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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351199/biofilm-forming-potential-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-clinical-mastitis-cases-in-new-zealand
#1
Shirli Notcovich, Gina DeNicolo, Steve H Flint, Norman B Williamson, Kristene Gedye, Alex Grinberg, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos
Biofilm formation is of growing concern in human and animal health. However, it is still unclear how biofilms are related to mastitis infections in dairy cattle. In this study, a comparison between two tests for biofilm formation and the association between biofilm and the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation were investigated for 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical mastitis cases. Congo red agar (CRA) and microtitre test assay (MTA) in vitro phenotypic tests were used to evaluate biofilm formation...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351066/contamination-of-swimming-pools-and-hot-tubs-biofilms-with-acanthamoeba
#2
Behroz Mahdavi Poor, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Fariba Khoshzaban, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
The members of Acanthamoeba genus are ubiquitous amoeba which could be a pathogenic parasite. The amoeba is resistant to the common chlorine concentration that used for disinfecting the swimming pool water. Therefore, the pools can be suitable environments for the survival and multiplication of the amoeba. In this cross sectional study, 10 indoor recreational water centers from different regions of Tabriz city were selected and sampling was done from fixed and floating biofilms of the swimming pools and hot tubs...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350941/immotile-active-matter-activity-from-death-and-reproduction
#3
Arben Kalziqi, David Yanni, Jacob Thomas, Siu Lung Ng, Skanda Vivek, Brian K Hammer, Peter J Yunker
Unlike equilibrium atomic solids, biofilms-soft solids composed of bacterial cells-do not experience significant thermal fluctuations at the constituent level. However, living cells stochastically reproduce and die, provoking a mechanical response. We investigate the mechanical consequences of cellular death and reproduction by measuring surface-height fluctuations of biofilms containing two mutually antagonistic strains of Vibrio cholerae that kill one another on contact via the type VI secretion system. While studies of active matter typically focus on activity via constituent mobility, here, activity is mediated by reproduction and death events in otherwise immobilized cells...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350114/the-influence-of-solid-retention-time-on-ifas-mbr-systems-analysis-of-system-behaviour
#4
Giorgio Mannina, Marco Capodici, Alida Cosenza, Daniele Di Trapani, Gaspare Viviani
A University of Cape Town Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge Membrane Bioreactor (UCT-IFAS-MBR) pilot plant was operated at different values of the sludge retention time (SRT). Three SRTs were investigated at different durations: indefinitely, 30 and 15 days. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, kinetic/stoichiometric parameters, membrane fouling tendency and sludge filtration properties were assessed. The findings showed that by decreasing the SRT, the pilot plant could maintain excellent carbon removal efficiencies throughout the experiments...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349932/isolation-and-characterization-of-lectin-with-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-antiproliferative-activities-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-of-environmental-origin
#5
Abdullah A Alyousef, Abdulaziz Alqasim, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
AIMS: Lectin is a non-immunogenic glycoprotein, have been extracted majority from the plant source primarily leguminoasea. Its ability to precisely recognize and bind to the complex cell bound structure to enable it playing diverse roles. In this study, we obligate to define new sources of lectins since the production of lectins is very expensive. Therefore, we performed a study with the goal to isolate and characterize lectin from bacteria of plant origin and screen its ability as an antibacterial, antibiofilm and antiproliferative agent...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349504/oral-bacterial-colonization-on-dental-implants-restored-with-titanium-or-zirconia-abutments-6-month-follow-up
#6
Alice Ramos de Freitas, Thalisson Saymo de Oliveira Silva, Ricardo Faria Ribeiro, Rubens Ferreira de Albuquerque Junior, Vinícius Pedrazzi, Cássio do Nascimento
OBJECTIVE: This investigation aimed to characterize in a 6-month follow-up the microbial profile of implants restored with either titanium or zirconia abutments at the genus or higher taxonomic levels. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals indicative for implant-retained single restorations were investigated. Half of participants were restored with titanium and half with zirconia abutments. Biofilm was collected from the implant-related sites after 1, 3, and 6 months of loading...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348589/novel-miniature-membrane-active-lipopeptidomimetics-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-embedded-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Seema Joshi, Sana Mumtaz, Jyotsna Singh, Santosh Pasha, Kasturi Mukhopadhyay
Escalating multidrug resistance and highly evolved virulence mechanisms have aggravated the clinical menace of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Towards development of economically viable staphylocidal agents here we report eight structurally novel tryptophan-arginine template based peptidomimetics. Out of the designed molecules, three lipopeptidomimetics (S-6, S-7 and S-8) containing 12-amino dodecanoic acid exhibited cell selectivity and good to potent activity against clinically relevant pathogens MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (MIC: 1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348586/analogues-of-disulfides-from-allium-stipitatum-demonstrate-potent-anti-tubercular-activities-through-drug-efflux-pump-and-biofilm-inhibition
#8
Cynthia A Danquah, Eleftheria Kakagianni, Proma Khondkar, Arundhati Maitra, Mukhlesur Rahman, Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Timothy D McHugh, Paul Stapleton, John Malkinson, Sanjib Bhakta, Simon Gibbons
Disulfides from Allium stipitatum, commonly known as Persian shallot, were previously reported to possess antibacterial properties. Analogues of these compounds, produced by S-methylthiolation of appropriate thiols using S-methyl methanethiosulfonate, exhibited antimicrobial activity, with one compound inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 17 µM (4 mg L-1) and other compounds inhibiting Escherichia coli and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations ranging between 32-138 µM (8-32 mg L-1)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348582/nanostructured-titanium-surfaces-exhibit-recalcitrance-towards-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilm-formation
#9
Yunyi Cao, Bo Su, Subash Chinnaraj, Saikat Jana, Leon Bowen, Sam Charlton, Pengfei Duan, Nicholas S Jakubovics, Jinju Chen
Titanium-based implants are ubiquitous in the healthcare industries and often suffer from bacterial attachment which results in infections. An innovative method of reducing bacterial growth is to employ nanostructures on implant materials that cause contact-dependent cell death by mechanical rupture of bacterial cell membranes. To achieve this, we synthesized nanostructures with different architectures on titanium surfaces using hydrothermal treatment processes and then examined the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis on these surfaces...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348527/the-human-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-antagonist-dicyclomine-targets-signal-transduction-genes-and-inhibits-the-virulence-factors-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#10
Awad Ali, Ashwini Jadhav, Priyanka Jangid, Rajendra Patil, Amruta Shelar, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Dicyclomine is a human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist used for the treatment of abdominal cramps. We are reporting here that dicyclomine can inhibit the in vitro growth and virulence factors of the human pathogen Candida albicans very effectively. Dicyclomine inhibited adhesion, early biofilm, mature biofilm, and planktonic growth. Yeast to hyphal form transition of C. albicans in various inducer media such as serum, proline, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine was inhibited. Dicyclomine also could kill C...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348452/combination-therapy-strategy-of-quorum-quenching-enzyme-and-quorum-sensing-inhibitor-in-suppressing-multiple-quorum-sensing-pathways-of-p-aeruginosa
#11
July Fong, Chaodong Zhang, Renliang Yang, Zhao Zhi Boo, Soon Keat Tan, Thomas E Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Xue-Wei Liu, Wu Bin, Haibin Su, Liang Yang
The threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria has called for alternative antimicrobial strategies that would mitigate the increase of classical resistance mechanism. Many bacteria employ quorum sensing (QS) to govern the production of virulence factors and formation of drug-resistant biofilms. Targeting the mechanism of QS has proven to be a functional alternative to conventional antibiotic control of infections. However, the presence of multiple QS systems in individual bacterial species poses a challenge to this approach...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348344/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-velezensis-osy-s3-a-producer-of-potent-antimicrobial-agents-active-against-bacteria-and-fungi
#12
Michelle M Gerst, Mustafa Yesil, Ahmed E Yousef
Bacillus velezensis OSY-S3 produces anti-Listeria, anti-Escherichia coli, and antifungal compounds. Additionally, fermentate of B. velezensis OSY-S3 culture removes Staphylococcus aureus biofilms effectively. The draft genome sequence of B. velezensis OSY-S3 reported here had a genome size of ~3.90 Mb and a G+C content of 46.5%.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348238/phosphoethanolamine-cellulose-a-naturally-produced-chemically-modified-cellulose
#13
Wiriya Thongsomboon, Diego O Serra, Alexandra Possling, Chris Hadjineophytou, Regine Hengge, Lynette Cegelski
Cellulose is a major contributor to the chemical and mechanical properties of plants and assumes structural roles in bacterial communities termed biofilms. We find that Escherichia coli produces chemically modified cellulose that is required for extracellular matrix assembly and biofilm architecture. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the intact and insoluble material elucidates the zwitterionic phosphoethanolamine modification that had evaded detection by conventional methods. Installation of the phosphoethanolamine group requires BcsG, a proposed phosphoethanolamine transferase, with biofilm-promoting cyclic diguanylate monophosphate input through a BcsE-BcsF-BcsG transmembrane signaling pathway...
January 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348094/in-vitro-salmonella-typhi-biofilm-formation-on-gallstones-and-its-disruption-by-manuka-honey
#14
Abdul Hannan, Asma Ejaz Bajwa, Saira Riaz, Usman Arshad, Sidrah Saleem, Usama Ijaz Bajwa
Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat. To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347829/biofilm-community-structure-and-the-associated-drag-penalties-of-a-groomed-fouling-release-ship-hull-coating
#15
Kelli Z Hunsucker, Gary J Vora, J Travis Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner, Dagmar H Leary, Seongwon Kim, Baochuan Lin, Geoffrey Swain
Grooming is a proactive method to keep a ship's hull free of fouling. This approach uses a frequent and gentle wiping of the hull surface to prevent the recruitment of fouling organisms. A study was designed to compare the community composition and the drag associated with biofilms formed on a groomed and ungroomed fouling release coating. The groomed biofilms were dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria as well the diatoms Navicula, Gomphonemopsis, Cocconeis, and Amphora. Ungroomed biofilms were characterized by Phyllobacteriaceae, Xenococcaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and the pennate diatoms Cyclophora, Cocconeis, and Amphora...
January 18, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347676/twitching-motility-of-bacteria-with-type-iv-pili-fractal-walks-first-passage-time-and-their-consequences-on-microcolonies
#16
Konark Bisht, Stefan Klumpp, Varsha Banerjee, Rahul Marathe
A human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), moves on surfaces by attaching and retracting polymeric structures called Type IV pili. The tug-of-war between the pili results in a two-dimensional stochastic motion called twitching motility. In this paper, with the help of real-time NG trajectories, we develop coarse-grained models for their description. The fractal properties of these trajectories are determined and their influence on first passage time and formation of bacterial microcolonies is studied. Our main observations are as follows: (i) NG performs a fast ballistic walk on small time scales and a slow diffusive walk over long time scales with a long crossover region; (ii) there exists a characteristic persistent length l_{p}^{*}, which yields the fastest growth of bacterial aggregates or biofilms...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347525/network-patterns-in-exponentially-growing-two-dimensional-biofilms
#17
Cameron Zachreson, Xinhui Yap, Erin S Gloag, Raz Shimoni, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Milos Toth
Anisotropic collective patterns occur frequently in the morphogenesis of two-dimensional biofilms. These patterns are often attributed to growth regulation mechanisms and differentiation based on gradients of diffusing nutrients and signaling molecules. Here, we employ a model of bacterial growth dynamics to show that even in the absence of growth regulation or differentiation, confinement by an enclosing medium such as agar can itself lead to stable pattern formation over time scales that are employed in experiments...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346603/homologous-stress-adaptation-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-heidelberg-atcc8326-on-different-food-contact-surfaces-following-exposure-to-sublethal-chlorine-concentrations
#18
Tomi Obe, Rama Nannapaneni, Chander Shekhar Sharma, Aaron Kiess
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up to 400 ppm. In addition, the chlorine stressed cells displayed rugose morphology on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates at 37°C...
January 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346584/in-vitro-interactions-between-iap-antagonist-at406-and-azoles-against-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-pathogenic-fungi-candida-albicans-and-exophiala-dermatitidis
#19
Yi Sun, Lujuan Gao, Chengyan He, Ming Li, Tongxiang Zeng
In vitro interactions of AT406, a novel IAP antagonist, and azoles including itraconazole, voriconazole, and fluconazole against planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Exophiala dermatitidis were assessed via broth microdilution checkerboard technique. AT406 alone exhibited limited antifungal activity. However, synergistic effect between AT406 and fluconazole was observed against both planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans, including one fluconazole-resistant strain. Moreover, synergism was also demonstrated between AT406 and itraconazole against both planktonic cells and biofilms of E...
January 13, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346565/apigenin-induces-cell-shrinkage-in-candida-albicans-by-membrane-perturbation
#20
Heejeong Lee, Eun-Rhan Woo, Dong Gun Lee
Apigenin, a natural flavone, has been well characterized for its their anticarcinogenic property; however, its bioactivity against pathogenic fungi has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the antifungal activity and mode of action of apigenin. Apigenin inhibited the growth of fungal pathogens, which induced superficial infection and reduced biofilm mass. Three-dimensional flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that apigenin induced morphological changes, especially cell shrinkage, in Candida albicans...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
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