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Brain tumor stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212562/overexpression-of-mir-29a-reduces-the-oncogenic-properties-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-by-downregulating-quaking-gene-isoform-6
#1
Zhuo Xi, Ping Wang, Yixue Xue, Chao Shang, Xiaobai Liu, Jun Ma, Zhiqing Li, Zhen Li, Min Bao, Yunhui Liu
Glioblastoma is the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor and has high recurrence and lethality rates. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), a subpopulation of glioblastoma cells, may promote rapid tumor recurrence and therapy resistance. Because altered microRNA (miR) expression in GSCs may lead to glioblastoma progression, we assessed the effects of miR-29a expression on the oncogenic behavior of GSCs. MiR-29a expression was lower in GSCs than non-GSCs, and overexpression of miR-29a in GSCs inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but promoted apoptosis...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210976/regenerative-medicine-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-differentiated-nerve-cells-derived-from-human-buccal-fat-pad-stem-cells
#2
Haruka Takahashi, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Akira Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208648/n-butylidenephthalide-regulated-tumor-stem-cell-genes-ezh2-axl-and-reduced-its-migration-and-invasion-in-glioblastoma
#3
Ssu-Yin Yen, Hong-Meng Chuang, Mao-Hsuan Huang, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Horng-Jyh Harn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive types of brain tumor. Due to its highly recurrent rate and poor prognosis, the overall survival time with this type of tumor is only 20-21 months. Recent knowledge suggests that its recurrence is in part due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which display radioresistant, chemoresistant, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Enhancers of Zeste 2 (EZH2) and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) are both highly expressed in GBM. Additionally, they are an essential regulator involved in CSCs maintenance, migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness, metastasis and patient survival...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197638/cobalt-chloride-treatment-induces-autophagic-apoptosis-in-human-glioma-cells-via-a-p53-dependent-pathway
#4
Bor-Chin Cheng, Jui-Tai Chen, Shun-Tai Yang, Chung-Ching Chio, Shing-Hwa Liu, Ruei-Ming Chen
Malignant glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor. Hypoxic condition has been explored for killing cancer stem cells or drug-resistant tumor cells. This study investigated the effects of hypoxia on autophagic death and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of human malignant glioma U87-MG cells to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) increased cellular hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels and concurrently decreased cell viability concentration- and time-dependently. In parallel, treatment with CoCl2 suppressed proliferation of human U87-MG cells...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191774/novel-peripherally-derived-neural-like-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-carriers-for-treating-glioblastomas
#5
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184912/interaction-between-transcription-factors-pax6-pax6-5a-and-specific-members-of-mir-183-96-182-cluster-may-contribute-to-glioma-progression-in-glioblastoma-cell-lines
#6
Evangelos Pavlakis, Anton B Tonchev, Ara Kaprelyan, Yavor Enchev, Anastassia Stoykova
A misbalance between proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in niches for adult brain neurogenesis is a key mechanism in glioma pathogenesis. In the adult brain, the expression of Pax6 marks stem cells in the forebrain neurogenic niche. We analyzed the expression profile of the two active in vertebrates Pax6 isoforms, Pax6 and Pax6-5a, along with the expression of microRNA cluster miR-183-96-182 in a large set of glioma patient specimens and glioma cell lines which showed opposite expression level, low and high, respectively, with the progression of tumor malignancy...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181105/protein-kinase-ck2-is-important-for-the-function-of-glioblastoma-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#7
Amber L Rowse, Sara A Gibson, Gordon P Meares, Rajani Rajbhandari, Susan E Nozell, Kory J Dees, Anita B Hjelmeland, Braden C McFarland, Etty N Benveniste
Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase composed of two catalytic subunits (α) and/or (α') and two regulatory (β) subunits. The expression and kinase activity of CK2 is elevated in many different cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) are a subset of cells that are highly tumorigenic and promote the resistance of GBM to current therapies. We previously reported that CK2 activity promotes prosurvival signaling in GBM. In this study, the role of CK2 signaling in BTIC function was examined...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169355/enhancement-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-based-fluorescence-detection-of-side-population-defined-glioma-stem-cells-by-iron-chelation
#8
Wenqian Wang, Kouichi Tabu, Yuichiro Hagiya, Yuta Sugiyama, Yasuhiro Kokubu, Yoshitaka Murota, Shun-Ichiro Ogura, Tetsuya Taga
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are dominantly responsible for tumor progression and chemo/radio-resistance, resulting in tumor recurrence. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is metabolized to fluorescent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) specifically in tumor cells, and therefore clinically used as a reagent for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and therapy (PDT) of cancers including gliomas. However, it remains to be clarified whether this method could be effective for CSC detection. Here, using flow cytometry-based analysis, we show that side population (SP)-defined C6 glioma CSCs (GSCs) displayed much less 5-ALA-derived PpIX fluorescence than non-GSCs...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160777/curcumin-decreases-malignant-characteristics-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-induction-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
Zachary C Gersey, Gregor A Rodriguez, Eric Barbarite, Anthony Sanchez, Winston M Walters, Kelechi C Ohaeto, Ricardo J Komotar, Regina M Graham
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of primary brain tumor in adults. Following standard treatment of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, patients are expected to survive 12-14 months. Theorized cause of disease recurrence in these patients is tumor cell repopulation through the proliferation of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells. Current research has revealed curcumin, the principal ingredient in turmeric, can modulate multiple signaling pathways important for cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival...
February 4, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160553/small-g-protein-rac-gtpases-regulate-the-maintenance-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Yun-Ju Lai, Jui-Cheng Tsai, Ying-Ting Tseng, Meng-Shih Wu, Wen-Shan Liu, Hoi-Ian Lam, Jei-Hwa Yu, Susan E Nozell, Etty N Benveniste
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. The existence of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) or stem-like cells (stemloids) may account for its invasiveness and high recurrence. Rac proteins belong to the Rho small GTPase subfamily which regulates cell movement, proliferation, and survival. To investigate whether Rac proteins can serve as therapeutic targets for glioblastoma, especially for GSCs or stemloids, we examined the potential roles of Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3 on the properties of tumorspheres derived from glioblastoma cell lines...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157712/the-interference-of-notch1-target-hes1-affects-cell-growth-differentiation-and-invasiveness-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-through-modulation-of-multiple-oncogenic-targets
#11
Carlo Cenciarelli, Hany E Marei, Manuela Zonfrillo, Patrizia Casalbore, Armando Felsani, Stefano Giannetti, Gianluca Trevisi, Asma Althani, Annunziato Mangiola
The invasive and lethal nature of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) necessitates the continuous identification of molecular targets and search of efficacious therapies to inhibit GBM growth. The GBM resistance to chemotherapy and radiation it is attributed to the existence of a rare fraction of cancer stem cells (CSC) that we have identified within the tumor core and in peritumor tissue of GBM. Since Notch1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target in brain cancer, earlier we highlighted that pharmacological inhibition of Notch1 signalling by γ-secretase inhibitor-X (GSI-X), reduced cell growth of some c-CSC than to their respective p-CSC, but produced negligible effects on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and cell invasion...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153089/genome-editing-reveals-glioblastoma-addiction-to-microrna-10b
#12
Rachid El Fatimy, Shruthi Subramanian, Erik J Uhlmann, Anna M Krichevsky
Glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor remains among the most lethal and incurable human diseases. Oncogenic microRNA-10b (miR-10b) is strongly and universally upregulated in GBM, and its inhibition by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) reduces the growth of heterogeneous glioma cells; therefore, miR-10b represents a unique therapeutic target for GBM. Here we explored the effects of miR-10b gene editing on GBM. Using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, we investigated effects of miR-10b gene editing on the growth of cultured human glioma cells, tumor-initiating stem-like cells, and mouse GBM xenografts, as well as the oncogene-induced transformation of normal astrocytes...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148893/stem-cell-cultures-derived-from-pediatric-brain-tumors-accurately-model-the-originating-tumors
#13
Anna Wenger, Susanna Larsson, Anna Danielsson, Kirstine Juul Elbæk, Petronella Kettunen, Magnus Tisell, Magnus Sabel, Birgitta Lannering, Claes Nordborg, Elizabeth Schepke, Helena Carén
Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children but high-grade gliomas in children and adolescents have remained a relatively under-investigated disease despite this. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of the diseases is required in order to improve the outcome for these children. In vitro-cultured primary tumor cells from patients are indispensable tools for this purpose by enabling functional analyses and development of new therapies. However, relevant well-characterized in vitro cultures from pediatric gliomas cultured under serum-free conditions have been lacking...
January 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148827/mutant-idh1-disrupts-the-mouse-subventricular-zone-and-alters-brain-tumor-progression
#14
Christopher J Pirozzi, Austin B Carpenter, Matthew S Waitkus, Catherine Y Wang, Huishan Zhu, Landon J Hansen, Lee H Chen, Paula K Greer, Jie Feng, Yu Wang, Cheryl B Bock, Ping Fan, Ivan Spasojevic, Roger E McLendon, Darell D Bigner, Yiping He, Hai Yan
: IDH1 mutations occur in the majority of low-grade gliomas and lead to the production of the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). To understand the effects of tumor-associated mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) on both the neural stem cell (NSC) population and brain tumorigenesis, genetically faithful cell lines and mouse model systems were generated. Here, it is reported that mouse NSCs expressing Idh1-R132H displayed reduced proliferation due to p53-mediated cell cycle arrest as well as a decreased ability to undergo neuronal differentiation...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145904/overcoming-therapeutic-resistance-in-glioblastoma-the-way-forward
#15
REVIEW
Satoru Osuka, Erwin G Van Meir
Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Patients die from recurrent tumors that have become resistant to therapy. New strategies are needed to design future therapies that target resistant cells. Recent genomic studies have unveiled the complexity of tumor heterogeneity in glioblastoma and provide new insights into the genomic landscape of tumor cells that survive and initiate tumor recurrence. Resistant cells also co-opt developmental pathways and display stem-like properties; hence we propose to name them recurrence-initiating stem-like cancer (RISC) cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137267/targeting-cd133-improves-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-of-recurrent-pediatric-pilocytic-astrocytoma-following-prolonged-chemotherapy
#16
Guifa Xi, Yuping Derek Li, Gordan Grahovac, Veena Rajaram, Nitin Wadhwani, Tatiana Pundy, Barbara Mania-Farnell, Charles David James, Tadanori Tomita
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common pediatric central nervous system neoplasms. In the majority of cases these tumors are benign and receive favorable prognosis following gross total surgical resection. In patients with progressive or symptomatic tumors, aggressive surgical resection is generally not feasible, thus radiation or chemotherapy are accepted initial or adjuvant interventions. Due to serious long-lasting side-effects, radiation is limited in young children; therefore, chemotherapy is widely practiced as an adjuvant treatment for these patients...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132960/selective-targeting-of-cancer-stem-cells-by-2-aminodihydroquinoline-analogs
#17
Heejoo Park, Yeongji Yu, Hyejin Kim, Eun Lee, Hani Lee, Raok Jeon, Woo-Young Kim
Many aminodihydroquinoline compounds have been studied to determine their cytotoxicity to cancer cells. However, anti- cancer stem cells (CSCs) activity of aminodihydroquinoline has not been tested in spite that CSC is believed to do an important roles in chemotherapy resistance and recurrence. The CSC selective targeting activities of 10 recently synthesized 2-aminodihydroquinoline analogs were examined on CSCs and bulk culture of a glioblastoma cell line. A diethylaminopropyl substituted aminodihydroquinoline, 5h, showed a strong anti-CSC effect and general cytotoxicity...
January 27, 2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123734/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenges-in-extragonadal-yolk-sac-tumor-with-hepatoid-differentiation-a-case-report
#18
Vanja Zeremski, Christian Mawrin, Thomas Fischer, Enrico Schalk
Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare aggressive tumors, arising most commonly in the gonads and occurring mainly in young adults. We herein report a case of an extragonadal YST with hepatoid differentiation localized in the brain and lung. A 41-year old man presented to our hospital with a generalized seizure. A head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed a large mass in the left occipital lobe with associated edema. Following complete resection, the histopathological examination revealed that the mass was a highly malignant epithelial tumor with a hepatoid pattern...
January 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115362/mouse-models-of-pediatric-supratentorial-high-grade-glioma-reveal-how-cell-of-origin-influences-tumor-development-and-phenotype
#19
Smitha Sreedharan, Naga Prathyusha Maturi, Yuan Xie, Anders Sundström, Malin Jarvius, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Holger Weishaupt, Mårten Fryknäs, Rolf Larsson, Fredrik J Swartling, Lene Uhrbom
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a group of primary malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis. Whereas adult HGG has been studied extensively, childhood HGG, a relatively rare disease, is less well-characterized. Here, we present two novel platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-driven mouse models of pediatric supratentorial HGG. Tumors developed from two different cells of origin reminiscent of neural stem cells (NSC) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC). Cross-species transcriptomics showed that both models are closely related to human pediatric HGG as compared with adult HGG...
February 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109792/bisacodyl-and-its-cytotoxic-activity-on-human-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-implication-of-inositol-1-4-5-triphosphate-receptor-dependent-calcium-signaling
#20
Jihu Dong, Francisco Aulestia, Suzana Assad Kahn, Maria Zeniou, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Elias A El-Habr, François Daubeuf, Nassera Tounsi, Samuel H Cheshier, Nelly Frossard, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Isabelle Néant, Marc Moreau, Catherine Leclerc, Jacques Haiech, Marie-Claude Kilhoffer
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor. The heterogeneity at the cellular level, metabolic specificities and plasticity of the cancer cells are a challenge for glioblastoma treatment. Identification of cancer cells endowed with stem properties and able to propagate the tumor in animal xenografts has opened a new paradigm in cancer therapy. Thus, to increase efficacy and avoid tumor recurrence, therapies need to target not only the differentiated cells of the tumor mass, but also the cancer stem-like cells...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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