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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922840/quantification-of-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-c58-attachment-to-arabidopsis-thaliana-roots
#1
Anna Petrovicheva, Jessica Joyner, Theodore R Muth
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease and is a vector for DNA transfer in transgenic plants. The transformation process by A. tumefaciens has been widely studied, but the attachment stage has not been well characterized. Most measurements of attachment have used microscopy and colony counting, both of which are labor and time intensive. To reduce the time and effort required to analyze bacteria attaching to plant tissues, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to quantify attached A...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922801/effect-of-severe-weather-events-on-the-shedding-of-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-slaughter-cattle-and-phenotype-of-serogroup-o157-isolates
#2
Kim Stanford, Tim Reuter, Susan J Bach, Linda Chui, Angela Ma, Cheyenne C Conrad, Renata Tostes, Tim A McAllister
High-event periods (HEPs) occur sporadically when beef carcasses and meat have episodes of acute contamination with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, severe weather events were investigated as catalysts for HEPs based on PCR and isolate prevalence of seven E. coli serogroups in slaughter cattle feces. Winter ambient temperatures with daily means 10.5oC warmer or 12.3°C colder than seasonal norms (-10.4°C) most altered STEC shedding. Fecal samples yielded increased proportions (P < 0...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922635/fucoidan-coated-ciprofloxacin-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-intracellular-and-biofilm-infections-of-salmonella
#3
Elbi S, Nimal T R, Rajan V K, Gaurav Baranwal, Raja Biswas, Jayakumar R, Sathianarayanan S
Salmonella infections and their gallstone associated biofilm infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of antibiotics into the intracellular compartments of macrophages and within biofilms. Here we developed ciprofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (cCNPs) and fucoidan (Fu) coated cCNPs (Fu-cCNPs). Characterizations of these nanoparticles were carried out using Dynamic Light Scattering‎, Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The prepared cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs have the size range of 124±7nm and 320±18nm, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922631/surface-modification-of-platelet-concentrate-bags-to-reduce-biofilm-formation-and-transfusion-sepsis
#4
Joels S T Wilson-Nieuwenhuis, Nina Dempsey-Hibbert, Christopher M Liauw, Kathryn A Whitehead
Bacterial contamination of blood products poses a major risk in transfusion medicine, including transfusions involving platelet products. Although testing systems are in place for routine screening of platelet units, the formation of bacterial biofilms in such units may decrease the likelihood that bacteria will be detected. This work determined the surface properties of p-PVC platelet concentrate bags and investigated how these characteristics influenced biofilm formation. Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two species commonly implicated in platelet contamination, were used to study biofilm growth...
September 7, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922615/the-impact-of-incorporating-antimicrobials-into-implant-surfaces
#5
N J Hickok, I M Shapiro, A F Chen
With the increase in numbers of joint replacements, spinal surgeries, and dental implantations, there is an urgent need to combat implant-associated infection. In addition to stringent sterile techniques, an efficacious way to prevent this destructive complication is to create new implants with antimicrobial properties. Specifically, these implants must be active in the dental implant environment where the implant is bathed in the glycoprotein-rich salivary fluids that enhance bacterial adhesion, and propagation, and biofilm formation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922597/core-shell-silver-nanoparticles-in-endodontic-disinfection-solutions-enable-long-term-antimicrobial-effect-on-oral-biofilms
#6
Elif Ertem Bekdemir, Beatrice Gutt, Flavia Zuber, Sergio Allegri, Benjamin Le Ouay, Selma Mefti, Kitty Formentin, Francesco Stellacci, Qun Ren
To achieve effective long-term disinfection of the root canals, we synthesized core-shell silver nanoparticles (AgNPs@SiO2) and used them to develop two irrigation solutions containing sodium phytate (SP) and ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), respectively. Ex vivo studies with instrumented root canals revealed that the developed irrigation solutions can effectively remove the smear layer from the dentinal surfaces. Further in vitro experiments with single and multi-species biofilms demonstrated for the first time that AgNPs@SiO2 based irrigation solutions possess excellent antimicrobial activities for at least 7 days, whereas the bare AgNPs lose the activity almost immediately and do not show any antibacterial activity after 2 days...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922066/the-effect-of-lysozyme-on-reducing-biofilms-by-staphylococcus-aureus-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-gardnerella-vaginalis-an-in-vitro-examination
#7
Mirsada Hukić, Dzenita Seljmo, Amra Ramovic, Monia Avdić Ibrišimović, Serkan Dogan, Jasna Hukic, Elma Feric Bojic
Two basic questions about lysozyme activities on the selected microorganisms were investigated, namely whether lysozyme inhibits biofilm production and which concentrations of the enzyme have the ability to change the natural biofilm producing capacity of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Gardnerella vaginalis. The effect of lysozyme on biofilm formation capacities of 16 strains of selected microorganisms was investigated, whereby four testing replicates have been performed in vitro using the Test Tube method, and the potential of lysozyme to change biofilm forming capacities depending on its concentration, species, and strains of microorganisms is demonstrated...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922057/the-dietary-food-components-capric-acid-and-caprylic-acid-inhibit-virulence-factors-in-candida-albicans-through-multitargeting
#8
Ashwini Jadhav, Supriya Mortale, Shivkrupa Halbandge, Priyanka Jangid, Rajendra Patil, Wasudev Gade, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Capric acid and caprylic acid are the dietary food components. They are found to inhibit the virulence factors like morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation in the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Our study demonstrated that yeast-to-hyphal signal transduction pathways were affected by capric acid and caprylic acid. The expression profile of genes associated with serum-induced morphogenesis showed reduced expressions of Cdc35, Hwp1, Hst7, and Cph1 by the treatment with both the fatty acids. Cell elongation gene, Ece1, was surprisingly downregulated by 5208-fold by the treatment of caprylic acid...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#9
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921046/competition-for-electrons-between-pyridine-and-quinoline-during-their-simultaneous-biodegradation
#10
Hua Xu, Weihua Sun, Ning Yan, Danni Li, Xueqi Wang, Tingting Yu, Yongming Zhang, Bruce E Rittmann
Biodegradation of pyridine and quinoline is initiated with mono-oxygenation reactions that require an intracellular electron donor. Simultaneous biodegradation of both substrates should set up competition for the intracellular electron donor that may inhibit one or more of the mono-oxygenation steps. An internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor (ICBBR) was used to evaluate the impacts of competition during pyridine and quinoline biodegradation. Compared with independent biodegradation, pyridine and quinoline removal rates were slowed when biodegraded simultaneously, although the pyridine removal rate decreased more than for quinoline...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920972/-a-phd-completed-prevention-and-treatment-of-peri-implant-diseases-cleaning-of-titanium-dental-implant-surfaces
#11
A Louropoulou
The effect of various instruments on titanium dental implant surfaces was evaluated. Furthermore, a clinical guideline was developed regarding the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases. Air abrasive devices appear to be the most suitable meachnical instruments to remove biofilm from implant surfaces. From the available chemotherapeutica, (citric)acid and hydrogen peroxide seem to have the best potential. Regular controls and meticulous maintenance from both the patients and dental care professionals are mandatory to avoid problems...
September 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920437/real-time-metabolic-interactions-between-two-bacterial-species-using-a-carbon-based-ph-microsensor-as-a-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy-secm-probe
#12
Vrushali Subhash Joshi, Partha Sarathi Sheet, Nyssa Cullin, Jens Kreth, Dipankar Koley
We have developed a carbon-based, fast-response potentiometric pH microsensor for use as a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) chemical probe to quantitatively map the microbial metabolic exchange between two bacterial species, commensal Streptococcus gordonii and pathogenic Streptococcus mutans. The 25-μm diameter H+ ion-selective microelectrode or pH microprobe showed a Nernstian slope of 59 mV/pH and high selectivity against major ions such Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition, the unique conductive membrane composition aided us in performing an amperometric approach curve to position the probe and obtain a high-resolution pH map of the microenvironment produced by the lactate-producing S...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920144/effects-of-caatinga-plant-extracts-in-planktonic-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#13
Carolina Barbosa Malafaia, Ana Cláudia Silva Jardelino, Alexandre Gomes Silva, Elineide Barbosa de Souza, Alexandre José Macedo, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Márcia Vanusa Silva
This study describes the first antibiofilm and antibacterial screening for plants from Caatinga against Ralstonia solanacearum, a causal agent of bacterial wilt that presents serious difficulties in control. There were prepared 22 aqueous extracts of plants collected in the Vale do Catimbau-PE, Brazil. The potential antibacterial activity was evaluated by absorbance in OD600 and the antibiofilm activity through the crystal violet method, both of them performed in microplate against isolates of R. solanacearum biofilm formers...
September 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919715/in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-of-magnolol-against-candida-spp
#14
Peiru Zhou, Jingya Fu, Hong Hua, Xiaosong Liu
Candida spp. cause various infections involving the skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and even life-threatening candidemia. They are regarded as an important pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate. As a result of prolonged exposure to azoles, the therapeutic failure associated with azoles resistance has become a serious challenge in clinical situations. Therefore, novel, alternative antifungals are required urgently. In the present study, the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method and the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay were used to evaluate the antifungal effects of magnolol against various standard Candida strains in planktonic mode and biofilm formation, respectively...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919413/apolipoprotein-a-i-attenuates-ll-37-induced-endothelial-cell-cytotoxicity
#15
Daniel Svensson, Jens O Lagerstedt, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Rita Del Giudice
The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has antimicrobial and anti-biofilm functions, but LL-37 may also damage the host by triggering inflammation and exerting a cytotoxic effect, thereby reducing host cell viability. Human plasma mitigates LL-37-induced host cell cytotoxicity but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a plasma protein endowed with atheroprotective effects. Here, we investigate the interaction between ApoA-I and LL-37 by biochemical techniques, and furthermore assess if ApoA-I protects against LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919385/influences-of-ammonium-and-phosphate-stimulation-on-metalworking-fluid-biofilm-reactor-development-and-performance
#16
Shivashkar Singh, Lakshmi Manjoosha Adapa, Nicholas Hankins
In this study, the effects of common wastewater stimulants, namely NH4Cl and KH2PO4, on the development and performance of metalworking fluid biofilm bioreactors are presented. It is shown that biofilms flourished only when one of these components was present in limiting quantities. Biofilm yields significantly declined when both of the components were withheld from the bioreactors or when both components were provided in excess. Stimulations to the reactors using NH4Cl significantly reduced the total carbon removal performance, while stimulations using KH2PO4 resulted in significant increases in performance...
September 12, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919336/staphylococcus-aureus-dry-surface-biofilms-are-more-resistant-to-heat-treatment-than-traditional-hydrated-biofilms
#17
A Almatroudi, S Tahir, H Hu, D Chowdhury, I B Gosbell, S O Jensen, G S Whiteley, A K Deva, T Glasbey, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: The importance of biofilms to clinical practice is being increasingly realised. Biofilm tolerance to antibiotics is well described but limited work has been conducted on the efficacy of heat disinfection and sterilization against biofilms. AIM: To test the susceptibility of planktonic, hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm forms of Staphylococcus aureus, to dry heat and wet heat treatments. METHODS: S. aureus was grown as both hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm in the CDC biofilm generator...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919044/susceptibility-of-colistin-resistant-pathogens-to-predatory-bacteria
#18
Sonal Dharani, Dong Hyun Kim, Robert M Q Shanks, Yohei Doi, Daniel E Kadouri
The increase in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections has forced the reintroduction of antibiotics such as colistin. However, the spread of plasmid-borne mcr-1 colistin resistance genes have moved us closer to an era of untreatable Gram-negative infections. To evaluate whether predatory bacteria could be used as a potential therapeutic to treat this upcoming threat, the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus to prey on several clinically relevant mcr-1-positive, colistin-resistant isolates was evaluated...
September 14, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918989/improper-positioning-of-the-elevator-lever-of-duodenoscopes-may-lead-to-sequestered-bacteria-that-survive-disinfection-by-automated-endoscope-reprocessors
#19
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Donald R Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
BACKGROUND: Some outbreaks associated with contaminated duodenoscopes have been attributed to biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria within an organic matrix could survive if the elevator lever was improperly positioned in the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) after 1 round of reprocessing. METHODS: Duodenoscope lever cavities with an open or sealed elevator wire channel were inoculated with 6-7 Log10 of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in ATS2015 (Healthmark Industries, Fraser, MI) and dried for 2 hours...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918080/the-tail-of-two-models-impact-of-circularity-and-biomass-non-homogeneity-on-uv-disinfection-of-wastewater-flocs
#20
Y Azimi, Y Liu, T C Tan, D G Allen, R R Farnood
The effects of floc structural characteristics, i.e. shape and dense biomass distribution, were evaluated on ultraviolet (UV) disinfection resistance, represented by the tailing level of the UV dose response curve (DRC). Ellipsoid-shaped flocs of similar volume and different projected circularities were constructed in-silico and a mathematical model was developed to compare their UV DRC tailing levels (indicative of UV-resistance). It was found that floc shape can significantly influence tailing level, and rounder flocs (i...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
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