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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#1
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917791/investigation-of-the-expression-of-rif1-gene-on-head-and-neck-pancreatic-and-brain-cancer-and-cancer-stem-cells
#2
Hacer E GursesCila, Muradiye Acar, Furkan B Barut, Mehmet Gunduz, Reidar Grenman, Esra Gunduz
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare RIF1 gene expression in head and neck, pancreatic cancer and glioma cell lines and the cancer stem cells isolated from these cell lines. METHODS: UT-SCC-74 from Turku University and UT-SCC-74B primary tumor metastasis and neck cancer cell lines, YKG-1 glioma cancer cell line from RIKEN, pancreatic cancer cell lines and ASPC-1 cells from ATCC were grown in cell culture...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911279/microrna-101-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-glioblastoma-by-targeting-sox9
#3
Nan Liu, Lei Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yingduan Cheng, Pengxing Zhang, Xin Wang, Weihong Wen, Hongwei Yang, Hui Liu, Weilin Jin, Yongsheng Zhang, Yanyang Tu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumors originating in the brain parenchyma. At present, GBM patients have a poor prognosis despite the continuous progress in therapeutic technologies including surgery, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy. Recent studies revealed that miR-101 was remarkably down-regulated in kinds of human cancers and was associated with aggressive tumor cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Data also showed that miR-101 was down-regulated in primary glioma samples and cell lines, but the underlying molecular mechanism of the deregulation of miR-101 in glioma remained largely unknown...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910896/methylmercury-induces-the-expression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-selectively-in-the-brain-of-mice
#4
Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Tsutomu Takahashi, Min-Seok Kim, Masatake Fujimura, Hitoyasu Ito, Takashi Toyama, Akira Naganuma, Gi-Wook Hwang
Methylmercury selectively damages the central nervous system (CNS). The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily includes representative cytokines that participate in the inflammatory response as well as cell survival, and apoptosis. In this study, we found that administration of methylmercury selectively induced TNF-α expression in the brain of mice. Although the accumulated mercury concentration in the liver and kidneys was greater than in the brain, TNF-α expression was induced to a greater extent in brain...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903913/functional-rnas-combined-assembly-and-packaging-in-vlps
#5
Po-Yu Fang, Lizzette M Gómez Ramos, Stefany Y Holguin, Chiaolong Hsiao, Jessica C Bowman, Hung-Wei Yang, Loren Dean Williams
We describe here a one pot RNA production, packaging and delivery system based on bacteriophage Qβ. We demonstrate a method for production of a novel RNAi scaffold, packaged within Qβ virus-like particles (VLPs). The RNAi scaffold is a general utility chimera that contains a functional RNA duplex with paired silencing and carrier sequences stabilized by a miR-30 stem-loop. The Qβ hairpin on the 5' end confers affinity for the Qβ coat protein (CP). Silencing sequences can include mature miRNAs and siRNAs, and can target essentially any desired mRNA...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903708/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-regulates-beta-catenin-signaling-to-maintain-glioma-stem-like-stemness-and-self-renewal
#6
Bin Hu, Luni Emdad, Timothy P Kegelman, Xue-Ning Shen, Swadesh K Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common malignant brain tumor that portends extremely poor patient survival. Recent studies reveal that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are responsible for GBM escape from chemo-radiotherapy and mediators of tumor relapse. Previous studies suggest that AEG-1 (MTDH), an oncogene upregulated in most types of cancers including GBM, plays a focal role linking multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. We now report a crucial role of AEG-1 in glioma stem cell biology...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902458/dna-sequences-within-glioma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-can-cross-the-intact-blood-brain-barrier-and-be-detected-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients
#7
Noemí García-Romero, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, María Peris-Celda, Marta M Alonso, Juan Guzmán-De-Villoria, Carlos Fernández-Carballal, Ana Ortiz de Mendivil, Sara García-Duque, Carmen Escobedo-Lucea, Ricardo Prat-Acín, Cristóbal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Tumor-cell-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) can cross the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the bloodstream. However, in certain gliomas, the BBB remains intact, which might limit EVs release. To evaluate the ability of tumor-derived EVs to cross the BBB, we used an orthotopic xenotransplant mouse model of human glioma-cancer stem cells featuring an intact BBB. We demonstrated that all types of tumor cells-derived EVs-apoptotic bodies, shedding microvesicles and exosomes-cross the intact BBB and can be detected in the peripheral blood, which provides a minimally invasive method for their detection compared to liquid biopsies obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900341/subventricular-zone-associated-glioblastoma-a-call-for-translational-research-to-guide-clinical-decision-making
#8
Andrew W Smith, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most devastating primary cancer of the central nervous system, with an expected overall survival in most patients of about 14 months. Despite extensive research, outcomes for GBM have been largely unchanged since the introduction of temozolomide in 2005. We believe that in order to achieve a breakthrough in therapeutic management, we must begin to identify subtypes of GBM, and tailor treatment to best target a particular tumor's vulnerabilities. Our group has recently produced an examination of the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy directed at tumors that contact the subventricular zone (SVZ), the 3-5 mm lateral border of the lateral ventricles that contains the largest collection of neural stem cells in the adult brain...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894403/conditioned-medium-from-neural-stem-cells-inhibits-glioma-cell-growth
#9
Z Li, Q Zhong, H Liu, P Liu, J Wu, D Ma, X Chen, X Yang
Malignant glioma is one of the most common brain tumors in the central nervous system. Although the significant progress has been made in recent years, the mortality is still high and 5-year survival rate is still very low. One of the leading causes to the high mortality for glioma patients is metastasis and invasion. An efficient method to control the tumor metastasis is a promising way to treat the glioma. Previous reports indicated that neural stem cells (NSCs) were served as a delivery vector to the anti-glioma therapy...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894339/the-identification-of-human-pituitary-adenoma-initiating-cells
#10
Branavan Manoranjan, Sujeivan Mahendram, Saleh A Almenawer, Chitra Venugopal, Nicole McFarlane, Robin Hallett, Thusyanth Vijayakumar, Almunder Algird, Naresh K Murty, Doron D Sommer, John P Provias, Kesava Reddy, Sheila K Singh
Classified as benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors, pituitary adenomas account for 10% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms. Although surgery is often curative, patients with invasive macroadenomas continue to experience significant morbidity and are prone to tumor recurrence. Given the identification of human brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that initiate and maintain tumor growth while promoting disease progression and relapse in multiple CNS tumors, we investigated whether TICs also drive the growth of human pituitary adenomas...
November 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891292/cancer-stem-cells-cellular-plasticity-niche-and-its-clinical-relevance
#11
Gina Lee, Robert R Hall, Atique U Ahmed
Cancer handles an estimated 7.6 million deaths worldwide per annum. A recent theory focuses on the role Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in driving tumorigenesis and disease progression. This theory hypothesizes that a population of the tumor cell with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics as normal tissue stem cells are responsible for formation and advancement of many human cancers. The CSCs subpopulation can differentiate into non-CSC tumor cells and promote phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the tumor...
October 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867930/a-case-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-located-at-brain-stem-in-a-child
#12
Jinho Kim, Young Zoon Kim
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is confined to the brain, eyes, and/or leptomeninges without evidence of a systemic primary tumor. Although the tumor can affect all age groups, it is rare in childhood; thus, its incidence and prognosis in children have not been well defined and the best treatment strategy remains unclear. A nine-year old presented at our department with complaints of diplopia, dizziness, dysarthria, and right side hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance image suggested a diffuse brain stem glioma with infiltration into the right cerebellar peduncle...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863376/cxcr4-increases-in-vivo-glioma-perivascular-invasion-and-reduces-radiation-induced-apoptosis-a-genetic-knockdown-study
#13
Viveka Nand Yadav, Daniel Zamler, Gregory J Baker, Padma Kadiyala, Anat Erdreich-Epstein, Ana C DeCarvalho, Tom Mikkelsen, Maria G Castro, Pedro R Lowenstein
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumor. Perivascular invasion, autovascularization and vascular co-option occur throughout the disease and lead to tumor invasion and progression. The molecular basis for perivascular invasion, i.e., the interaction of glioma tumor cells with endothelial cells is not well characterized. Recent studies indicate that glioma cells have increased expression of CXCR4. We investigated the in-vivo role of CXCR4 in perivascular invasion of glioma cells using shRNA-mediated knock down of CXCR4...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863244/epigenetic-activation-of-wnt5a-drives-glioblastoma-stem-cell-differentiation-and-invasive-growth
#14
Baoli Hu, Qianghu Wang, Y Alan Wang, Sujun Hua, Charles-Etienne Gabriel Sauvé, Derrick Ong, Zheng D Lan, Qing Chang, Yan Wing Ho, Marta Moreno Monasterio, Xin Lu, Yi Zhong, Jianhua Zhang, Pingna Deng, Zhi Tan, Guocan Wang, Wen-Ting Liao, Lynda J Corley, Haiyan Yan, Junxia Zhang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Linbo Cai, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Joanna J Phillips, Mitchel S Berger, Denise J Spring, Jian Hu, Erik P Sulman, Gregory N Fuller, Lynda Chin, Roeland G W Verhaak, Ronald A DePinho
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. To illuminate mechanisms governing these hallmark features, we developed a de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model derived from immortalized human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) to enable precise system-level comparisons of pre-malignant and oncogene-induced malignant states of NSCs. Integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses uncovered a PAX6/DLX5 transcriptional program driving WNT5A-mediated GSC differentiation into endothelial-like cells (GdECs)...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862197/gremlin1-promotes-carcinogenesis-of-glioma-in-vitro
#15
Yongchang Guan, Wen Cheng, Cunyi Zou, Tingzhong Wang, Zhi Cao, Anhua Wu
As the most prevalent and lethal type of brain tumors, gliomas, especially the malignant ones, are relatively resistant to the conventional therapies. Gremlin 1 (GREM1) is a secreted glycoprotein that is implicated in the maintenance of cancer stem cells in tumor hierarchy. In the current study, the role of GREM1 in the carcinogenesis of glioma was studied using a knockdown approach. We first examined the expression level of GREM1 in the clinical samples, and then evaluated the effect of GREM1 knockdown on the viability and colony formation capacity of U87-MG cells...
November 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862183/the-antiviral-cytokine-interferon-gamma-restricts-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-proliferation-through-activation-of-stat1-and-modulation-of-retinoblastoma-protein-phosphorylation
#16
Apurva Kulkarni, Taylor J Scully, Lauren A O'Donnell
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPSCs) express receptors for many inflammatory cytokines, with varying effects on differentiation and proliferation depending on the stage of development and the milieu of inflammatory mediators. In primary neurons and astrocytes, we recently showed that interferon gamma (IFNγ), a potent antiviral cytokine that is required for the control and clearance of many central nervous system (CNS) infections, could differentially affect cell survival and cell cycle progression depending upon the cell type and the profile of activated intracellular signaling molecules...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849590/nanoparticle-engineered-trail-overexpressing-adipose-derived-stem-cells-target-and-eradicate-glioblastoma-via-intracranial-delivery
#17
Xinyi Jiang, Sergio Fitch, Christine Wang, Christy Wilson, Jianfeng Li, Gerald A Grant, Fan Yang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most intractable of human cancers, principally because of the highly infiltrative nature of these neoplasms. Tracking and eradicating infiltrating GBM cells and tumor microsatellites is of utmost importance for the treatment of this devastating disease, yet effective strategies remain elusive. Here we report polymeric nanoparticle-engineered human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) overexpressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as drug-delivery vehicles for targeting and eradicating GBM cells in vivo...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835870/no-role-of-ifitm3-in-brain-tumor-formation-in-vivo
#18
Nevenka Dudvarski Stankovic, Nicola Hoppmann, Marcin Teodorczyk, Ella L Kim, Matthias Bros, Alf Giese, Frauke Zipp, Mirko H H Schmidt
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal solid tumors in adults. Despite aggressive treatment approaches for patients, GBM recurrence is inevitable, in part due to the existence of stem-like brain tumor-propagating cells (BTPCs), which produce factors rendering them resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Comparative transcriptome analysis of irradiated, patient-derived BTPCs revealed a significant upregulation of the interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), suggesting the protein as a factor mediating radio resistance...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835867/keratin-13-expression-reprograms-bone-and-brain-metastases-of-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#19
Qinlong Li, Lijuan Yin, Lawrence W Jones, Gina C-Y Chu, Jason B-Y Wu, Jen-Ming Huang, Quanlin Li, Sungyong You, Jayoung Kim, Yi-Tsung Lu, Stefan Mrdenovic, Ruoxiang Wang, Michael R Freeman, Isla Garraway, Michael S Lewis, Leland W K Chung, Haiyen E Zhau
Lethal progression of prostate cancer metastasis can be improved by developing animal models that recapitulate the clinical conditions. We report here that cytokeratin 13 (KRT13), an intermediate filament protein, plays a directive role in prostate cancer bone, brain, and soft tissue metastases. KRT13 expression was elevated in bone, brain, and soft tissue metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and in primary and metastatic clinical prostate, lung, and breast cancer specimens. When KRT13 expression was determined at a single cell level in primary tumor tissues of 44 prostate cancer cases, KRT13 level predicted bone metastasis and the overall survival of prostate cancer patients...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825958/simultaneous-blockade-of-interacting-ck2-and-egfr-pathways-by-tumor-targeting-nanobioconjugates-increases-therapeutic-efficacy-against-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
Szu-Ting Chou, Rameshwar Patil, Anna Galstyan, Pallavi R Gangalum, Webster K Cavenee, Frank B Furnari, Vladimir A Ljubimov, Alexandra Chesnokova, Andrei A Kramerov, Hui Ding, Vida Falahatian, Leila Mashouf, Irving Fox, Keith L Black, Eggehard Holler, Alexander V Ljubimov, Julia Y Ljubimova
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the deadliest brain tumor in adults. GBM tumors are also notorious for drug and radiation resistance. To inhibit GBMs more effectively, polymalic acid-based blood-brain barrier crossing nanobioconjugates were synthesized that are delivered to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and specifically inhibit the master regulator serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 and the wild-type/mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/EGFRvIII), which are overexpressed in gliomas according to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) GBM database...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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