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Anna Aryani Amir, Jennifer M Kelly, David O Kleemann, Zoey Durmic, Dominique Blache, Graeme B Martin
Phyto-oestrogens such as isoflavones are natural compounds that can profoundly affect reproductive function. In the present study, we tested whether including isoflavone compounds (genistein, biochanin A, formononetin) in the maturation medium would affect the outcomes for ovine oocytes in vitro. Each isoflavone compound was evaluated at five concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25µgmL-1) and the entire protocol was repeated four times. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were randomly allocated to the treatments, then fertilised and cultured in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Miles J De Blasio, Stuart A Lanham, Dominique Blache, Richard Oc Oreffo, Abigail L Fowden, Alison J Forhead
Widespread expression of leptin and its receptor in developing cartilage and bone suggests that leptin may regulate bone growth and development in the fetus. Using micro-computed tomography, this study investigated the effects of exogenous leptin and leptin receptor antagonism on aspects of bone structure in the sheep fetus during late gestation. From 125-130 days of gestation (term ~145 days), chronically-catheterised singleton sheep fetuses were infused intravenously for five days with either saline (0.9% saline, n=13), recombinant ovine leptin at two doses (0...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Owen Rhys Vaughan, Miles J De Blasio, Abigail L Fowden
Cortisol modifies fetal metabolism in preparation for delivery but whether preterm cortisol exposure programs persisting changes in feto-placental metabolism remains unknown. This study infused fetal sheep with saline (n=36) or cortisol (n=27), to raise fetal plasma cortisol to normal prepartum concentrations, for 5 days from day 125 of gestation (term≈145 days). Fetal uptake and uteroplacental metabolism of glucose, oxygen and lactate, together with fetal hepatic glucogenic capacity, were measured on the final day of infusion or 5 days later...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Cindy C Shu, James Melrose
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to ascertain how altered biomechanics in adolescent idiopathic scoliotic (AIS) intervertebral discs (IVDs) affected tissue compositions and aggrecan processing compared to age matched and aged human IVDs. Newborn, 2- and 10-year-old ovine IVDs were also examined. METHODS: Aggrecan populations were separated by Sepharose CL2B chromatography, composite agarose polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CAPAGE) and identified by immunoblotting...
February 13, 2018: European Spine Journal
Helen Lydon, Roger Brooks, Andrew McCaskie, Frances Henson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated that circulating peripheral blood mononuclear fractions (PBMC) containing haematopoietic stem (HSC)/progenitor cells have the potential to play a crucial role in regenerative medicine strategies. Work in our laboratory has shown that a peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction (PBMC) enhances cartilage repair in an osteochondral defect model in sheep and has a significant effect on cells in the joint niche. In order to obtain PBMC rich blood containing HSCs for further studies, we have performed, for the first time, apheresis on adult sheep...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Michał Danek, Janusz Danek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Jéssica de Oliveira Monteschio, Poliana Campos Burin, Ariadne Patricia Leonardo, Daiane Aparecido Fausto, Adrielly Lais Alves da Silva, Hélio de Almeida Ricardo, Marcelo Corrêa da Silva, Márcio Rodrigues de Souza, Fernando Miranda de Vargas Junior
This study configures a first report regarding the variability of meat quality of locally adapted Pantaneiro sheep depending on different physiological stages and breeding systems. Pantaneiro sheep are raised in Brazil under a tropical wetland ecosystem denominated Pantanal. Twenty-nine Pantaneiro sheep from different sex and physiological stages were sorted into three groups, simulating three of the most representative ovine meat products commercialized by South American industries: a) non castrated male lambs (n = 11); b) wethers (n = 9); c) cull ewes (n = 9)...
2018: PloS One
Fathi Abouhajer, Saeed El-Ashram, Musafiri Karama, Shujian Huang, Jian-Feng Liu
We have set up an ex vivo ovine ruminal model, which can mimic the multicellular process to explore the early steps in Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation using RNA-seq technology. Ovine ruminal explants were collected for histological and transcriptional analysis and supernatants collected to quantitate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes. A total of 8 and 523 genes were significantly over-expressed between LPS-treated and control tissues at 6 and 12 h, respectively. However, six and seven hundred and thirteen genes were substantially repressed between the aforementioned tissues, correspondingly...
February 10, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Michele Pazzola, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato, Maria L Dettori, Giuseppe M Vacca
The present study investigated the effect of somatic cell count, lactose, and pH on sheep milk composition, coagulation properties (MCP), and curd firming (CF) parameters. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,114 Sarda ewes reared in 23 farms. Milk composition, somatic cell count, single point MCP (rennet coagulation time, RCT; curd firming time, k20; and curd firmness, a30, a45, and a60), and CF model parameters were achieved. Phenotypic traits were statistically analyzed using a mixed model to estimate the effects of the different levels of milk somatic cell score (SCS), lactose, and pH, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ravjibhai K Chaudhari, Ajit Singh Mahla, Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Abhijit M Pawde, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, GyanendraSingh, Mihir Sarkar, Harendra Kumar, Krishnaswamy Narayanan
Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F 2α and E 2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days...
February 8, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
J A Scare, E T Lyons, K M Wielgus, M K Nielsen
Equine cyathostomin are pervasive gastrointestinal parasites with wide-spread resistance to the benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidine drug classes worldwide. Combination deworming has been proposed as a more sustainable parasite control strategy. Simulation studies have found combination deworming to be effective in controlling drug resistant ovine trichostrongylid parasites. One equine study demonstrated an additive effect of a combination of oxibendazole and pyrantel pamoate against cyathostomins. However, this is the only equine study evaluating combination therapy, and the effects of repeated combination treatments administered over time remain unknown...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Gagandeep Singh, Sheela Ramamoorthy
Torque teno viruses [TTVs] are negative sense, single-stranded, DNA viruses, which are distributed globally in several mammalian hosts such as humans, apes, sheep and swine in a species-specific manner. While the pathogenic potential of TTVs is under debate, recent experimental studies in gnotobiotic pigs indicate that swine TTVs, TTSuV1 in particular, can act as a primary or co-infecting pathogen. Hence, determining whether TTSuV1 can infect other mammals would eventually further our understanding of viral pathogenesis, especially in coinfections...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Alexander D Malkin, Sang-Ho Ye, Evan J Lee, Xiguang Yang, Yang Zhu, Lara J Gamble, William J Federspiel, William R Wagner
Respiratory assist devices, that utilize ∼2 m2 of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) to achieve desired gas transfer rates, have been limited in their adoption due to such blood biocompatibility limitations. This study reports two techniques for the functionalization and subsequent conjugation of zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB) block copolymers to polymethylpentene (PMP) HFM surfaces with the intention of reducing thrombus formation in respiratory assist devices. Amine or hydroxyl functionalization of PMP HFMs (PMP-A or PMP-H) was accomplished using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Nickala Best, Jacek Gwozdz, Robert Suter, Grant Rawlin, Travis Beddoe
OBJECTIVE: Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of footrot in sheep. Ovine footrot is a major problem in Australia that results in large economic losses and a represents a very significant animal welfare issue. D. nodosus is divided into 10 serogroups (A-I, M), based on sequence variation in the type IV fimbriae gene, fimA. Control of the bacteria is possible through use of serogroup-specific vaccination, however traditional identification of the serogroups of D. nodosus on infected sheep is time-consuming and costly...
February 7, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Taylor Pini, Simon P de Graaf, Xavier Druart, Guillaume Tsikis, Valerie Labas, Ana Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Barend M Gadella, Tamara Leahy
Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs) are the most abundant seminal plasma protein family in the ram and bull. They have been extensively studied in the bull but less is known about their function in ovine seminal plasma and current knowledge suggests BSPs may have different effects in these two species. In the bull they facilitate capacitation and destabilize the sperm membrane during in vitro handling, whereas in the ram, they appear to stabilize the sperm membrane and prevent cryopreservation induced capacitation-like changes...
February 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Frank Turnbull, Nicholas N Jonsson, Fiona Kenyon, Philip J Skuce, Stewart A Bisset
The Teladorsagia circumcincta P-glycoprotein-9 (Tci-pgp-9) gene has previously been implicated in multiple-anthelmintic resistance in this parasite. Here we further characterise genetic diversity in Tci-pgp-9 and its possible role in ivermectin (IVM) and multi-drug resistance using two UK field isolates of T. circumcincta, one susceptible to anthelmintics (MTci2) and the other resistant to most available anthelmintics including IVM (MTci5). A comparison of full-length Tci-pgp-9 cDNA transcripts from the MTci2 and MTci5 isolates (∼3...
January 31, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Matthew Hughes, Jason Bernard, Matthew Szarko
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro biomechanical study into the effect of rib deconstruction on the flexibility in ovine ribs, using three-point bending. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and possible effectiveness of a more conservative costoplasty using an in vitro animal model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Costoplasty remains useful in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, rib hump, and associated chest wall deformities. However, traditional costoplasty increases morbidity and blood loss...
March 2018: Spine Deformity
Yasser Y Lenis, Gregory A Johnson, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wendy W Tang, Kathrin A Dunlap, M Carey Satterfield, Guoyao Wu, Thomas R Hansen, Fuller W Bazer
Background: Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Britta Kanter, Anna Vikman, Theresa Brückner, Martha Schamel, Uwe Gbureck, Anita Ignatius
Magnesium phosphate minerals have captured increasing attention during the past years as suitable alternatives for calcium phosphate bone replacement materials. Here, we investigated the degradation and bone regeneration capacity of experimental struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) forming magnesium phosphate cements in two different orthotopic ovine implantation models. Cements formed at powder to liquid ratios (PLR) of 2.0 and 3.0 g ml-1 were implanted into trabecular bone using a non-load-bearing femoral drill-hole model and a load-bearing tibial defect model...
January 31, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Zheng Li, Meng Li, Xin Li, Jianzeng Xin, Ying Wang, Qingwu W Shen, Dequan Zhang
A quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation in ovine LTL muscle with different color stability was performed in the present study using TMT labeling in combination with TiO2 phosphopeptide enrichment. A total of 3412 phosphopeptides assigned to 1070 phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry, of which 243 proteins were detected to be differentially phosphorylated between muscles of different color stability. Among these differentially phosphorylated proteins, 27 phosphoproteins were identified to be key color-related proteins by informatics analysis...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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