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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343379/hepatitis-c-virus-nonstructural-5a-protein-hcv-ns5a-inhibits-hepatocyte-apoptosis-through-the-nf-kappab-mir-503-bcl-2-pathway
#1
Xie Zheng Yuan, Xiao Zhi Hua, Wang Fen Fen
The nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) encoded by the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome is a multifunctional phosphoprotein. To analyse the influence of NS5A on apoptosis, we established an Hep-NS5A cell line (HepG2 cells that stably express NS5A) and induced apoptosis using tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. We utilised the MTT assay to detect cell viability, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyse gene and protein expression, and a luciferase reporter gene experiment to investigate the targeted regulatory relationship...
March 27, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343281/using-patterns-of-genetic-association-to-elucidate-shared-genetic-etiologies-across-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Seung Bin Cho, Fazil Aliev, Shaunna L Clark, Amy E Adkins, Howard J Edenberg, Kathleen K Bucholz, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick
Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399)...
March 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343277/pancreatic-alpha-cell-selective-deletion-of-tcf7l2-impairs-glucagon-secretion-and-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycaemia-in-mice
#3
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, Angeles Mondragon, Vishnou Mourougavelou, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Jessica Denom, Pedro Luis Herrera, Christophe Magnan, Guy A Rutter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor and downstream effector of the Wnt signalling pathway. SNPs in the TCF7L2 gene have previously been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. In animal studies, loss of Tcf7l2 function is associated with defective islet beta cell function and survival. Here, we explore the role of TCF7L2 in the control of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia by generating mice with selective deletion of the Tcf7l2 gene in pancreatic alpha cells...
March 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343268/cytogenetic-comparison-of-heteromorphic-and-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-coccinia-cucurbitaceae-points-to-sex-chromosome-turnover
#4
Aretuza Sousa, Jörg Fuchs, Susanne S Renner
Our understanding of the evolution of plant sex chromosomes is increasing rapidly due to high-throughput sequencing data and phylogenetic and molecular-cytogenetic approaches that make it possible to infer the evolutionary direction and steps leading from homomorphic to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Here, we focus on four species of Coccinia, a genus of 25 dioecious species, including Coccinia grandis, the species with the largest known plant Y chromosome. Based on a phylogeny for the genus, we selected three species close to C...
March 25, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343239/improved-full-length-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-transcript-discovery-in-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques
#5
Trent M Prall, Michael E Graham, Julie A Karl, Roger W Wiseman, Adam J Ericsen, Muthuswamy Raveendran, R Alan Harris, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Jeffrey Rogers, David H O'Connor
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) modulate disease progression of pathogens including HIV, malaria, and hepatitis C. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are widely used as nonhuman primate models to study human pathogens, and so, considerable effort has been put into characterizing their KIR genetics. However, previous studies have relied on cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing that lack the throughput of current sequencing platforms. In this study, we present a high throughput, full-length allele discovery method utilizing Pacific Biosciences circular consensus sequencing (CCS)...
March 25, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343140/sequence-encoded-material-properties-dictate-the-structure-and-function-of-nuclear-bodies
#6
REVIEW
Stephanie C Weber
Concomitant with packaging the genome, the cell nucleus must also spatially organize the nucleoplasm. This complex mixture of proteins and nucleic acids partitions into a variety of phase-separated, membraneless organelles called nuclear bodies. Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the material properties of nuclear bodies and their structural and functional consequences. Furthermore, the molecular basis of these condensed phases is beginning to emerge. Here, I review the latest work in this exciting field, highlighting recent advances and new challenges...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343122/genetic-and-epigenetic-variation-of-transposable-elements-in-arabidopsis
#7
REVIEW
Charles J Underwood, Ian R Henderson, Robert A Martienssen
Transposable elements are mobile genetic elements that are prevalent in plant genomes and are silenced by epigenetic modification. Different epigenetic modification pathways play distinct roles in the control of transposable element transcription, replication and recombination. The Arabidopsis genome contains families of all of the major transposable element classes, which are differentially enriched in particular genomic regions. Whole genome sequencing and DNA methylation profiling of hundreds of natural Arabidopsis accessions has revealed that transposable elements exhibit significant intraspecific genetic and epigenetic variation, and that genetic variation often underlies epigenetic variation...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343093/influence-of-genetic-variants-of-cyp2d6-cyp2c9-cyp2c19-and-cyp3a4-on-antiepileptic-drug-metabolism-in-pediatric-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#8
Miguel A López-García, Iris A Feria-Romero, Héctor Serrano, Darío Rayo-Mares, Pietro Fagiolino, Marta Vázquez, Consuelo Escamilla-Núñez, Israel Grijalva, David Escalante-Santiago, Sandra Orozco-Suarez
BACKGROUND: Identified the polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, within a rigorously selected population of pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHOD: The genomic DNA of 23 drug-resistant epilepsy patients and 7 patients with good responses were analyzed. Ten exons in these four genes were genotyped, and the drug concentrations in saliva and plasma were determined. RESULTS: The relevant SNPs with pharmacogenomics relations were CYP2D6*2 (rs16947) decreased your activity and CYP2D6*4 (rs1065852), CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) by association with poor metabolizer...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343090/developmental-systems-of-plasticity-and-trans-generational-epigenetic-inheritance-in-nematodes
#9
REVIEW
Vahan Serobyan, Ralf J Sommer
Several decades of research provided detailed insight into how genes control development and evolution, whereas recent studies have expanded this purely genetic perspective by presenting strong evidence for environmental and epigenetic influences. We summarize examples of phenotypic plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in the nematode model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, which indicate that the response of developmental systems to environmental influences is hardwired into the organismś genome...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343068/the-role-of-trail-in-fatigue-induced-by-repeated-stress-from-radiotherapy
#10
Li Rebekah Feng, Simeng Suy, Sean P Collins, Leorey N Saligan
Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating side effects of cancer and cancer treatment, and yet its etiology remains elusive. The goal of this study is to understand the role of chronic inflammation in fatigue following repeated stress from radiotherapy. Fatigue and non-fatigue categories were assessed using ≥ 3-point change in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue questionnaire (FACT-F) administered to participants at baseline/before radiotherapy and one year post-radiotherapy. Whole genome microarray and cytokine multiplex panel were used to examine fatigue-related transcriptome and serum cytokine changes, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343064/a-barley-homolog-of-yeast-atg6-is-involved-in-multiple-abiotic-stress-responses-and-stress-resistance-regulation
#11
Xiaowei Zeng, Zhanghui Zeng, Cuicui Liu, Weiyi Yuan, Ning Hou, Hongwu Bian, Muyuan Zhu, Ning Han
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation pathway among eukaryote cells, which can recycle damaged or unwanted cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. As a key component of the Class III PI3K kinase complex, ATG6/Beclin-1 is essential for autophagosome formation. In this study, we isolated a putative HvATG6 gene in barley genome. The protein encoded by HvATG6 shares high sequence identity to ATG6 orthologs in rice and wheat, and has a typical autophagy-specific domain containing segments of repeated β-sheet-α-helix...
March 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343001/comprehensive-functional-analysis-of-large-lists-of-genes-and-proteins
#12
Bernhard Mlecnik, Jérôme Galon, Gabriela Bindea
The interpretation of high dimensional datasets resulting from genomic and proteomic experiments in a timely and efficient manner is challenging. ClueGO software is a Cytoscape App that extracts representative functional biological information for large lists of genes or proteins. The functional enrichment analysis is based on the latest publicly available data from multiple annotation and ontology resources that can be automatically accessed through ClueGO. Predefined settings for the selection of the terms are provided to facilitate the analysis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342986/oncogenic-roles-of-dna-hypomethylation-through-the-activation-of-cancer-germline-genes
#13
Aurélie Van Tongelen, Axelle Loriot, Charles De Smet
Global loss of DNA methylation is frequently observed in the genome of human tumors. Although this epigenetic alteration is clearly associated with cancer progression, the way it exerts its pro-tumoral effect remains incompletely understood. A remarkable consequence of DNA hypomethylation in tumors is the aberrant activation of "cancer-germline" genes (also known as "cancer-testis" genes), which comprise a diverse group of germline-specific genes that use DNA methylation as a primary mechanism for repression in normal somatic tissues...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342968/heterologous-expression-purification-and-characterization-of-three-novel-esterases-secreted-by-the-lignocellulolytic-fungus-penicillium-purpurogenum-when-grown-on-sugar-beet-pulp
#14
Gabriela Oleas, Eduardo Callegari, Romina Sepúlveda, Jaime Eyzaguirre
The lignocellulolytic fungus, Penicillium purpurogenum, grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, among them sugar beet pulp. Culture supernatants of P. purpurogenum grown on sugar beet pulp were partially purified and the fractions obtained analyzed for esterase activity by zymograms. The bands with activity on methyl umbelliferyl acetate were subjected to mass spectrometry to identify peptides. The peptides obtained were probed against the proteins deduced from the genome sequence of P. purpurogenum...
March 18, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342941/is-there-any-crosstalk-between-the-chemotaxis-and-virulence-induction-signaling-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#15
REVIEW
Minliang Guo, Zhiwei Huang, Jing Yang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil-born phytopathogenic bacterium, is well known as a nature's engineer due to its ability to genetically transform the host by transferring a DNA fragment (called T-DNA) from its Ti plasmid to host-cell genome. To combat the harsh soil environment and seek the appropriate host, A. tumefaciens can sense and be attracted by a large number of chemical compounds released by wounded host. As a member of α-proteobacterium, A. tumefaciens has a chemotaxis system different from that found in Escherichia coli, since many chemoattractants for A...
March 23, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342926/causes-and-clinical-features-of-infertile-men-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia-and-histopathological-diagnosis-of-hypospermatogenesis
#16
Yu-Sheng Cheng, Chun-Wun Lu, Tsung-Yen Lin, Pei-Yu Lin, Yung-Ming Lin
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes and the clinical features of infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and hypospermatogenesis (HS). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 100 patients with NOA and HS and eight patients with obstructive azoospermia and normal spermatogenesis. The severity of HS was subdivided into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe) based on spermatogenic score. Data of history, physical findings, serum hormone profiles, genetic studies and sperm retrieval rate (SRR) were collected...
March 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342866/the-t47d-cell-line-is-an-ideal-experimental-model-to-elucidate-the-progesterone-specific-effects-of-a-luminal-a-subtype-of-breast-cancer
#17
Sungryul Yu, Taemook Kim, Kyung Hyun Yoo, Keunsoo Kang
Cell lines are often used as in vitro tools to mimic certain types of in vivo system; several cell lines, including MCF-7 and T47D, have been widely used in breast cancer studies without investigating the cell lines' characteristics. In this study, we compared the genome-wide binding profiles of ERα, PR, and P300, and the gene expression changes between MCF-7 and T47D cell lines that represent the luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Surprisingly, several thousand genes were differentially expressed under estrogenic condition...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#18
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342823/evidence-that-increased-kcnj6-gene-dose-is-necessary-for-deficits-in-behavior-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#19
Alexander M Kleschevnikov, Jessica Yu, Jeesun Kim, Larisa V Lysenko, Zheng Zhen, Y Eugene Yu, William C Mobley
Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is caused by increased dose of genes present on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The gene-dose hypothesis argues that a change in the dose of individual genes or regulatory sequences on HSA21 is necessary for creating DS-related phenotypes, including cognitive impairment. We focused on a possible role for Kcnj6, the gene encoding Kir3.2 (Girk2) subunits of a G-protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. This gene resides on a segment of mouse Chromosome 16 that is present in one extra copy in the genome of the Ts65Dn mouse, a well-studied genetic model of DS...
March 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342817/complete-genome-sequence-of-streptomyces-griseochromogenes-atcc-14511-t-a-producer-of-nucleoside-compounds-and-diverse-secondary-metabolites
#20
Wu Lijuan, Guoqing Chen, Guozhong Feng
ATCC 14511(T) (=DSM 40499, =NBRC 13413) is a type strain of Streptomyces griseochromogenes. It is known as a producer of nucleoside antibiotic, blasticidin S. In this report we present the complete genome sequence of S. griseochromogenes ATCC 14511(T), which consists of 10,764,674bp with a linear chromosome, 9,822 protein-coding genes, 6 rRNA operons, 74 tRNA and 3 sRNA. The genomic analysis revealed that 52 putative gene clusters are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including four gene clusters of nucleoside antibiotics...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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