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G Aboagye, M T Rowe
The recovery of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) from the environment can be a laborious process - owing to Map being fastidious, its low number, and also high numbers of other microbial populations in such settings. Protocols i.e. filtration, decontamination and modified elution were devised to recover Map from spiked water sediments. Three culture media: Herrold's Egg Yolk Media (HEYM), Middlebrook 7H10 (M-7H10) and Bactec 12B were then employed to grow the organism following its elution...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Bruna Fuga Araújo, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Sabrina Royer, Paola Amaral Campos, Luiz Gustavo Machado, Deivid William Fonseca Batistão, Cristiane Silveira Brito, Paulo P Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
Carbapenemase-producing organisms are pandemic and a significant threat to public health. We investigated the clonal relatedness of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemase (KPC-KP) causing subsequent infections or colonization. Moreover, we aimed to gain insight into the ability of biofilm production in K. pneumoniae strains producing carbapenemase. Twenty-two consecutive KPC-KP and one KPC-negative strain was identified from an adult intensive care unit in Brazil. Seventy-five percent of isolates that harbored the blaKPC gene exhibited genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and none presented the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 and blaNDM genes...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Ashwin Ambi, Carolina Vera, Nisharg Parikh, Naidel Perez, Anthony Lopez Rojas, Sanket Kumar, Christopher Stradford, Katherine Borbon, Julia Bryan, Christian Traba
The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of propolis have been intensively reported. However, the application of this folk remedy as a means to prevent biomedical implant contamination has yet to be completely evaluated. In response to the significant resistant and infectious attributes of biofilms, biomaterials engineered to possess specific chemical and physical properties were immobilized with metal free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE), a known antibacterial agent. The results obtained from this study begin to examine the application of MFRPEE as a novel alternative method for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant infections...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
Jianing Geng, Szu-Chuan Huang, Yueh-Ying Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Songnian Hu, Yi-Ywan M Chen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius is an abundant isolate of the human oral microbiota. Since both pH and glucose availability fluctuate frequently in the oral cavity, the goal of this study was to investigate regulation by CodY, a conserved pleiotropic regulator of Gram positive bacteria, in response to these two signals. The chemostat culture system was employed to precisely control the growth parameters, and the transcriptomes of wild-type S. salivarius 57.I and its CodY-null derivative (ΔcodY) grown at pH 7 and 5...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Chen Cai, Shihu Hu, Xueming Chen, Bing-Jie Ni, Jiaoyang Pu, Zhiguo Yuan
Complete nitrogen removal has recently been demonstrated by integrating anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes. In this work, the effect of methane partial pressure on the performance of a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) consisting of DAMO and anammox microorganisms was evaluated. The activities of DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria in the biofilm increased significantly with increased methane partial pressure, from 367 ± 9 and 58 ± 22 mg-N L-1 d-1 to 580 ± 12 and 222 ± 22 mg-N L-1 d-1 , respectively, while the activity of anammox bacteria only increased slightly, when the methane partial pressure was elevated from 0...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Blandine David, Marie-Clémence Duchêne, Gabrielle Laurie Haustenne, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier, Xavier De Bolle, Eric Guédon, Pascal Hols, Bernard Hallet
Lactococcus lactis is an ovoid bacterium that forms filaments during planktonic and biofilm lifestyles by uncoupling cell division from cell elongation. In this work, we investigate the role of the leading peptidoglycan synthase PBP2b that is dedicated to cell elongation in ovococci. We show that the localization of a fluorescent derivative of PBP2b remains associated to the septal region and superimposed with structural changes of FtsZ during both vegetative growth and filamentation indicating that PBP2b remains intimately associated to the division machinery during the whole cell cycle...
2018: PloS One
Carolina N F Arruda, Marcela M Salles, Maurício M Badaró, Danilo B Sorgini, Viviane C Oliveira, Ana P Macedo, Cláudia H Silva-Lovato, Helena F O Paranhos
PURPOSE: To verify whether 0.1% and 0.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and 8% Ricinus communis (RC) were able to remove denture biofilm without causing deleterious effects to acrylic resin. BACKGROUND: Previous data show that denture cleansers are effective in reducing biofilm; however, they can change acrylic resin properties. METHODS: In a crossover trial, 47 denture wearers brushed and soaked their dentures (20 min/14 d): control, 0.85% saline; SH1, 0...
May 23, 2018: Gerodontology
Gujie Mi, Di Shi, Mian Wang, Thomas J Webster
With the rapid spreading of resistance among common bacterial pathogens, bacterial infections, especially antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, have drawn much attention worldwide. In light of this, nanoparticles, including metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, liposomes, polymersomes, and solid lipid nanoparticles, have been increasingly exploited as both efficient antimicrobials themselves or as delivery platforms to enhance the effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In addition to the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, of equal concern are implantable device-associated infections, which result from bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation at the site of implantation...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
A I Perfileva, O M Tsivileva, Ya B Drevko, D N Ibragimova, O V Koftin
The impact of selenium biocomposites obtained from the medicinal macrobasidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola umbellata, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on the viability and biofilm formation capability of the phytopathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Spieck. et Kotth.) (Cms) was studied. Impairment of bacterial cell viability resulting from their incubation with biocomposites was shown. The decisive role of the composites' selenium component on the biological activity under question was established...
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Bo Huang, Dennis G Cvitkovitch, J Paul Santerre, Yoav Finer
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of simulated human salivary esterases (SHSE) and metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibition on the integrity of restoration-tooth interfaces made from traditional or polyacid-modified resin composites bonded to human dentin by either total-etch or self-etch adhesives. METHODS: Resin-dentin specimens, made from traditional (Z250) or polyacid-modified (Dyract-eXtra) composites were bonded to human dentin using total-etch (TE-Scotchbond) or self-etch (SE-EasyBond) adhesives...
May 19, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Luiza Helena S Almeida, Rafael R Moraes, Renata D Morgental, Sérgio S Cava, Wellington Luiz O Rosa, Patrícia Rodrigues, Anderson S Ribeiro, Marcus Só, Fernanda G Pappen
OBJECTIVE: To synthetize calcium aluminate (C3A) and silver-containing C3A particles (C3A+Ag) testing their effects on the properties of a MTA-based endodontic sealer in comparison to an epoxy resin- and a calcium silicate-based sealer. METHODS: Pure C3A and C3A+Ag particles were synthesized by a chemical method and characterized using XRD to identify crystalline phases. SEM/EDS analysis investigated morphology, particle size, and elemental composition of particles...
May 19, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Jia-Yi Cai, Yong-Na Hou, Jian Li, Kai Ma, Guo-Dong Yao, Wei-Wei Liu, Toshihiko Hayashi, Kikuji Itoh, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
PGE2 is found to attenuate the bactericidal effects of kanamycin or ampicillin in Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Co-treatment with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors (celecoxib, aspirin or naproxen) synergistically enhances kanamycin or ampicillin-induced cell death of S. aureus and MRSA. COX inhibitors repressed bacterial multidrug resistance through down-regulating efflux pump activity in antibiotics-treated S. aureus and MRSA. However, this synergistic bactericidal effects are reduced by the treatment with PGE2...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Kate Cristina Blanco, Amanda C Zangirolami, Natalia M Inada, Vanderlei S Bagnato
Hospital infections is a public health problem that can occur with the use of catheters and endotracheal tubes (ETT). Pathogenic microorganisms may adhere to surfaces of these materials forming biofilm. Microbial biofilms presents an extracellular polymer matrix that promotes resistance of microorganisms to factors such as pH, temperature and drugs. The ETT is used to assist a patient with compromised breathing function. ETT biofilm may cause ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is associated with a 21-fold increase in risk for mechanical ventilation...
May 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Jian-Na Cai, Ji-Eun Jung, Min-Ho Lee, Hyeon-Mi Choi, Jae-Gyu Jeon
The relationship between sugar level and development of dental caries has long been a main topic in dentistry. However, as a ubiquitous component of the modern diet, sucrose is mainly derived from three meals a day, rather than a long time exposure. In this study, various concentrations of sucrose were provided to Streptococcus mutans biofilms for 1h per exposure (3 times per day) to imitate a human meal pattern. And then the relationship between sucrose concentration and changes in the treated biofilms was determined...
May 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jorge Barriuso, Deborah A Hogan, Tajalli Keshavarz, María Jesús Martínez
Microbial cells do not live in isolation in their environment, but rather they communicate with each other using chemical signals. This sophisticated mode of cell-to-cell signalling, known as quorum sensing, was first discovered in bacteria, and coordinates the behaviour of microbial population behaviour in a cell-density dependent manner. More recently, these mechanisms have been described in eukaryotes, particularly in fungi, where they regulate processes such as pathogenesis, morphological differentiation, secondary metabolite production and biofilm formation...
May 18, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Jean-Paul Motta, Thibault Allain, Luke E Green-Harrison, Ryan A Groves, Troy Feener, Hena Ramay, Paul L Beck, Ian A Lewis, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Significant alterations of intestinal microbiota and anemia are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is widely accepted that iron is a key nutrient for pathogenic bacteria, but little is known about its impact on microbiota associated with IBD. We used a model device to grow human mucosa-associated microbiota in its physiological anaerobic biofilm phenotype. Compared to microbiota from healthy donors, microbiota from IBD patients generate biofilms ex vivo that were larger in size and cell numbers, contained higher intracellular iron concentrations, and exhibited heightened virulence in a model of human intestinal epithelia in vitro and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Cora Miquel Guennoc, Christophe Rose, Jessy Labbé, Aurélie Deveau
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi establish symbiosis with roots of most trees of boreal and temperate ecosystems and are major drivers of nutrient fluxes between trees and the soil. ECM fungi constantly interact with bacteria all along their life cycle and the extended networks of hyphae provide a habitat for complex bacterial communities. Despite the important effects these bacteria can have on the growth and activities of ECM fungi, little is known about the mechanisms by which these microorganisms interact. Here we investigated the ability of bacteria to form biofilm on the hyphae of the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor...
May 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Catiane Pelissari, Miriam Guivernau, Marc Viñas, Joan García, María Velasco-Galilea, Samara Silva Souza, Pablo Heleno Sezerino, Cristina Ávila
Nitrogen dynamics and its association to metabolically active microbial populations were assessed in two vertical subsurface vertical flow (VF) wetlands treating urban wastewater. These VF wetlands were operated in parallel with unsaturated (UVF) and partially saturated (SVF) configurations. The SVF wetland exhibited almost 2-fold higher total nitrogen removal rate (5 g TN m-2 d-1 ) in relation to the UVF wetland (3 g TN m-2 d-1 ), as well as a low NOx -N accumulation (1 mg L-1 vs. 26 mg L-1 in SVF and UVF wetland effluents, respectively)...
May 8, 2018: Water Research
Xiaochen Wu, Xiangsheng Han, Lili Lv, Mingjie Li, Jun You, Chaoxu Li
Inspired by the bacterial biofilms and chorions of living organisms which are made by proteinaceous assemblies and functional for multi-applications, various artificial protein fibrils-based nanoporous films are developed, and show their potential applications in multiple fields. Here, a simple and environmental friendly method was identified to produce bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanofibrils based biofilms, through a combination of protein fibrillation and reverse dialysis. BSA nanofibrils formed biofilms through intermolecular interactions, the resultant biofilms showed tunable thickness by altering the initial protein amount, good stability in organic and salty solvents, transparency and fluorescence properties, hold high capacity of trapping different substances (e...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mathew P Johansen, Emily Prentice, Tom Cresswell, Nick Howell
The adsorption of radiocesium and radiostrontium onto a range of natural materials has been well quantified, but not for the new media of environmental plastics, which may have enhanced adsorption due to surface-weathering and development of biofilms. Microplastic samples were deployed in freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, then characterised using infrared spectroscopy to document changes to the plastic surface (vs interior). Synchrotron elemental mapping data revealed surfaces that were well-covered by accumulation of reactive water solutes and sulphur, but, in contrast, had highly discrete coverage of elements such as Fe and Ti, indicating adhered mineral/clay-associated agglomerates that may increase overall adsorption capacity...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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