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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156876/the-comparison-of-various-disinfectants-efficacy-on-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-layers
#1
Hatice Köse, Nur Yapar
Background/aim: Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics and biocides, they usually cause chronic persistent infections, which are arduous to cure and have high mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the efficiency of orthophthalaldehyde, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm layers and live microbial cells. Materials and methods: Biofilm layers were determined by crystal violet assay and live microbial cells were determined using a resazurin assay...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156630/anti-bacteria-and-microecosystem-regulating-effects-of-dental-implant-coated-with-dimethylaminododecyl-methacrylate
#2
Bolei Li, Yang Ge, Yao Wu, Jing Chen, Hockin H K Xu, Minggang Yang, Mingyun Li, Biao Ren, Mingye Feng, Michael D Weir, Xian Peng, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou
The effects of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) modified titanium implants on bacterial activity and microbial ecosystem of saliva-derived biofilm were investigated for the first time. Titanium discs were coated with DMADDM solutions at mass fractions of 0 mg/mL (control), 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. Biomass accumulation and metabolic activity of biofilms were tested using crystal violet assay and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to measure the microbial community...
November 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156392/biofilms-as-a-sink-for-antibiotic-resistance-genes-args-in-the-yangtze-estuary
#3
Xing-Pan Guo, Yi Yang, Da-Pei Lu, Zuo-Shun Niu, Jing-Nan Feng, Yu-Ru Chen, Fei-Yun Tou, Emily Garner, Jiang Xu, Min Liu, Michael F Hochella
Biofilms are ubiquitous throughout aquatic environments and they are thought to promote the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). This study focused on the occurrence and distribution of five types of ARG in naturally-occurring biofilms, in comparison to associated sediment and water samples, from the Yangtze Estuary, which borders the meta-city of Shanghai, China. The detection frequency and abundances of most ARGs showed the following order: biofilm > sediment > water, which can be attributed to a high level of antibiotics and metals that can accelerate the generation and propagation of ARGs in biofilms...
November 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156349/biopolymer-gelatin-coated-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-showed-high-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-anti-angiogenic-activity
#4
Mani Divya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Muthukumar Abinaya, Sekar Vijayakumar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The use of natural polymers in drug design plays an important role in biomedical applications. Combinations of nanoparticles (NPs) and biopolymers have been shown to be useful for many purposes. This study focused on gelatin-coated zinc oxide NPs synthesized by co-precipitation. The particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, showing a main peak at 375nm. The stability and crystalline nature of the particles was evaluated by Zeta potential and X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the possible functional groups of Ge-ZnO NPs, with strong bands at 3851, 3447, and 2923cm(-1)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156005/abiofilm-a-resource-of-anti-biofilm-agents-and-their-potential-implications-in-targeting-antibiotic-drug-resistance
#5
Akanksha Rajput, Anamika Thakur, Shivangi Sharma, Manoj Kumar
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic drug resistance, which is threatening public health globally. Almost, all microbes mimic multicellular lifestyle to form biofilm by undergoing phenotypic changes to adapt adverse environmental conditions. Many anti-biofilm agents have been experimentally validated to disrupt the biofilms during last three decades. To organize this data, we developed the 'aBiofilm' resource (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/abiofilm/) that harbors a database, a predictor, and the data visualization modules...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155834/measuring-the-microbiome-of-chronic-wounds-with-use-of-a-topical-antimicrobial-dressing-a-feasibility-study
#6
Lindsay Kalan, Mi Zhou, Michele Labbie, Benjamin Willing
BACKGROUND: Polymicrobial communities colonize all wounds, and biofilms are hypothesized to be a key link to the chronic state and stalled healing. Molecular methods offer greater insight when studying microbial ecology in chronic wounds, as only a small fraction of wound bacteria are cultured by currently available methods and studies have shown little agreement between culture and molecular based approaches. Some interventions, like dressings with oxidized silver, are reported to help the stalled wounds move to a normal healing trajectory but the underlying mechanisms are difficult to measure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155399/green-synthesis-of-anisotropic-gold-nanoparticles-using-hordenine-and-their-antibiofilm-efficacy-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Jobina Rajkumari, Himani Meena, Muralitharan Gangatharan, Siddhardha Busi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a notorious pathogen that causes biofilm aided infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and burn wounds, resulting in significant mortality in immunocompromised individuals. This study reports a novel one-step biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using phytocompound, hordenine (HD), as a reducing and capping agent. The synthesis of the anisotropic hordenine-fabricated gold nanoparticles (HD-AuNPs) with an average particle size of 136.87 nm was achieved within 12 h of incubation at room temperature...
December 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155125/virulence-characteristics-and-molecular-relatedness-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-harboring-different-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec
#8
Rana El-Baz, Dina E Rizk, Rasha Barwa, Ramadan Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a versatile pathogen capable of causing multitude of human diseases. It is one of the most important nosocomial pathogen that implicated in community and healthcare associated infections. Therefore, this study aims to characterize different SCCmec elements found in MRSA isolates. Moreover, molecular typing were performed to investigate the genetic relatedness among MRSA isolates. METHODS: Phenotypic identification of MRSA was done by disc diffusion method...
November 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154214/ennoblement-corrosion-and-biofouling-in-brackish-seawater-comparison-between-six-stainless-steel-grades
#9
E Huttunen-Saarivirta, P Rajala, M Marja-Aho, J Maukonen, E Sohlberg, L Carpén
In this work, six common stainless steel grades were compared with respect to ennoblement characteristics, corrosion performance and tendency to biofouling in brackish sea water in a pilot-scale cooling water circuit. Two tests were performed, each employing three test materials, until differences between the materials were detected. Open circuit potential (OCP) was measured continuously in situ. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted before and after the tests...
November 5, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154092/anoxic-biodegradation-of-triclosan-and-the-removal-of-its-antimicrobial-effect-in-microbial-fuel-cells
#10
Lu Wang, Yulei Liu, Chao Wang, Xiaodan Zhao, Gurumurthy Dummi Mahadeva, Yicheng Wu, Jun Ma, Feng Zhao
Triclosan (TCS) is an emerging organic contaminant in the environment. Here, the anoxic bio-degradation of TCS in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was explored. It was found that anoxic biodegradation of TCS could be achieved in MFC, and the removal rate of TCS was accelerated after reactor acclimation. After 7 months of operation, 10mg/L TCS could be removed within 8days in MFCs. Fluorescence microscopy results revealed that the microbe cells in the reactors were intact, and the microbes were in active state. Flow cytometry test showed that the proliferation of inoculated microbe was higher in MFC effluent than that in TCS solution...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154004/influence-of-glass-wool-as-separator-on-bioelectricity-generation-in-a-constructed-wetland-microbial-fuel-cell
#11
Lei Xu, Yaqian Zhao, Cheng Tang, Liam Doherty
To figure out the impact of the separator on the electrical performance of the newly established constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC), two parallel upflow CW-MFC systems, with and without glass wool (GW), were set up in this study. System performances in terms of bioelectricity production were monitored for more than 4 months. Results showed that the highest voltage was achieved in non-separator (NS) system (465.7 ± 4.2 mV with electrode spacing of 5 cm), which is 48.9% higher than the highest value generated in GW system (312 ± 7...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153733/antibacterial-activity-of-endodontic-sealers-against-planktonic-bacteria-and-bacteria-in-biofilms
#12
Vasileios Kapralos, Andreas Koutroulis, Dag Ørstavik, Pia Titterud Sunde, Håkon Valen Rukke
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of 4 endodontic sealers against bacteria planktonic grown or in biofilms commonly detected from persistent and secondary endodontic infections. METHODS: The antibacterial activity of the sealers AH Plus, TotalFill BC sealer, RoekoSeal, and Guttaflow 2 was investigated for planktonic grown and 24-hour-old biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153513/biofilm-formation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-dairy-isolates-representing-different-genotypes
#13
E Thiran, P A Di Ciccio, H U Graber, E Zanardi, A Ianieri, J Hummerjohann
The objective of this study was to compare the biofilm-forming capabilities of different genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus dairy isolates from Switzerland and northern Italy, including Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA). We hypothesized that biofilm formation might be more pronounced in the contagious GTB isolates compared with other genotypes affecting individual animals. Twenty-four dairy isolates, including 9 MRSA, were further characterized by genotyping by using ribosomal spacer PCR, spa typing, biofilm formation under static and dynamic conditions, and scanning electron microscopy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153063/-investigation-of-various-virulence-factors-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-nosocomial-infections
#14
Halit Kuş, Uğur Arslan, Hatice Türk Dağı, Duygu Fındık
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly affects immunosuppressed patients and causes nosocomial infections. K.pneumoniae has a variety of virulence factors, especially capsule polysaccharide, hypermucoviscosity (HV), fimbriae, toxins and determinants for iron acquisition. The aim of this study was to detect the virulence factors in K.pneumoniae strains isolated from nosocomial infections in two years. Fifty three K.pneumoniae strains isolated from the samples of patients with nosocomial infections in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152799/molecular-basis-for-the-differential-expression-of-the-global-regulator-viea-in-vibrio-cholerae-biotypes-directed-by-h-ns-leuo-and-quorum-sensing
#15
Julio C Ayala, Hongxia Wang, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
VieA is a cyclic diguanylate phosphodiesterase that modulates biofilm development and motility in Vibrio cholerae O1 of the classical biotype. vieA is part of an operon encoding the VieSAB signal transduction pathway that is nearly silent in V. cholerae of the El Tor biotype. A DNA pull-down assay for proteins interacting with the vieSAB promoter identified the LysR-type regulator LeuO. We show that in classical biotype V. cholerae, LeuO cooperates with the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS to repress vieSAB transcription...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152581/the-candida-albicans-tor-activating-gtpases-gtr1-and-rhb1-coregulate-starvation-responses-and-biofilm-formation
#16
Peter R Flanagan, Ning-Ning Liu, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Karsten Hokamp, Julia R Köhler, Gary P Moran
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an essential regulator of metabolism in eukaryotic cells and in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates morphogenesis and nitrogen acquisition. Gtr1 encodes a highly conserved GTPase that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates nitrogen sensing and TORC1 activation. Here, we characterize the role of C. albicans GTR1 in TORC1 activation and compare it with the previously characterized GTPase Rhb1. A homozygous gtr1/gtr1 mutant exhibited impaired TORC1-mediated phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and increased susceptibility to rapamycin...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152579/streptococcus-pneumoniae-tigr4-phase-locked-opacity-variants-differ-in-virulence-phenotypes
#17
Melissa B Oliver, Ankita Basu Roy, Ranjit Kumar, Elliot J Lefkowitz, W Edward Swords
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading human pathogen that can cause serious localized and invasive diseases. Pneumococci can undergo a spontaneous and reversible phase variation that is reflected in colony opacity and which allows the population to adapt to different host environments. Generally, transparent variants are adapted for nasopharyngeal colonization, whereas opaque variants are associated with invasive disease. In recent work, colony phase variation was shown to occur by means of recombination events to generate multiple alleles of the hsdS targeting domain of a DNA methylase complex, which mediates epigenetic changes in gene expression...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152577/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-plays-dual-role-in-host-pathogen-interactions
#18
Jeffrey A Melvin, Jordan R Gaston, Shawn N Phillips, Michael J Springer, Christopher W Marshall, Robert M Q Shanks, Jennifer M Bomberger
Microorganisms exist in a diverse ecosystem and have evolved many different mechanisms for sensing and influencing the polymicrobial environment around them, utilizing both diffusible and contact-dependent signals. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is one such communication system employed by Gram-negative bacteria. In addition to CDI mediation of growth inhibition, recent studies have demonstrated CDI-mediated control of communal behaviors such as biofilm formation. We postulated that CDI may therefore play an active role in host-pathogen interactions, allowing invading strains to establish themselves at polymicrobial mucosal interfaces through competitive interactions while simultaneously facilitating pathogenic capabilities via CDI-mediated signaling...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152103/myxinidin2-and-myxinidin3-suppress-inflammatory-responses-through-stat3-and-mapks-to-promote-wound-healing
#19
Hyo Mi Han, Sujin Ko, Min-Ju Cheong, Jeong Kyu Bang, Chang Ho Seo, Tudor Luchian, Yoonkyung Park
Skin wounds are continuously exposed to bacteria and can easily become infected. Infected wounds require antibiotic treatment, and infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are an important public health problem. Antimicrobial peptides have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, induce little or no drug resistance and may be suitable for treating skin infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. We previously reported the design and function of myxinidin and myxinidin analogues. Here we showed that myxinidin2 and myxinidin3 exhibit antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in high salt environments and in gelatin...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151921/linking-gut-microbiota-to-colorectal-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Hans Raskov, Jakob Burcharth, Hans-Christian Pommergaard
Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota and probiotics on chemotherapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
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