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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731133/irrelevance-of-anti%C3%A2-nachr-cytoplasmic-loop-antibody-in-the-degree-of-myasthenia-gravis
#1
Ye Lin, Chen Song, Jiang Xu, Yongxiang Yang, Hang Qin, Cong Zhao, Jiaji Lin, Rui Liu, Zhuyi Li
Anti‑nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antibody in myasthenia gravis (MG) usually refers to that against the extracellular domain (ECD) of nAChR. However, growing evidence has indicated that there also exists the nAChR antibody against the nAChR cytoplasmic loop (CL) in patients with MG. Some studies have demonstrated that the anti‑CL antibody may play a protective role in animal models of experimental autoimmune MG. However, to date, limited or no information is available as to whether anti‑CL antibody plays a beneficial role in patients with MG...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726253/%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-7-containing-receptors-mediate-the-pro-proliferative-effects-of-nicotine-in-the-a549-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#2
Vanessa Mucchietto, Francesca Fasoli, Susanna Pucci, Milena Moretti, Roberta Benfante, Annalisa Maroli, Simona Di Lascio, Cristiano Bolchi, Marco Pallavicini, Cheryl Dowell, Michael McIntosh, Francesco Clementi, Cecilia Gotti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tobacco smoke contains many classes of carcinogens and although nicotine is unable to initiate tumorigenesis in humans and rodents, it promotes tumour growth and metastasis in lung tumours by acting on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to identify molecularly, biochemically and pharmacologically which nAChR subtypes are expressed and functionally activated by nicotine in lung cancer cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used A549 and H1975 adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from lung tumour to test the in vitro effects of nicotine, and nAChR subtype-specific peptides and compounds...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725182/canonical-and-novel-non-canonical-cholinergic-agonists-inhibit-atp-induced-release-of-monocytic-interleukin-1%C3%AE-via-different-combinations-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-%C3%AE-7-%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-10
#3
Anna Zakrzewicz, Katrin Richter, Alisa Agné, Sigrid Wilker, Kathrin Siebers, Bijan Fink, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Mike Althaus, Winfried Padberg, Arik J Hone, J Michael McIntosh, Veronika Grau
Recently, we discovered a cholinergic mechanism that inhibits the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by human monocytes via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) composed of α7, α9 and/or α10 subunits. Furthermore, we identified phosphocholine (PC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as novel nicotinic agonists that elicit metabotropic activity at monocytic nAChR. Interestingly, PC does not provoke ion channel responses at conventional nAChRs composed of subunits α9 and α10...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718820/a-transcriptomic-survey-of-ion-channel-based-conotoxins-in-the-chinese-tubular-cone-snail-conus-betulinus
#4
Yu Huang, Chao Peng, Yunhai Yi, Bingmiao Gao, Qiong Shi
Conotoxins in the venom of cone snails (Conus spp.) are a mixture of active peptides that work as blockers, agonists, antagonists, or inactivators of various ion channels. Recently we reported a high-throughput method to identify 215 conotoxin transcripts from the Chinese tubular cone snail, C. betulinus. Here, based on the previous datasets of four transcriptomes from three venom ducts and one venom bulb, we explored ion channel-based conotoxins and predicted their related ion channel receptors. Homologous analysis was also performed for the most abundant ion channel protein, voltage-gated potassium (Kv; with Kv1...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718646/exploring-the-relationship-between-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-ligand-size-efficiency-efficacy-and-c-loop-opening
#5
Qianyun Ma, Han-Shen Tae, Guanzhao Wu, Tao Jiang, Rilei Yu
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels mediating fundamental physiological activities in the nervous system, and have become important targets for drug design. For a long time, the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) has been used as surrogate to study the nAChR structure-function. Taking advantage of more than 100 AChBP crystal structures in the Protein DataBank (PDB), we explored the relationship between the size, efficiency and efficacy of nAChR ligands and the C-loop movement...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714396/differential-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-on-the-hippocampus-across-lifespan
#6
Dana Zeid, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Nicotine exposure affects the hippocampus through activation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are present throughout excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuitry. The role of cholinergic functioning in the hippocampus varies across developmental stages so that nicotine exposure differentially affects this region depending upon timing of exposure, producing developmentally distinct changes in structure, function, and behavior. The hippocampus continues to mature well into adolescence, and this development is modulated by cholinergic activity...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714277/free-fatty-acid-receptor-3-activation-suppresses-neurogenic-motility-in-rat-proximal-colon
#7
I Kaji, Y Akiba, T Furuyama, D W Adelson, K Iwamoto, M Watanabe, A Kuwahara, J D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are microbial fermentation products absorbed by the colon. We recently reported that activation of the SCFA receptor termed free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3), expressed on cholinergic nerves, suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated transepithelial anion secretion. This study aimed to clarify how activation of neurally expressed FFA3 affects colonic motor function. METHODS: FFA3-expressing myenteric neurons were identified by immunostaining; contractions of isolated circular muscle strips obtained from rat proximal colon were measured by isometric transducers...
July 17, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711472/interactive-effects-of-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-and-a-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-on-mismatch-negativity-implications-for-schizophrenia
#8
Holly K Hamilton, Deepak C D'Souza, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Naomi S Kort, Kyung-Heup Ahn, Savita Bhakta, Mohini Ranganathan, Daniel H Mathalon
N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, including auditory processing abnormalities reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential component. Evidence suggesting cognitive benefits from nicotine administration, together with the high rate of cigarette use in patients with schizophrenia, has stimulated interest in whether nicotine modulates NMDAR hypofunction. We examined the interactive effects of ketamine, an NMDAR antagonist that produces transient schizophrenia-like neurophysiological effects, and nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, in 30 healthy volunteers to determine whether nicotine prevents or attenuates MMN abnormalities...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700952/nicotine-facilitates-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-targeting-to-mitochondria-but-makes-them-less-susceptible-to-selective-ligands
#9
Kateryna Uspenska, Olena Lykhmus, Galyna Gergalova, Volodymyr Chernyshov, Hugo R Arias, Sergiy Komisarenko, Maryna Skok
Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in mitochondria to regulate the internal pathway of apoptosis in ion channel-independent manner. However, the mechanisms of nAChR activation in mitochondria and targeting to mitochondria are still unknown. Nicotine has been shown to favor nAChR pentamer assembly, folding, and maturation on the way of biosynthesis. The idea of the present work was to determine whether nicotine affects the content, glycosylation, and function of mitochondrial nAChRs...
July 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699914/expression-patterns-for-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunit-genes-in-smoking-related-lung-cancers
#10
Anna Bordas, José Luis Cedillo, Francisco Arnalich, Isabel Esteban-Rodriguez, Laura Guerra-Pastrián, Javier de Castro, Carolina Martín-Sánchez, Gema Atienza, Carmen Fernández-Capitan, Juan José Rios, Carmen Montiel
Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk for all histologic types of lung cancer, but why the strength of this association is stronger for squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma of the lung (SQC-L, ADC-L) is not fully understood. Because nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines contribute to carcinogenesis by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on lung tumors and epithelial cells, we investigated whether differential expression of nAChR subtypes in these tumors could explain their different association with smoking...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698187/the-stoichiometry-%C3%AE-4-3-%C3%AE-2-2-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-predominates-in-the-rat-motor-cortex
#11
Kristen E DeDominicis, Niaz Sahibzada, Thao T Olson, Yingxian Xiao, Barry B Wolfe, Kenneth J Kellar, Robert P Yasuda
The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is important in normal CNS physiology and in mediating several of the pharmacological effects of nicotine on cognition, attention, and affective states. It is also the likely receptor that mediates nicotine addiction. This receptor assembles in two distinct stoichiometries: (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 that are referred to as high (HS) and low (LS) sensitivity nAChRs, respectively, based on a difference in the potency of acetylcholine to activate them. The physiological and pharmacological differences between these two receptor subtypes have been described in heterologous expression systems...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693859/the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nachr-partial-agonist-at-1001-attenuates-stress-induced-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking-in-a-rat-model-of-relapse-and-induces-minimal-withdrawal-in-dependent-rats
#12
Menglu Yuan, Ariana M Malagon, Dennis Yasuda, James D Belluzzi, Frances M Leslie, Nurulain T Zaveri
The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684359/significance-of-the-nicotinic-alpha7-receptor-in-cognition-and-antipsychotic-like-behavior-in-the-rat
#13
Marie-Louise G Wadenberg, Dina Manetti, Maria Novella Romanelli, Hugo R Arias
Schizophrenic (SCH) patients show cognitive impairment in attentional performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) such as the Alzheimer's drug galantamine (GAL) and PAM-2 are documented to have pro-cognitive properties. However, it is not well established if these properties would be lost, or may hamper antipsychotic efficacy, when given as an adjunct to an antipsychotic which is needed for managing psychotic symptoms. Using adult male Wistar rats, we here investigated the effects of: a) GAL, alone or co-administered with the antipsychotic risperidone (RISP), on acute phencyclidine (PCP)-induced deficits in the attentional set-shifting (ASST) test; b) PAM-2, alone and co-administered with RISP, in the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test for antipsychotic activity...
July 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666820/cloning-expression-and-functional-characterization-of-a-d-superfamily-conotoxin-lt28-1-with-previously-undescribed-cysteine-pattern
#14
Jianbo Lu, Kejun Zhang, Shuo Wang, Ting Sun, Shuo Yu, Qiuyun Dai, Zhuguo Liu
As a class of peptides with 10 cysteine residues (-C-CC-C-CC-C-C-C-C-), D-superfamily conotoxins (D-conotoxins) can specifically act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). According to the conserved signal peptides of D-conotoxins, seven D-conotoxin precursor sequences with a previously undescribed Cys arrangement (-C-C-C-CC-C-C-C-C-C-) were identified by PCR-RACE methodology in the present study. The alignment of sequences revealed that signal peptide regions were same as D-VxXXA from Conus vexillum, and their mature peptides were almost different from the D-conotoxins...
June 27, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666811/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-2-subunit-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-exert-opposing-actions-on-rapid-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-rats-with-high-versus-low-response-to-novelty
#15
Cody A Siciliano, J Michael McIntosh, Sara R Jones, Mark J Ferris
Determining neurobiological factors that contribute to individual variance in drug addiction vulnerability allows for identification of at-risk populations, use of preventative measures and personalized medicine in the treatment of substance use disorders. Rodents that exhibit high locomotor activity when exploring an inescapable novel environment (high-responder; HR) are more susceptible to the reinforcing effects of many abused compounds, including nicotine, as compared to animals that exhibit low locomotor activity (low-responder; LR)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664511/the-role-of-nitrosamine-nnk-in-breast-cancer-carcinogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Nomundelger Gankhuyag, Kang-Hoon Lee, Je-Yoel Cho
Smoking cigarettes is one of the most concerning issues that leads to tobacco-related cancers and can even result in death. Therefore, these issues should be addressed with a great sense of urgency with low-cost and simple approaches. Over the past several years, the scientific community has attempted to find solutions to overcome this issue. Thus, a large number of excellent studies have been reported in this field, and summarizing these results and providing important roadmaps for future studies is currently of great importance...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663092/nicotinic-activity-depresses-synaptic-potentiation-in-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons-of-mouse-insular-cortex
#17
Hajime Sato, Tsutomu Kawano, Dong Xu Yin, Takafumi Kato, Hiroki Toyoda
The insular cortex is a critical brain region involved in nicotine addiction. However, its specific cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined how nicotine modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex. We also examined which type of neurons express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in layer V of the insular cortex. We found that nicotine suppresses synaptic potentiation induced by combination of presynaptic stimulation with postsynaptic depolarization (paired training)...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662724/insecticide-resistance-and-resistance-mechanisms-in-bed-bugs-cimex-spp-hemiptera-cimicidae
#18
REVIEW
Kai Dang, Stephen L Doggett, G Veera Singham, Chow-Yang Lee
The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e...
June 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662295/%C3%AE-9-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-the-modulation-of-pain
#19
REVIEW
Arik J Hone, Denis Servent, J Michael McIntosh
Neuropathic pain is a complex and debilitating syndrome for which there are few effective pharmacological treatments. Opioid-based medications are initially effective for acute pain but tolerance to their analgesic effects quickly develops and long-term use often leads to physical dependence and addiction. Furthermore, neuropathic pain is generally resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other classes of medications including antidepressants, antiepileptics, and voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) inhibitors are only partially effective in most patients, may be associated with significant side effects, and have few disease modifying effects on the underlying pathology...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660244/systemic-nicotine-increases-gain-and-narrows-receptive-fields-in-a1-via-integrated-cortical-and-subcortical-actions
#20
Caitlin Askew, Irakli Intskirveli, Raju Metherate
Nicotine enhances sensory and cognitive processing via actions at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), yet the precise circuit- and systems-level mechanisms remain unclear. In sensory cortex, nicotinic modulation of receptive fields (RFs) provides a model to probe mechanisms by which nAChRs regulate cortical circuits. Here, we examine RF modulation in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) using a novel electrophysiological approach: current-source density (CSD) analysis of responses to tone-in-notched-noise (TINN) acoustic stimuli...
May 2017: ENeuro
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