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Restitution portrait

Xi Mei, Jing Wang, Hong Zhang, Zhi-cheng Liu, Zhen-xi Zhang
The ionic mechanism of change in short-term memory (STM) during acute myocardial ischemia has not been well understood. In this paper, an advanced guinea pig ventricular model developed by Luo and Rudy was used to investigate STM property of ischemic ventricular myocardium. STM response was calculated by testing the time to reach steady-state action potential duration (APD) after an abrupt shortening of basic cycling length (BCL) in the pacing protocol. Electrical restitution curves (RCs), which can simultaneously visualize multiple aspects of APD restitution and STM, were obtained from dynamic and local S1S2 restitution portrait (RP), which consist of a longer interval stimulus (S1) and a shorter interval stimulus (S2)...
February 2014: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Ramjay Visweswaran, Stephen D McIntyre, Kartik Ramkrishnan, Xiaopeng Zhao, Elena G Tolkacheva
INTRODUCTION: Action potential duration (APD) alternans can be accompanied by alternans in intracellular calcium transients ([Ca(2+) ]i ), leading to electromechanical alternans. Electromechanical alternans is considered a substrate for ventricular fibrillation. Although some techniques have been developed to predict APD alternans, the onset of [Ca(2+) ]i alternans has never been predicted. METHODS AND RESULTS: Simultaneous mapping of voltage and calcium was performed in 8 Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts...
November 2013: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Alexander R Cram, Hrishikesh M Rao, Elena G Tolkacheva
A beat-to-beat variation in the cardiac action potential duration is a phenomenon known as alternans. Alternans has been linked to ventricular fibrillation, and thus the ability to predict the onset of alternans could be clinically beneficial. Theoretically, it has been proposed that the slope of a restitution curve, which relates the duration of the action potential to the preceding diastolic interval, can predict the onset of alternans. Experimentally, however, this hypothesis has not been consistently proven, mainly because of the intrinsic complexity of the dynamics of cardiac tissue...
February 16, 2011: Biophysical Journal
Hong Zhang, Takeshi Ueyama, Juan Wang, Rui-Juan Wu, Shien-Fong Lin
Cardiac short-term memory is an intrinsic property of paced myocardium that reflects the influence of pacing history. Using an optical mapping method to record membrane voltage and intracellular calcium (Ca(2 +)(i)), this study investigated the properties and mechanisms of short-term memory in isolated and perfused canine wedge preparations. In addition to the dynamic and S1S2 pacing protocols, a perturbed downsweep pacing protocol was used to get a complete overview of the restitution portrait. Abrupt changes in basic cycle length (BCL) were applied to investigate the accommodation process of action potential duration (APD)...
February 2011: Physiological Measurement
Ja Bell, Nc Rouze, W Krassowska, Sf Idriss
Novel methods need to be developed to detect electrical instability in children. The dynamical properties of action potential restitution play an important role in the development of instability leading to arrhythmias. A new method, the Restitution Portrait (RP), was developed to visualize and quantify these properties at the action potential level. Here, we apply the RP method using the activation-recovery interval (ARI) from the ECG to detect, in vitro, repolarization abnormalities in neonatal and preadolescent rabbit myocardium with drug-induced Long QT Syndrome (LQTS Type 1 or Type 2)...
2007: Computers in Cardiology
David G Schaeffer, John W Cain, Daniel J Gauthier, Soma S Kalb, Robert A Oliver, Elena G Tolkacheva, Wenjun Ying, Wanda Krassowska
Many features of the sequence of action potentials produced by repeated stimulation of a patch of cardiac muscle can be modeled by a 1D mapping, but not the full behavior included in the restitution portrait. Specifically, recent experiments have found that (i) the dynamic and S1-S2 restitution curves are different (rate dependence) and (ii) the approach to steady state, which requires many action potentials (accommodation), occurs along a curve distinct from either restitution curve. Neither behavior can be produced by a 1D mapping...
February 2007: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ann M Pitruzzello, Wanda Krassowska, Salim F Idriss
Spatial heterogeneity of repolarization can provide a substrate for reentry to occur in myocardium. This heterogeneity may result from spatial differences in action potential duration (APD) restitution. The restitution portrait (RP) measures many aspects of rate-dependent restitution: the dynamic restitution curve (RC), S1-S2 RC, and short-term memory response. We used the RP to characterize epicardial patterns of spatial heterogeneity of restitution that were repeatable across animals. New Zealand White rabbit ventricles were paced from the epicardial apex, midventricle, or base, and optical action potentials were recorded from the same three regions...
March 2007: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Elena G Tolkacheva, Justus M B Anumonwo, José Jalife
Construction of the action potential duration (APD) restitution portrait allows visualization of multiple aspects of the dynamics of periodically paced myocytes at various basic cycle lengths (BCLs). For the first time, we obtained the restitution portrait of isolated rabbit and guinea pig cardiac ventricular myocytes and analyzed the time constant, tau, of APD accommodation and the slopes of different types of restitution curves, Sdyn and S12, measured at varying BCLs. Our results indicate that both tau and the individual slopes are species and pacing dependent...
October 1, 2006: Biophysical Journal
Soma S Kalb, Elena G Tolkacheva, David G Schaeffer, Daniel J Gauthier, Wanda Krassowska
Restitution, the characteristic shortening of action potential duration (APD) with increased heart rate, has been studied extensively because of its purported link to the onset of fibrillation. Restitution is often represented in the form of mapping models where APD is a function of previous diastolic intervals (DIs) and/or APDs, A(n+1)=F(D(n),A(n),D(n-1),A(n-1),...), where A(n+1) is the APD following a DI given by D(n). The number of variables previous to D(n) determines the degree of memory in the mapping model...
June 2005: Chaos
Soma S Kalb, Hana M Dobrovolny, Elena G Tolkacheva, Salim F Idriss, Wanda Krassowska, Daniel J Gauthier
INTRODUCTION: Electrical restitution, relating action potential duration (APD) to diastolic interval (DI), was believed to determine the stability of heart rhythm. However, recent studies demonstrate that stability also depends on long-term APD changes caused by memory. This study presents a new method for investigation of rate- and memory-dependent aspects of restitution and for assessment of mapping models of APD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bullfrog ventricular myocardium was paced with a "perturbed downsweep protocol...
June 2004: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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