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Gesine Lühken, Stefan Krebs, Sophie Rothammer, Julia Küpper, Boro Mioč, Ingolf Russ, Ivica Medugorac
BACKGROUND: The mode of inheritance of horn status in sheep is far more complex than a superficial analysis might suggest. Observations, which were mostly based on crossbreeding experiments, indicated that the allele that results in horns is dominant in males and recessive in females, and some authors even speculated about the involvement of more than two alleles. However, all recent genome-wide association analyses point towards a very strong effect of a single autosomal locus on ovine chromosome 10, which was narrowed down to a putatively causal insertion polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 gene (RXFP2)...
October 19, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Guillaume Van der Rest, Human Rezaei, Frédéric Halgand
Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the plasticity of the ovine prion protein (PrP) monomer, wild type (A136, R154, Q171), mutants and deletions of ARQ were studied by traveling wave ion mobility experiments coupled to mass spectrometry...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Joyce Bischoff, Guillem Casanovas, Jill Wylie-Sears, Dae-Hee Kim, Philipp Bartko, J Guerrero, Jacob Dal-Bianco, Jonathan Beaudoin, Michael Garcia, Suzanne Sullivan, Margo Seybolt, Brittan Morris, Joshua Keegan, Whitney Irvin, Elena Aikawa, Robert Levine
RATIONALE: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR), a complication after myocardial infarction (MI), induces adaptive mitral valve (MV) responses that may be initially beneficial, but eventually lead to leaflet fibrosis and MV dysfunction. We sought to examine the MV endothelial response and its potential contribution to IMR. OBJECTIVE: Endothelial, interstitial and hematopoietic cells in MVs from post-MI sheep were quantified. MV endothelial CD45, found post-MI, was analyzed in vitro...
October 6, 2016: Circulation Research
Owen M Slater, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Manigandan Lejeune, David Gummer, Bryan Macbeth, Amy Warren, Tomy Joseph, Hong Li, Cristina W Cunha, Pádraig J Duignan
Malignant catarrhal fever-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) from Alberta, Canada, in June 2015. Antemortem and gross pathology findings included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss, and bilaterally symmetric alopecia with hyperpigmentation and crusting over the face, medial surfaces of the pinnae, dorsal trunk, distal limbs, perineal area, and tail. Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by granulomatous mural folliculitis with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with previous reports of chronic ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Qingli Niu, Zhijie Liu, Jifei Yang, Peifa Yu, Yuping Pan, Bintao Zhai, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin
Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Radoslava Vlčková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Igor Valocký, Attila Kádasi, Abdel Halim Harrath, Vladimír Petrilla, Alexander V Sirotkin
Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
V A Reva, Y Matsumura, T Hörer, D A Sveklov, A V Denisov, S Y Telickiy, A B Seleznev, E R Bozhedomova, J Matsumoto, I M Samokhvalov, J J Morrison
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the early survival and organ damage following 30 and 60 min of thoracic resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in an ovine model of severe hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Eighteen sheep were induced into shock by undergoing a 35 % controlled exsanguination over 30 min. Animals were randomized into three groups: 60-min REBOA 30 min after the bleeding (60-REBOA), 30-min REBOA 60 min after the bleeding (30-REBOA) and no-REBOA control (n-REBOA)...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Alana M Thackray, Olivier Andreoletti, Raymond Bujdoso
In pursuit of a tractable bioassay to assess blood prion infectivity we have generated PrP transgenic Drosophila , which show a neurotoxic phenotype in adulthood after exposure to exogenous prions at the larval stage. Here we determined the sensitivity of ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila to ovine prion infectivity by exposure of these flies to a dilution series of scrapie-infected sheep brain homogenate. Ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila showed a significant neurotoxic response to dilutions of 10-2 through to 10-10 of the original scrapie-infected sheep brain homogenate...
October 12, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Christopher B Rodell, Madonna E Lee, Hua Wang, Satoshi Takebayashi, Tetsushi Takayama, Tomonori Kawamura, Jeffrey S Arkles, Neville N Dusaj, Shauna M Dorsey, Walter R T Witschey, James J Pilla, Joseph H Gorman, Jonathan F Wenk, Jason A Burdick, Robert C Gorman
BACKGROUND: Injectable, acellular biomaterials hold promise to limit left ventricular remodeling and heart failure precipitated by infarction through bulking or stiffening the infarct region. A material with tunable properties (eg, mechanics, degradation) that can be delivered percutaneously has not yet been demonstrated. Catheter-deliverable soft hydrogels with in vivo stiffening to enhance therapeutic efficacy achieve these requirements. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a hyaluronic acid hydrogel that uses a tandem crosslinking approach, where the first crosslinking (guest-host) enabled injection and localized retention of a soft (<1 kPa) hydrogel...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Susanne Niedermeyer, Martin Eiden, Pavlos Toumazos, Penelope Papasavva-Stylianou, Ioannis Ioannou, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Cynthia Panagiotidis, Jan Langeveld, Alex Bossers, Thorsten Kuczius, Martin Kaatz, Martin H Groschup, Christine Fast
Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary Research
Y Liu, Y F Zhang, X L Sun, S Y Liu
The envelope protein (Env) of the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is known to be a unique oncoprotein responsible for inducing ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The objective of this study was to prepare a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the JSRV Env protein using bioinformatic analysis. According to the structure and epitope prediction results of JSRV Env, the JSRV-Env572-615 antigen was prepared via peptide synthesis (amino acid sequence 572-615, denoted as JSRV-Env572-615). BALB/c mice were immunized to prepare the anti-JSRV-Env572-615 mAb...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Chrysanthi Fergani, Leanne Mazzella, Lique M Coolen, Richard B McCosh, Steven L Hardy, Nora Newcomb, Pasha Grachev, Michael N Lehman, Robert L Goodman
There is now general agreement that neurokinin B (NKB) acts via NK3R to stimulate secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in several species, including rats, mice, sheep, and humans. However the roles of two other tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), which act primarily via NK1R and NK2R respectively, are less clear. In rodents, these signaling pathways can stimulate LH release and substitute for NKB signaling; in humans, SP is colocalized with kisspeptin and NKB in the mediobasal hypothalamus...
October 5, 2016: Endocrinology
Charles H Bloodworth, Eric L Pierce, Thomas F Easley, Andrew Drach, Amir H Khalighi, Milan Toma, Morten O Jensen, Michael S Sacks, Ajit P Yoganathan
Computational modeling of the mitral valve (MV) has potential applications for determining optimal MV repair techniques and risk of recurrent mitral regurgitation. Two key concerns for informing these models are (1) sensitivity of model performance to the accuracy of the input geometry, and, (2) acquisition of comprehensive data sets against which the simulation can be validated across clinically relevant geometries. Addressing the first concern, ex vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT) was used to image MVs at high resolution (~40 micron voxel size)...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Chen-Hsuan Liu, Fun-In Wang, Li-Jen Chang, Victor Fei Pang
An ~21-year-old female Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) died spontaneously following a lengthy episode of difficulty in walking. An ~6 × 3 × 3 cm, unilocular cystic growth was found in the cranioventral thorax. The fibrotic cystic wall, lined by a single layer of flattened to cuboidal epithelial cells, was invaginated and partially encircled solid masses of fusiform neoplastic cells with multiple intratumoral cystic structures. The fusiform neoplastic cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin (CK) and partially positive for α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Mohamed Barkallah, Yaakoub Gharbi, Sonia Zormati, Nesrine Karkouch, Zouhir Mallek, Michel Gautier, Radhouane Gdoura, Imen Fendri
In this study, we conducted an investigation to determine the true prevalence of bovine and ovine brucellosis in central-eastern Tunisia. A total of 1134 veterinary samples taken from 130 ruminant herds were screened for brucellosis using IS711-based real-time PCR assay. Sera collected from the ruminants were tested using the Rose Bengal test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on serological and molecular results, the true adjusted animal population level prevalence was 23.5 % in cattle, against 13...
October 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
R Elgendy, M Giantin, F Castellani, L Grotta, F Palazzo, M Dacasto, G Martino
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a high dietary Se supplementation on the whole transcriptome of sheep. A custom sheep whole-transcriptome microarray, with more than 23,000 unique transcripts, was designed and then used to profile the global gene expression of sheep after feeding a high dietary supplementation of organic Se. Lactating crossbred ewes ( = 10; 3 to 4 yr of age and 55 to 65 kg BW) at late lactation (100 ± 8 d in milk) were acclimated to indoor individual pen feeding of a basal control diet (0...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Nerissa Lakhan, Natalie E Stevens, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball
Adjuvants are used to enhance the immune response against specific antigens for the production of antibodies, with the choice of adjuvant most critical for poorly immunogenic and self-antigens. This study quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated CoVaccine HT™ and Freund's adjuvants for eliciting therapeutic ovine polyclonal antibodies targeting the endogenous alarmin, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Sheep were immunised with HMGB1 protein in CoVaccine HT™ or Freund's adjuvants, with injection site reactions and antibody titres periodically assessed...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Richard F Neville, Samit K Gupta, David J Kuraguntla
OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail because of hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function; however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative sensor with wireless, microchip technology allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a "cloud"-based algorithm. We performed proof-of-concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jianying Tao, Juanxiu Lv, Weisheng Li, Pengjie Zhang, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure through the receptor dependent or independent route. However, the effect of melatonin on fetal blood pressure is unknown. This study investigated the effect of melatonin on blood pressure of the late-term ovine fetus in utero. Melatonin and/or antagonists were intravenously administered into the fetuses. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. Fetal blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters and hormones, including cortisol, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and endothelin...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
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