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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101715/cortex-and-amygdala-dependent-learning-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-gene-expression-is-severely-impaired-in-mice-orally-treated-with-alcl3
#1
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Aamra Mahboob, Touqeer Ahmed
Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100642/isoform-specific-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-modulation-by-the-prototoxin-lynx1
#2
Andrew A George, Abigail Bloy, Julie M Miwa, Jon M Lindstrom, Ronald J Lukas, Paul Whiteaker
This study investigates-for the first time to our knowledge-the existence and mechanisms of functional interactions between the endogenous mammalian prototoxin, lynx1, and α3- and β4-subunit-containing human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α3β4*-nAChRs). Concatenated gene constructs were used to express precisely defined α3β4*-nAChR isoforms (α3β4)2β4-, (α3β4)2α3-, (α3β4)2α5(398D)-, and (α3β4)2α5(398N)-nAChR in Xenopus oocytes. In the presence or absence of lynx1, α3β4*-nAChR agonist responses were recorded by using 2-electrode voltage clamp and single-channel electrophysiology, whereas radioimmunolabeling measured cell-surface expression...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093476/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-m-currents-underlie-efferent-mediated-slow-excitation-in-calyx-bearing-vestibular-afferents
#3
J Chris Holt, Paivi M Jordan, Anna Lysakowski, Amit Shah, Kathy Barsz, Donatella Contini
: Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ over 100-fold in activation kinetics and response duration. In turtle, efferent-mediated fast excitation arises in CD afferents when the predominant efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) activates calyceal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs); however, it is unclear whether the accompanying efferent-mediated slow excitation is also attributed to cholinergic mechanisms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088107/gaas-laser-therapy-reestablishes-the-morphology-of-the-nmj-and-nachrs-after-injury-due-to-bupivacaine
#4
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Flávio Codina, Carina Guidi Pinto, Ivan Jose Vechetti-Junior, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087221/varenicline-provokes-impulsive-action-by-stimulating-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-in-a-nicotine-exposure-status-dependent-manner
#5
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement and drug addiction. Because nicotine administration enhances impulsivity, the effects of stop-smoking aids stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on impulsivity must be determined in different conditions. Our goals were 1) to confirm the relationship between varenicline, a stop-smoking aid and α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, and impulsivity, 2) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of varenicline, 3) to examine whether a low dose of varenicline that does not evoke impulsive action could block the stimulating effects of nicotine on impulsive action, 4) to determine whether the route of administration could modulate the effects of varenicline on impulsive action, and 5) to determine whether the effects of varenicline on impulsivity could be altered by smoking status...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078612/ameliorative-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-role-of-cholinergic-system
#6
Yang Jin, Jian Peng, Xiaona Wang, Dong Zhang, Tianyin Wang
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077796/tumor-cell-migration-is-inhibited-by-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-antagonizing-the-alpha-7-receptor
#7
Chris Pepper, Henry Tu, Paul Morrill, Sara Garcia-Rates, Chris Fegan, Susan Greenfield
A 14mer peptide (T14) derived from the C-terminus of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) selectively activates metastatic breast cancer cells via the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor (α7 nAChR). This naturally occurring peptide is also present in brain, is elevated in Alzheimer's disease, and is antagonised by a cyclized variant (NBP-14). Here we investigated the effects of NBP-14 in six different cancer cell lines, primary leukemia B-cells and normal B-cells. All cells tested expressed α7 nAChR, intracellular and extracellular T14...
January 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077670/the-mammalian-efferent-vestibular-system-plays-a-crucial-role-in-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-compensation-after-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#8
Patrick P Hübner, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAChR) subunit is expressed in the vestibular and auditory periphery, and its loss of function could compromise peripheral input from the predominantly-cholinergic efferent vestibular system (EVS). A recent study has shown that α9-nAChRs play an important role in short-term vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation. We hypothesise that α9-nAChRs could also be important for other forms of vestibular plasticity, such as that needed for VOR recovery after vestibular organ injury...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074940/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-is-required-for-amyloid-pathology-in-brain-endothelial-cells-induced-by-glycoprotein-120-methamphetamine-and-nicotine
#9
Liqun Liu, Jingyi Yu, Li Li, Bao Zhang, Lingjuan Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Jong, Ding-An Mao, Sheng-He Huang
One of the most challenging issues in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) caused by HIV-1 virotoxins and drug abuse is the lack of understanding the underlying mechanisms that are commonly associated with disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we hypothesized that Glycoprotein 120 (gp120), methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine (NT) can enhance amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in BMEC through Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069778/differential-contribution-of-subunit-interfaces-to-%C3%AE-9%C3%AE-10-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-function
#10
Juan C Boffi, Irina Marcovich, JasKiran K Gill-Thind, Jeremias Corradi, Toby Collins, Maria M Lipovsek, Marcelo Moglie, Paola V Plazas, Patricio O Craig, Neil S Millar, Cecilia Bouzat, Ana Belen Elgoyhen
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be assembled from either homomeric or heteromeric pentameric subunit combinations. At the interface of the extracellular domains of adjacent subunits lies the acetylcholine binding site, composed of a principal component provided by one subunit and a complementary component of the adjacent subunit. Compared to neuronal nAChRs assembled from α and β subunits, the α9α10 receptor is an atypical member of the family. It is a heteromeric receptor composed only of α subunits...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065843/alpha-7-nicotinic-agonists-for-cognitive-deficits-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-translational-meta-analysis-of-rodent-and-human-studies
#11
Alan S Lewis, Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Michael H Bloch
Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SCZ) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major driver of functional disability but is largely unresponsive to current therapeutics. Animal models of cognitive dysfunction relevant to both disorders suggest the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) may be a promising drug development target, with multiple clinical trials subsequently testing this hypothesis in individuals with SCZ and AD. However, the translational value of rodent cognitive tasks for predicting the overall efficacy of this therapeutic target in clinical trials is unknown...
January 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064347/influence-of-nicotine-on-doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-combination-treatment-induced-spatial-cognitive-impairment-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rats
#12
Yoshihisa Kitamura, Erika Kanemoto, Misaki Sugimoto, Ayumi Machida, Yuka Nakamura, Nanami Naito, Hirotaka Kanzaki, Ikuko Miyazaki, Masato Asanuma, Toshiaki Sendo
In the present study, we examined the effects of nicotine on cognitive impairment, anxiety-like behavior, and hippocampal cell proliferation in rats treated with a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Combined treatment with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide produced cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Nicotine treatment reversed the inhibition of novel location recognition induced by the combination treatment. This effect of nicotine was blocked by methyllycaconitine, a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective α4β2 nAChR antagonist...
January 7, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049707/pleiotropic-effects-of-loss-of-the-d%C3%AE-1-subunit-in-drosophila-melanogaster-implications-for-insecticide-resistance
#13
Jason Somers, Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Judith Mitchell, Philip Batterham, Trent Perry
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a highly conserved gene family that form pentameric receptors involved in fast excitatory synaptic neurotransmission. The specific roles individual nAChR subunits perform in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects are relatively uncharacterized. Of the 10 D. melanogaster nAChR subunits, only three have described roles in behavioral pathways; Dα3 and Dα4 in sleep, and Dα7 in the escape response. Other subunits have been associated with resistance to several classes of insecticides...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049353/nicotine-affects-protein-complex-rearrangement-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-cells
#14
Robert Sobkowiak, Andrzej Zielezinski, Wojciech M Karlowski, Andrzej Lesicki
Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting...
January 3, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048167/su-f-i-66-the-effects-of-nicotinic-agonists-on-rat-hippocampal-glutamatergic-fluctuation-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#15
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Nicotine exerts its effects through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Varenicline, a smoking cessation aid, is a partial agonist acting at the α4β2 nAChRs. Although nicotine and varenicline contribute to the reward system at the same time, the influence of the substances on hippocampal neurochemical changes has not been investigated yet. We therefore studied the effects of repeated nicotine exposure and varenicline administration on hippocampus of rats by using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 9...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039041/spinal-activation-of-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-attenuates-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-related-chronic-pain-via-suppression-of-glial-activation
#16
Rao Sun, Wei Zhang, Jinhua Bo, Zuoxia Zhang, Yishan Lei, Wenwen Huo, Yue Liu, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
The high prevalence of chronic pain in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) individuals has been widely reported by clinical studies, which emphasized an urgent need to uncover the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies suggested that targeting activated glia and their pro-inflammatory products may provide a novel and effective therapy for the stress-related pain. In this study, we investigated whether activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), a novel anti-inflammatory target, could attenuate PTSD-related chronic pain...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035367/redistribution-of-adrenomedullary-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-and-the-effect-on-circulating-epinephrine-levels-in-a-murine-model-of-acute-asthma
#17
Xi Chen, Juntao Feng, Chengping Hu, Qingwu Qin, Yuanyuan Li, Ling Qin
The lack of circulating epinephrine (EPI) in the pathogenesis of asthma has long been attributed to the lack of adrenergic nerves in human airways. However, in this study we considered that EPI levels are regulated by EPI release in addition to synthesis. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to control EPI release, and we hypothesized that redistribution of nAChR subunits modulates EPI release and circulating EPI levels. Using a mouse model of asthma, circulating EPI levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033523/-s-5-ethynyl-anabasine-a-novel-compound-is-a-more-potent-agonist-than-other-nicotine-alkaloids-on-the-nematode-asu-acr-16-receptor
#18
Fudan Zheng, Xiangwei Du, Tsung-Han Chou, Alan P Robertson, Edward W Yu, Brett VanVeller, Richard J Martin
Nematode parasites infect ∼2 billion people world-wide. Infections are treated and prevented by anthelmintic drugs, some of which act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). There is an unmet need for novel therapeutic agents because of concerns about the development of resistance. We have selected Asu-ACR-16 from a significant nematode parasite genus, Ascaris suum, as a pharmaceutical target and nicotine as our basic moiety (EC50 6.21 ± 0.56 μM, Imax 82.39 ± 2.52%) to facilitate the development of more effective anthelmintics...
December 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028600/the-contribution-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-and-non-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-nicotine-and-varenicline-in-mice
#19
Fernando B de Moura, Lance R McMahon
RATIONALE: The extent to which non-α4β2 versus α4β2* nAChRs contribute to the behavioral effects of varenicline and other nAChR agonists is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of varenicline and nicotine using various nAChR agonists and antagonists to elucidate possible non-α4β2 nAChR mechanisms. METHODS: Separate groups of male C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate varenicline (3...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025040/acetylcholine-released-from-t-cells-regulates-intracellular-ca-2-il-2-secretion-and-t-cell-proliferation-through-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#20
Masato Mashimo, Yukari Iwasaki, Shoko Inoue, Shoko Saito, Koichiro Kawashima, Takeshi Fujii
AIMS: T lymphocytes synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and express muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChR and nAChR, respectively) responsible for increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Our aim in the present study was to assess whether autocrine ACh released from T lymphocytes regulates their physiological functions. MAIN METHODS: MOLT-3 human leukemic cell line and murine splenocytes were loaded with fura-2 to monitor [Ca(2+)]i changes in the absence or presence of several AChR antagonists, including mecamylamine, methyllycaconitine and scopolamine...
December 23, 2016: Life Sciences
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