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Anti psychotics

Brian Villumsen Broberg, Iris E Sommer, Michael Eriksen Benros, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Christiane Gasse, Ole Köhler-Forsberg
Glucocorticoids can have psychosis as a potential side effect, but have also been suggested to yield protective effects due to anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, knowledge is sparse on the association between glucocorticoid treatment and development of psychosis, which we aimed to study in this first large-scale longitudinal study. Among all individuals born in Denmark 1995-2003 (n=597,257), we compared individuals who had redeemed ≥1 prescription for glucocorticoids to an active comparator group and a non-exposed group concerning subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders until 2013...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Thomas A Pollak, Jonathan P Rogers, Robert G Nagele, Mark Peakman, James M Stone, Anthony S David, Philip McGuire
Blood-based biomarker discovery for psychotic disorders has yet to impact upon routine clinical practice. In physical disorders antibodies have established roles as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive (theranostic) biomarkers, particularly in disorders thought to have a substantial autoimmune or infective aetiology. Two approaches to antibody biomarker identification are distinguished: a "top-down" approach, in which antibodies to specific antigens are sought based on the known function of the antigen and its putative role in the disorder, and emerging "bottom-up" or "omics" approaches that are agnostic as to the significance of any one antigen, using high-throughput arrays to identify distinctive components of the antibody repertoire...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Hannelore Ehrenreich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Humoral autoimmunity has gained highest interest in neurology and psychiatry. Despite numerous recent articles on this hot topic, however, the biological significance of natural autoantibodies (AB) and the normal autoimmune repertoire of mammals remained quite obscure. AB may contribute to disorder-relevant phenotypes and are even believed to induce diseases themselves, but the circumstances under which AB become pathogenic are not fully understood. This review will focus on the highly frequent AB against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1-AB) as an illustrating example and provide a critical overview of current work (please note that the new nomenclature, GluN1, is disregarded here for consistency with the AB literature)...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Mi Seon Kim, Byong Chul Yoo, Woo Seok Yang, Sang Yun Han, Deok Jeong, Jun Min Song, Kyung Hee Kim, Adithan Aravinthan, Ji Hye Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Seung Cheol Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Aripiprazole (ARP) is an atypical anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The pharmacological effects of ARP on cancer cells are still poorly understood. In this study, anti-cancer effects of ARP on various malignant tumor cells and its molecular mechanism were further carefully examined by using cell proliferation assay, xenograft mouse model, immunoblotting analysis, migration assay, luciferase reporter gene assay, kinase assay, and overexpression strategy. Treatment with ARP induced cytotoxicity in U251 glioma cells, MKN-1 gastric adenosquamous carcinoma cells, and CT26 colon carcinoma cells...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Adrien Labriet, Eric P Allain, Michele Rouleau, Yannick Audet-Delage, Lyne Villeneuve, Chantal Guillemette
The detoxification enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B10 is specialized in the N-linked glucuronidation of many drugs and xenobiotics. Preferred substrates possess tertiary aliphatic amines and heterocyclic amines such as tobacco carcinogens and several anti-depressants and anti-psychotics. We hypothesized that alternative splicing (AS) constitutes a mean to regulate steady state levels of UGT2B10 and enzyme activity. We established the transcriptome of UGT2B10 in normal and tumoral tissues of multiple individuals...
February 9, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Souhel Najjar, Johann Steiner, Amanda Najjar, Karl Bechter
Growing data point to the overlap between psychosis and pathological processes associated with immunological dysregulation as well as inflammation. Notably, the recent discovery of antibodies against synaptic and neuronal cell membrane proteins such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor provides more direct evidence of the etiological connection between autoimmunity and subsequent hazard of psychosis. Here, we advocate the use of term "autoimmune psychosis," as this term suggests that autoimmune disorders can masquerade as drug-resistant primary psychosis, and this subtype of psychosis has anatomical and immunological footprints in the brain, despite the frequent absence of structural abnormalities on conventional brain MRI...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Benneth Ben-Azu, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Solomon Umukoro, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
The involvement of oxidative/nitrosative stress, cholinergic and inflammatory pathways have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Our previous studies have shown that doxycycline (DOX), a notable member of tetracyclines with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuated psychotic-like behaviors induced by apomophine and ketamine (KET) in mice. This present study was designed to further evaluate in detail the ability of DOX and its combination with risperidone (RIS) to prevent and reverse KET-induced schizophrenic-like behaviors and the role of oxidative/nitrosative and cholinergic pathways in mice...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Osman Perez, Kairavee Dave, Aimee Almanzar, Tajul Prodhan, Livasky Concepion
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her...
October 23, 2017: Curēus
Ting Sun, Yanmei Zhang, Shuping Zhong, Fenfei Gao, Yicun Chen, Bin Wang, Wenfeng Cai, Zhaojing Zhang, Weiqiu Li, Shishi Lu, Fuchun Zheng, Ganggang Shi
Early growth response-1 (Egr-1), a transcription factor which often underlies the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and oxidative stress, is key to myocardial I/R injury. Silent information regulator of transcription 1(SIRT1) not only interacts with and is inhibited by Egr-1, but also downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the Forkhead box O1(FOXO1)/manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) signaling pathway. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2), a new patented compound, protects the myocardium against myocardial I/R injury in various animal I/R models in vivo and various heart-derived cell hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) models in vitro...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ana Gales, Marion Masingue, Stephanie Millecamps, Stephane Giraudier, Laure Grosliere, Claude Adam, Claudio Salim, Vincent Navarro, Yann Nadjar
5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a genetic disorder that can occur at any age and can be easily detected by increased homocysteinemia. In adolescence/adult onset forms, the clinical picture is often complex with association of various neurological features and thrombosis.Here we report the cases of two adult siblings who experienced focal epilepsy at 18 years old as a first disease manifestation, without other symptom during several years. Upon diagnosis, both patients received metabolic treatment comprising B9, B12 and betaine which has stopped the occurrence of seizures, allowing discontinuation of anti-epileptic drugs...
February 1, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Rui Luo, Song Liang Lee, Foo Cheong Ng, Li-Tsa Koh
We describe three cases of inadvertent placement of the urinary catheter into the ureter. An 85-year-old gentleman on long-term indwelling catheter (IDC) for neurogenic bladder presented with fever and right flank pain. CT of abdomen and pelvis demonstrated the tip of the IDC to be located within the right vesicoureteric junction with acute right hydronephrosis and acute pyelonephritis. A 74-year-old woman, on long-term IDC for neurogenic bladder was found to have hydronephrosis on ultrasound imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT intravenous pyelography done subsequently showed the IDC was in the right distal ureter...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Urology
Lara Marrone, Ina Poser, Ian Casci, Julia Japtok, Peter Reinhardt, Antje Janosch, Cordula Andree, Hyun O Lee, Claudia Moebius, Ellen Koerner, Lydia Reinhardt, Maria Elena Cicardi, Karl Hackmann, Barbara Klink, Angelo Poletti, Simon Alberti, Marc Bickle, Andreas Hermann, Udai Pandey, Anthony A Hyman, Jared L Sterneckert
Perturbations in stress granule (SG) dynamics may be at the core of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since SGs are membraneless compartments, modeling their dynamics in human motor neurons has been challenging, thus hindering the identification of effective therapeutics. Here, we report the generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cells carrying wild-type and P525L FUS-eGFP. We demonstrate that FUS-eGFP is recruited into SGs and that P525L profoundly alters their dynamics. With a screening campaign, we demonstrate that PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition increases autophagy and ameliorates SG phenotypes linked to P525L FUS by reducing FUS-eGFP recruitment into SGs...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Gül Dikeç, Leyla Baysan Arabaci, Gülçin Bölük Uzunoglu, Selin Demet Mizrak
The current research evaluated metabolic side effects in inpatients (N = 271) using atypical antipsychotic medications in a psychiatric hospital in Turkey between June and December 2016. Data were collected via an information form created after reviewing the literature at the time of patients' hospitalization and discharge. According to the analysis, 73.8% of patients stated they experienced side effects from antipsychotic medications and 20.7% of patients experienced weight gain. A statistical difference was detected among body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate during patient hospitalization and discharge...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Michael M Kheir, You Na P Kheir, Timothy L Tan, Colin T Ackerman, Alexander J Rondon, Antonia F Chen
BACKGROUND: Although it has been shown that anxiety and depression are associated with increased complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA), the outcomes of TJA in patients with a history of psychosis are unknown. This study evaluated the influence of bipolar and schizophrenic disorders on complications after TJA, particularly aseptic and septic revisions. METHODS: A retrospective review of 156 TJAs (125 primaries and 31 revisions) was performed at a single institution from 2000 to 2015...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
Teresa Żołek, Éva A Enyedy, Kinga Ostrowska, Vivien Pósa, Dorota Maciejewska
One of the latest trends is search for the new anti-psychotic drugs among coumarin derivatives with piperazine moiety. Their therapeutic potential can be hampered by poor physico-chemical parameters as low brain penetration or limited transport in the body fluid. Herein, we predicted the drug likeness of six coumarins with high affinity towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Subsequent experimental determination of their binding constants to human serum albumin (HSA) revealed the binding with a moderate strength (logK=4...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Amal Ben Dahman, Philippe David, Nicolas Massager, Samuel Leistedt, Gwenolé Loas
In this article, we report a male patient that developed psychotic symptoms after the excision of an arachnoid cyst from the posterior fossa detected by magnetic resonance and subsequent clinical improvement after anti-psychotic treatment.
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
Trazodone is a clinically available anti-depressant that exhibits affinity for serotonin 1A and 2A receptors, as well as for alpha-adrenoceptors, suggesting that it may be useful to treat L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia and psychosis that are encountered in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated the anti-dyskinetic and anti-psychotic effects of trazodone in the parkinsonian non-human primate. 6 common marmosets were rendered parkinsonian by administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Golam M Khandaker, Stanley Zammit, Stephen Burgess, Glyn Lewis, Peter B Jones
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are commonly elevated in patients with depression and psychosis and in people who are at risk of developing these disorders. A common, functional variant in the IL6R gene (IL6R Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A > C) is known to dampen down inflammation by impairing IL6R signaling. We have examined the association of Asp358Ala with diagnosis of depression and psychosis, serum IL-6, CRP levels, and a number of risk factors commonly linked with inflammation, depression or psychosis...
December 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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