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Autonomic dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534047/polysomnographic-heart-rate-variability-indices-and-atrial-ectopy-associated-with-incident-atrial-fibrillation-risk-in-older-community-dwelling-men
#1
Dileep Raman, Farhad Kaffashi, Li-Yung Lui, William H Sauer, Susan Redline, Peter Stone, Peggy M Cawthon, Katie L Stone, Kristine E Ensrud, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Kenneth Loparo, Reena Mehra
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction contributes to atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that polysomnogram (PSG)-based heart rate variability (HRV) autonomic function biomarkers are associated with incident AF and these associations are modified by measures of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). METHODS: 2350 participants of a multi-center prospective study (Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study) without baseline AF underwent sleep studies with incident adjudicated AF follow up (8...
May 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530322/-oro-dento-facial-manifestations-in-patients-with-familial-dysautonomia
#2
REVIEW
Eliyahu Mass
The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunctions of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III), known as familial dysautonomia (FD) or Riley-Day syndrome, were first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include: dental trauma, dental and soft tissue selfmutilation, normal dental age, normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth, smaller tooth size, different and disproportional tooth components, normal alveolar bone height, small jaws, mild crowding and malocclusion...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527058/headache-and-arterial-hypertension
#3
Cinzia Finocchi, Davide Sassos
Elevated blood pressure (BP) and headache have long been linked in the medical literature. Headache associated with arterial hypertension is a main concern in emergency department. It is believed that headache may be a symptom attributed to arterial hypertension only if the BP values are very high or rise quickly. Many studies support the hypothesis that migraine patients have an increased risk of developing hypertension, while hypertensive subjects do not seem to have an increased risk of migraine or other types of headache...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526073/pulse-wave-velocity-and-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Stamatina Chorepsima, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioannis Moyssakis, Athanasios Protogerou, Alexandros Kokkinos, Petros P Sfikakis, Nikolaos Tentolouris
BACKGROUND: Increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes and has been associated with reduced aortic distensibility. However, the association of cardiac autonomic dysfunction with PWV is not known. In this study we examined the association between cardiac autonomic function and PWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
May 19, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521050/sudden-unexpected-death-during-sleep-in-familial-dysautonomia-a-case-control-study
#5
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Miguel A Perez, Christy L Spalink, Horacio Kaufmann
Study Objectives: Sudden unexpected death during sleep (SUDS) is the most common cause of death in patients with familial dysautonomia, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensory and autonomic dysfunction. It remains unknown what causes SUDS in these patients and who is at highest risk. We tested the hypothesis that SUDS in FD is linked to sleep-disordered breathing. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with familial dysautonomia who died suddenly and unexpectedly during sleep and had undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period prior to death...
May 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515112/impact-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-on-mortality-is-modified-by-objective-short-sleep-duration
#6
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Caitlin LaGrotte, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
BACKGROUND: To examine whether objective sleep duration is an effect modifier of the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on all-cause and cardiovascular disease/cerebrovascular mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We addressed this question in the Penn State Adult Cohort, a random, general population sample of 1344 men and women (48.8±14.2 years) who were studied in the sleep laboratory and followed up for 16.6±4.2 years. MetS was defined by the presence of 3 or more of obesity (≥30 kg/m(2)), elevated total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL), triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), and blood pressure (≥130/85 mm Hg)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514657/huntington-s-disease-ipsc-derived-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-reveal-wnt-mediated-angiogenic-and-blood-brain-barrier-deficits
#7
Ryan G Lim, Chris Quan, Andrea M Reyes-Ortiz, Sarah E Lutz, Amanda J Kedaigle, Theresa A Gipson, Jie Wu, Gad D Vatine, Jennifer Stocksdale, Malcolm S Casale, Clive N Svendsen, Ernest Fraenkel, David E Housman, Dritan Agalliu, Leslie M Thompson
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are an essential component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that shields the brain against toxins and immune cells. While BBB dysfunction exists in neurological disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD), it is not known if BMECs themselves are functionally compromised to promote BBB dysfunction. Further, the underlying mechanisms of BBB dysfunction remain elusive given limitations with mouse models and post-mortem tissue to identify primary deficits. We undertook a transcriptome and functional analysis of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived BMECs (iBMEC) from HD patients or unaffected controls...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511811/autoimmune-voltage-gated-potassium-channelopathy-presenting-with-catecholamine-excess
#8
K Amy Stepp, Christin Folker, Marie Tanzer, Jennifer Hayman, Thomas Reynolds, Leah Mallory
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune voltage-gated potassium channelopathies have been associated with a range of neurological presenting symptoms, including central, peripheral, and autonomic dysfunction. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a 12-year-old boy who presented with nine months of pain, anxiety, and 30-pound weight loss. He was admitted for failure to thrive, then noted to be persistently hypertensive and tachycardic. Plasma metanephrines and urine metanephrines and catecholamines were elevated...
April 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511258/management-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Ronald F Pfeiffer
Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and important nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Autonomic dysfunction in PD spans a broad clinical spectrum. Cardiovascular dysfunction is characterized most prominently by orthostatic hypotension. Gastrointestinal dysfunction can involve virtually all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary dysfunction can entail either too frequent voiding or difficulty voiding. Sexual dysfunction is frequent and frustrating for both the patient and the partner. Alterations in sweating and body temperature are not widely recognized, but often are present...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508370/a-proteomic-evaluation-of-sympathetic-activity-biomarkers-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-western-blotting-technique-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Hale Zerrin Toklu, Yasemin Sakarya, Nihal Tümer
Endocrine disorders and autonomic dysfunction are common paradigms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following TBI may result in impaired vasopressor response, energy imbalance, fatigue, depression, or neurological disorders. Autonomic dysfunction is a common disorder following TBI. The sympathetic activity markers on HPA axis can be measured by Western blot protein analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase are the key enzymes for the synthesis of norepinephrine; and neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the peptide that is co-stored and co-released with norepinephrine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507735/does-dysfunction-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-affect-success-of-renal-denervation-in-reducing-blood-pressure
#11
Lisa Fricke, David Petroff, Steffen Desch, Philipp Lurz, Sebastian Reinhardt, Melanie Sonnabend, Joseph Classen, Petra Baum
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation is an interventional approach aiming to reduce high blood pressure. Its efficacy is subject of controversial debate. We analyzed autonomic function in patients undergoing renal denervation to identify responders. METHODS: A total of 21 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension scheduled for renal denervation were included. Heart rate variability, pupillary function and sympathetic skin response were examined prior to intervention...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507628/does-vitamin-d-deficiency-effect-heart-rate-variability-in-low-cardiovascular-risk-population
#12
Ahmet Nalbant, Mehmet Bulent Vatan, Perihan Varım, Ceyhun Varım, Tezcan Kaya, Ali Tamer
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic dysfunction and the cardiac arrhythmia risk using heart rate variability parameters in subjects with vitamin D deficiency and low cardiovascular risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred five consecutive individuals, 54 patients with low vitamin D status and 51 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The overall cardiac autonomic tone was quantified by using various heart rate variability parameters included mean RR interval, mean Heart Rate, mean of standard deviations of intervals for 24 hours (SDNN), standard deviation of averages of intervals (SDANN), mean of standard deviation of intervals for 5 minutes (SDNNI), root mean square of difference of successive intervals (rMSSD) and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) values...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507507/pink1-parkin-dependent-mitochondrial-surveillance-from-pleiotropy-to-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Francois Mouton-Liger, Maxime Jacoupy, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Olga Corti
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504671/reduced-sensory-synaptic-excitation-impairs-motor-neuron-function-via-kv2-1-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#14
Emily V Fletcher, Christian M Simon, John G Pagiazitis, Joshua I Chalif, Aleksandra Vukojicic, Estelle Drobac, Xiaojian Wang, George Z Mentis
Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504110/neurological-consequences-of-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Phillipe D O'Brien, Lucy M Hinder, Brian C Callaghan, Eva L Feldman
The high prevalence of obesity is associated with an enormous medical, social, and economic burden. The metabolic dysfunction, dyslipidaemia, and inflammation caused by obesity contribute to the development of a wide variety of disorders and effects on the nervous system. In the CNS, mild cognitive impairment can be attributed to obesity-induced alterations in hippocampal structure and function in some patients. Likewise, compromised hypothalamic function and subsequent defects in maintaining whole-body energy balance might be early events that contribute to weight gain and obesity development...
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497404/sexual-dysfunction-following-rectal-cancer-surgery
#16
REVIEW
V Celentano, R Cohen, J Warusavitarne, O Faiz, M Chand
INTRODUCTION: Sexual and urological problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, multifactorial, inadequately discussed, and untreated. The urogenital function is dependent on dual autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation, and four key danger zones exist that are at risk for nerve damage during colorectal surgery: one of these sites is in the abdomen and three are in the pelvis. The aim of this study is to systematically review the epidemiology of sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer surgery, to describe the anatomical basis of autonomic nerve-preserving techniques, and to explore the scientific evidence available to support the laparoscopic or robotic approach over open surgery...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489693/dysfunctional-autonomic-regulation-of-the-choroid-in-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#17
C Nathaniel Roybal, Elisabeth Sledz, Yasser Elshatory, Li Zhang, David R P Almeida, Eric K Chin, Brice Critser, Michael D Abramoff, Stephen R Russell
PURPOSE: To study the effect of changing perfusion pressures on retinal and choroidal structure in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: This prospective observational case series included seven healthy volunteers (14 eyes) and seven patients (14 eyes) with CSC. Each patient underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging in the upright (sitting) and supine positions. Image segmentation focused on central macular thickness, subretinal fluid, total macular volume, choroidal thickness, and choriocapillaris thickness...
May 9, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487388/heart-rate-recovery-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#18
REVIEW
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Zilin Sun, Ling Li, Martina Zuegel, Juergen Michael Steinacker, Uwe Schumann
BACKGROUND: Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a noninvasive assessment of autonomic dysfunction and has been implicated with risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, evidence has not been systematically assessed. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantify these associations in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature search using 3 databases up to August 2016 was conducted for studies that reported hazard ratios with 95% CIs for the association between baseline HRR and outcomes of interest...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483340/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Juan Gui, Rui-Hao Wang
Recent studies reveal that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) might be associated with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, but with inconsistent results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to study whether women with PCOS have cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS were searched for studies comparing cardiovascular function between women with PCOS and controls. A random-effects model was used to evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) between women with PCOS and controls...
April 7, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482643/female-sexual-dysfunction-in-presymptomatic-mutation-carriers-and-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#20
Matej Kolenc, Jan Kobal, Simon Podnar
BACKGROUND: Although in Huntington's disease (HD) movement, cognition, and personality are most significantly affected, autonomic dysfunction should not be neglected. In women with HD sexual dysfunction has not been adequately studied yet. OBJECTIVE: To report sexual dysfunction in a systematically studied cohort of female HD patients and compare it with controls of a similar age. METHODS: In female HD patients and presymptomatic HD mutation carriers, we compared the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, neurologic assessment using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Total Functional Capacity (TFC)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
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