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Anti psychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096857/the-effect-of-fluphenazine-and-thioridazine-on-toxoplasma-gondii-in-vivo
#1
Mehrzad Saraei, Yosef Ghaderi, Tahereh Mosavi, Mojtaba Shahnazi, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Hassan Jahanihashemi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common parasite causing latent cerebral infections in human. It has been shown that some anti-psychotic drugs are able to inhibit the proliferation of the parasite in in vitro study. There is very limited data regarding the inhibitory effect of anti-psychotics on Toxoplasma in in vivo. In this study, we evaluated anti-Toxoplasma activity of fluphenazine and thioridazine drugs on T. gondii in mice. METHODS: Mice were divided into six groups: Control, sesame as vehicle, thioridazine 10 mg/kg, thioridazine 20 mg/kg, fluphenazine 0...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081431/clinical-characterization-of-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-psychosis
#2
Qinjian Hao, Dahai Wang, Lanting Guo, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autoimmune disorders are growing alarmingly high in prevalence across the globe. Autoimmune encephalitis has had a dramatic impact on the medical field, effectually altering diagnostic and treatment paradigms in regard to neuropsychiatric disorders. Our primary goal in conducting this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis patients, with special focus on psychiatric presentations, in the West China Hospital and report patient prognoses after immunotherapy...
December 27, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068943/a-case-of-gabar-antibodies-in-schizophrenia
#3
Ida S Haussleiter, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Georg Juckel
BACKGROUND: In the last couple of years, schizophrenia was often discussed as autoimmune disease. Several antibodies were suspected, but so far there has been no proof of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antibodies in patients with schizophrenia. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report we present a 21-year old woman with schizophrenic symptoms, who showed anti-GABAB1 antibodies when screened by a vast recombinant neurology mosaic on Human Embryonic Kidney Cells 293 (HEK293) cells...
January 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066016/thrombocytopenia-associated-with-olanzapine-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Swapnajeet Sahoo, Himanshu Singla, M Spoorty, Pankaj Malhotra, Sandeep Grover
There is limited literature on olanzapine-associated thrombocytopenia. In this report, we present a case of a 32-year-old female, suffering from persistent delusional disorder who had thrombocytopenia (46,000/mm(3)) with the use of olanzapine 25 mg/day, 6 weeks after starting medication. Blood film did not reveal any evidence of any dysplastic cells, disturbance in the count of other cell lines, and autoimmune workup including antinuclear antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were found to be negative...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039001/paliperidone-reverts-toll-like-receptor-3-signaling-pathway-activation-and-cognitive-deficits-in-a-maternal-immune-activation-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#5
Karina S MacDowell, Eva Munarriz-Cuezva, Javier R Caso, José L M Madrigal, Arantzazu Zabala, J Javier Meana, Borja García-Bueno, Juan C Leza
The pathophysiology of psychotic disorders is multifactorial, including alterations in the immune system caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that infections during the gestational period represent a risk factor to develop schizophrenia (SZ) along lifetime. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the antipsychotic paliperidone regulates immune-related brain effects in an experimental model of SZ. A well described prenatal immune activation model of SZ in mice by maternal injection of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) during pregnancy was used...
December 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000884/thioridazine-elicits-potent-antitumor-effects-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#6
Chen Zhang, Ping Gong, Pengfei Liu, Ning Zhou, Yulai Zhou, Yi Wang
As a member of the phenothiazine family, thioridazine (THIO) is a potent anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic drug. Recent studies have reported that THIO could suppress the growth of several types of cancer cells. However, the effect of THIO on colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effect of THIO on viability of CSCs isolated from the human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and its colony-formation ability, along with its stem cell-specific gene expression...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993107/anti-psychotic-activity-of-aqueous-root-extract-of-hemidesmus-indicus-a-time-bound-study-in-rats
#7
Madhu Sudan, Gaurav Gupta, Bharati Arali, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Kamal Dua
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a neurological disorder which is usually defined as "loss of contact with reality." As medicine 'Hemidesmusindicus' hold a reputed place in all systems of medicine in India. It is given in the form of infusion, fine particles, or syrup. It is also a component of several medicinal preparations. The present research work is pertaining to find out an anti-psychotic activity of an aqueous root extract of Hemidesmusindicus- a time bound study in rats. METHODS: In the present study, the dried roots of Hemidesmusindicus were crushed to a coarse powder and extracted with water under reflux for 36 hours to obtain the aqueous extract of roots of Hemidesmusindicus (AERHI)...
December 16, 2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986355/the-prolyl-oligopeptidase-inhibitor-ipr19-ameliorates-cognitive-deficits-in-mouse-models-of-schizophrenia
#8
Roger Prades, Eva Munarriz-Cuezva, Leyre Urigüen, Itziar Gil-Pisa, Lídia Gómez, Laura Mendieta, Soledad Royo, Ernest Giralt, Teresa Tarragó, J Javier Meana
Cognitive deficits are considered a key feature of schizophrenia, and they usually precede the onset of the illness and continue after psychotic symptoms appear. Current antipsychotic drugs have little or no effect on the cognitive deficits of this disorder. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is an 81-kDa monomeric serine protease that is expressed in brain and other tissues. POP inhibitors have shown neuroprotective, anti-amnesic and cognition-enhancing properties. Here we studied the potential of IPR19, a new POP inhibitor, for the treatment of the cognitive symptoms related to schizophrenia...
December 13, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984131/enhanced-photo-geno-toxicity-of-demethylated-chlorpromazine-metabolites
#9
Fabrizio Palumbo, Guillermo Garcia-Lainez, Daniel Limones-Herrero, M Dolores Coloma, Javier Escobar, M Consuelo Jiménez, Miguel A Miranda, Inmaculada Andreu
Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of these reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound...
October 27, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973692/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-people-with-severe-mental-illness-inequalities-by-ethnicity-and-age-cross-sectional-analysis-of-588-408-records-from-the-uk
#10
J Das-Munshi, M Ashworth, M E Dewey, F Gaughran, S Hull, C Morgan, J Nazroo, I Petersen, P Schofield, R Stewart, G Thornicroft, M J Prince
AIMS: To investigate whether the association of severe mental illness with Type 2 diabetes varies by ethnicity and age. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ethnically diverse sample of 588 408 individuals aged ≥18 years, registered to 98% of general practices (primary care) in London, UK. The outcome of interest was prevalent Type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Relative to people without severe mental illness, the relative risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness was greatest in the youngest age groups...
December 14, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917874/discovery-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-structure-based-optimization-of-novel-piperidine-derivatives-as-acetylcholine-binding-protein-ligands
#11
Jian Shen, Xi-Cheng Yang, Ming-Cheng Yu, Li Xiao, Xun-Jie Zhang, Hui-Jiao Sun, Hao Chen, Guan-Xin Pan, Yu-Rong Yan, Si-Chen Wang, Wei Li, Lu Zhou, Qiong Xie, Lin-Qian Yu, Yong-Hui Wang, Li-Ming Shao
The homomeric α7 nicotinic receptor (α7 nAChR) is widely expressed in the human brain that could be activated to suppress neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuropathic pain. Consequently, a number of α7 nAChR agonists have entered clinical trials as anti-Alzheimer's or anti-psychotic therapies. However, high-resolution crystal structure of the full-length α7 receptor is thus far unavailable. Since acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from Lymnaea stagnalis is most closely related to the α-subunit of nAChRs, it has been used as a template for the N-terminal domain of α-subunit of nAChR to study the molecular recognition process of nAChR-ligand interactions, and to identify ligands with potential nAChR-like activities...
January 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878417/neurobehavioural-evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-murine-models-of-anxiety-and-schizophrenia
#12
Mohammed Garba Magaji, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe, Mutiat Abolarin, Opeyemi Isa Abdullahi, Rabiu Abdusalam Magaji
Resveratrol, a caloric restriction mimetic, is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety and schizophrenia. This study investigated the anxiolytic and antipsychotic potentials of resveratrol in murine models of anxiety and schizophrenia. Mice were pretreated with resveratrol (200 and 400 mg/kg) in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose for 14 days and subjected to behavioural tests on the 15th day...
November 22, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842767/drug-hepatotoxicity-newer-agents
#13
REVIEW
Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, K Rajender Reddy
Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity is one of the most common reasons for an approved drug being restricted. This article focuses on hepatotoxicity of selected and recently introduced agents, such as, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, novel oral anticoagulants, newer antiplatelets, antibiotics, anti-diabetics, anti-epileptics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics and anti-retrovirals. Overall, the incidence of clinically relevant hepatotoxicity from newer agents seems to be lower than that of the older agents...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779081/calixarene-a-versatile-material-for-drug-design-and-applications
#14
Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Umer Ashraf, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The review summarizes the efforts to fabricate inclusion complexes of different therapeutic agents based on a versatile material . is a macrocyclic nano-basket which is the marvelous host with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. and its derivatives are used as carriers (host-guest) for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-psychotic drugs, etc. They are the important biocompatible materials to improve solubility and chemical reactivity, and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750102/maldi-ms-analysis-and-theoretical-evaluation-of-olanzapine-as-a-uv-laser-desorption-ionization-ldi-matrix
#15
Syed Ghulam Musharraf, Mariam Ameer, Arslan Ali
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) being soft ionization technique, has become a method of choice for high-throughput analysis of proteins and peptides. In this study, we have explored the potential of atypical anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ) as a matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of peptides aided with the theoretical studies. Seven small peptides were employed as target analytes to check performance of olanzapine and compared with conventional MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733830/cannabidiol-prevents-motor-and-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-reserpine-in-rats
#16
Fernanda F Peres, Raquel Levin, Mayra A Suiama, Mariana C Diana, Douglas A Gouvêa, Valéria Almeida, Camila M Santos, Lisandro Lungato, Antônio W Zuardi, Jaime E C Hallak, José A Crippa, D'Almeida Vânia, Regina H Silva, Vanessa C Abílio
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In Parkinson's disease patients, CBD is able to attenuate the psychotic symptoms induced by L-DOPA and to improve quality of life. Repeated administration of reserpine in rodents induces motor impairments that are accompanied by cognitive deficits, and has been applied to model both tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson's disease. The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729950/prevention-of-post-operative-delirium-in-the-elderly-using-pharmacological-agents
#17
REVIEW
Patrice Tremblay, Susan Gold
INTRODUCTION: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a serious surgical complication that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay, delayed admission to rehabilitation programs, persistent cognitive deficits, marked health-care costs, and more. The pathophysiology is multi-factorial and not completely understood, which complicates the optimal management. Non-pharmacological measures have been the mainstay of treatment, but there has been an ongoing interest in the medical literature on the prevention of post-operative delirium using medications...
September 2016: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714849/psychosocial-or-clinico-demographic-factors-related-to-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-needing-interventional-treatment-analysis-of-the-catie-ad-study
#18
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Kazuhiko Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine psychosocial and clinico-demographic factors related to each symptomatic cluster (i.e., aggressiveness, psychosis, apathy/eating problems, and emotion/disinhibition) of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) needing interventional treatment against their agitation or psychotic symptoms. These clusters were classified from 12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscores in our previous study using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711937/il-4-tgf-%C3%AF-nf-%C3%AF-b-and-mpo-levels-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#19
Şükrü Kartalcı, Lale Gönenir Erbay, Esra Porgalı Zayman, Önder Otlu, Aysun Bay Karabulut, Gülşen Kartalcı
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder in which genetics and environmental factors such as infection and the corresponding immune response play a role in the etiopathogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare some immune factors such as nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activation, myeloperoxidase (MPO), the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), and regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor- (TGF-) in schizophrenia patients and an age- and gender-matched control group...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711049/clozapine-modulates-glucosylceramide-clears-aggregated-proteins-and-enhances-atg8-lc3-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Limin Hao, Oshrit Ben-David, Suzann M Babb, Anthony H Futerman, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
Defining the mechanisms of action of the antipsychotic drug (APD), clozapine, is of great importance, as clozapine is more effective and has therapeutic benefits in a broader range of psychiatric disorders compared with other APDs. Its range of actions have not been fully characterized. Exposure to APDs early in development causes dose-dependent developmental delay and lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans. A previous genome-wide RNAi screen for suppressors of clozapine-induced developmental delay and lethality revealed 40 candidate genes, including sms-1, which encodes a sphingomyelin synthase...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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