protein shared 39% sequence identity with a putative plasmid replication protein RepL. ORF1 was needed for replication in L. pneumophila but pOfk55 did not replicate in Escherichia coli. orf2 and orf3 encoded putative hypothetical proteins of 114 amino acids and 78 amino acids, respectively, but the functions of the putative proteins ORF2 and OFR3 are not clear...
March 1, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257493/seeing-red-the-development-of-pon-mcherry-a-broad-host-range-constitutive-expression-plasmid-for-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
Michael J Gebhardt, Rachael K Jacobson, Howard A Shuman
The development of plasmid-mediated gene expression control in bacteria revolutionized the field of bacteriology. Many of these expression control systems rely on the addition of small molecules, generally metabolites or non-metabolized analogs thereof, to the growth medium to induce expression of the genes of interest. The paradigmatic example of an expression control system is the lac system from Escherichia coli, which typically relies on the Ptac promoter and the Lac repressor, LacI. In many cases, however, constitutive gene expression is desired, and other experimental approaches require the coordinated control of multiple genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251179/fluorocycline-tp-271-is-potent-against-complicated-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-pathogens
#17
Trudy H Grossman, Corey Fyfe, William O'Brien, Meredith Hackel, Mary Beth Minyard, Ken B Waites, Jacques Dubois, Timothy M Murphy, Andrew M Slee, William J Weiss, Joyce A Sutcliffe
TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250292/discrimination-between-legionnaires-disease-and-pneumococcal-pneumonia-based-on-the-clinical-and-laboratory-features-a-quantitative-approach-using-the-modified-winthrop-university-hospital-weighted-point-system
#18
Hiroki Yamakuchi, Yohei Hamada, Tosiharu Urakami, Yosuke Aoki
Objective Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a common form of lobar pneumonia, but the optimum diagnostic modality has long been a subject of debate due to incomplete sensitivity and specificity. A delay in the initiation of specific therapy for LD is associated with increased mortality. The decision to treat a patient for Legionella must be made quickly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the modified Winthrop-University Hospital WUH system to identify LD while discriminating against pneumococcal pneumonia at the time of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245548/high-prevalence-and-genetic-polymorphisms-of-legionella-in-natural-and-man-made-aquatic-environments-in-wenzhou-china
#19
Leyi Zhang, Yi Li, Xin Wang, Zhihui Shangguan, Haijian Zhou, Yuejin Wu, Lianghuai Wang, Hongyu Ren, Yun Hu, Meifen Lin, Tian Qin
Natural and engineered water systems are the main sources of Legionnaires' disease. It is essential from a public health perspective to survey water environments for the existence of Legionella. To analyze the main serogroups, genotypes and pathogenicity of the pathogen, a stratified sampling method was adopted to collect water samples randomly from shower water, cooling tower water, and local public hot springs in Wenzhou, China. Suspected strains were isolated from concentrated water samples. Serum agglutination assay and real-time PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) were used to identify L...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241513/simultaneous-detection-of-nine-key-bacterial-respiratory-pathogens-using-luminex-xtag-%C3%A2-technology
#20
Luxi Jiang, Hongyu Ren, Haijian Zhou, Tian Qin, Yu Chen
Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the outcome of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). In this study, we developed an assay combining multiplex PCR and Luminex technology (MPLT) for the detection of nine important respiratory bacterial pathogens, which frequently cause LRTIs. These were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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