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Anti psychotics

Chang Zhen Lim, Khairy Shamel Sonny Teo, Evelyn Tai
Cataract, defined as cloudiness of the lens, is a common adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotic medications. Newer generation antipsychotics, also known as atypical antipsychotics, are less commonly associated with cataract. A 19-year-old girl with underlying schizophrenia on olanzapine for the past two years complained of gradual blurring of vision in both eyes for four months prior to presentation. On examination, the best corrected visual acuity was counting finger in both eyes. The anterior segment examination showed bilateral diffuse cortical cataract precluding fundus examination...
April 30, 2018: Curēus
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Dominique Bedard, Fleur Gaudette, Francis Beaudry, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
Blockade of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A ) receptors is regarded as an anti-dyskinetic and anti-psychotic strategy in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the 5-HT2A antagonists tested so far exhibited affinity for other receptors, which might have played a role in their action. EMD-281,014 is the most selective 5-HT2A antagonist available, with approximately 2,000-fold selectivity over serotonin 2C (5-HT2C ) receptors. EMD-281,014 was previously tested in the clinic and has high translational potential. In the present study, we assessed the effect of EMD-281,014 on dyskinesia and psychosis in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned common marmoset...
June 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Zeno Van Duppen, Rob Sips
BACKGROUND: Experiences of psychosis are often assumed to be strange, bizarre, or incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to offer a new step towards a better understanding of how the psychotic process affects a prereflective background. METHODS: We use concepts from the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein to clarify the first-person perspective on psychosis of one of the authors. RESULTS: We describe the early psychotic process as breaking down the "nest of propositions," shaking the scaffolds of our language games...
July 2, 2018: Psychopathology
Meghnath Verma, Hemant Bhargav, Shivarama Varambally, Nagarathna Raghuram, Gangadhar Bn
Background Twenty one (12 females) subjects, diagnosed with schizophrenia by a psychiatrist using ICD-10, in the ages 52.87 + 9.5 years and suffering since 24.0 ± 3.05 years were recruited into the study from a schizophrenia rehabilitation center in Bengaluru. Methods All subjects were taking anti-psychotic medications and were in stable state for more than a month. Psychiatric medications were kept constant during the study period. Assessments were done at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after one month of usual routine (pre) and (3) after five months of validated Integrated Yoga (IY) intervention (post)...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
E Kjelby, R Gjestad, I Sinkeviciute, R A Kroken, E-M Løberg, H A Jørgensen, E Johnsen
Depression is common in schizophrenia and associated with negative outcomes. Previous studies have identified heterogeneity in treatment response in schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate different trajectories of depression in patients suffering from psychosis and predictors of change in depressive symptoms during antipsychotic treatment. Two hundred and twenty-six patients >18 years acutely admitted due to psychosis were consecutively included and the follow-up was 27 weeks. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) sum score was the primary outcome...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Oliver Grimm, Martin Löffler, Sandra Kamping, Aljoscha Hartmann, Cathrin Rohleder, Markus Leweke, Herta Flor
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are two substances from cannabis sativa that have beenimplicated in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. We concentrated on a previously validated neuroimaging phenotype, fronto-striatal connectivity across different striatal seeds, because of this loop's relevance to executive functioning, decision making, salience generation and motivation and its link to various neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, we studied the effect of THC and CBD on fronto-striatal circuitry by a seed-voxel connectivity approach using seeds from the caudate and the putamen...
June 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
David Perez-Cruzado, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Elisa Vera-Garcia, Fermín Mayoral-Cleries
Anti-psychotic medication has emerged as the primary medical treatment for people with severe mental illness, despite the great risks involved in the use of this medication. In addition, this population suffers from problems of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor physical fitness, which is aggravated by the use of this type of medication. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the most commonly used antipsychotics in this population (Olanzapine and Risperidone) on physical activity and the physical fitness of people with severe mental illness...
May 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Julie A Onton, Scott C Matthews, Dae Y Kang, Todd P Coleman
Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gordana Rubesa, Lea Gudelj, Dolores Makovac
There are many theories about the etiology of schizophrenia. This paper presents the assumptions and latest findings about many immunological characteristics of schizophrenia. According to the neuroimunological theory, this disorder is due to neuroimunological disbalance, increased microglial activity and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Studies have found that intrauterine infections in pregnant women have an effect on the fetal brain development, and that infections with rubella, measles, herpes virus, and toxoplasma are associeted with schizophrenia onset in adult life...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
G Fond, O Godin, L Boyer, F Berna, M Andrianarisoa, N Coulon, L Brunel, E Bulzacka, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, S Leignier, C Lançon, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, C Passerieux, R Rey, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, P M Llorca, F Schürhoff, M Leboyer
A high rate of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) does not sufficiently respond to antipsychotic medication, which is associated with relapses and poor outcomes. Chronic peripheral inflammation has been repeatedly associated with schizophrenia risk and particularly to poor responders to treatment as usual with cognitive impairment in SZ subjects. The objective of present study was to confirm if ultra resistance to treatment in schizophrenia (UTRS) was associated to chronic peripheral inflammation in a non-selected sample of community-dwelling outpatients with schizophrenia...
May 28, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ildiko Sipos
The recognition of the antibody-mediated encephalitis as a separate entity among the immune disorders of the central nervous system was one of the greatest breakthroughs of the last two decades in neurology. Unlike viral or tumor-related encephalitis, the antibody-mediated form has a good response to immunotherapy, which gives a special clinical importance to the discovery. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the first fully characterized antibody-mediated encephalitises. This article attempts to summarize the clinical features of this complex neuropsychiatric disorder with the aim to help its early recognition and to report the clinical course and the outcome of our six seropositive anti-NMDAR cases...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Marie O Collet, Jesús Caballero, Romain Sonneville, Fernando A Bozza, Peter Nydahl, Anna Schandl, Hilden Wøien, Giuseppe Citerio, Mark van den Boogaard, Johanna Hästbacka, Matthias Haenggi, Kirsten Colpaert, Louise Rose, Marija Barbateskovic, Theis Lange, Aksel Jensen, Martin B Krog, Ingrid Egerod, Helle L Nibro, Jørn Wetterslev, Anders Perner
PURPOSE: We assessed the prevalence and variables associated with haloperidol use for delirium in ICU patients and explored any associations of haloperidol use with 90-day mortality. METHODS: All acutely admitted, adult ICU patients were screened during a 2-week inception period. We followed the patient throughout their ICU stay and assessed 90-day mortality. We assessed patients and their variables in the first 24 and 72 h in ICU and studied their association together with that of ICU characteristics with haloperidol use...
May 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
M Dillwyn Bartholomeusz, Philip S Bolton, Robin Callister, Virginia Skinner, Deborah Hodgson
There is a rapidly accumulating body of evidence regarding the influential role of early life stress (ELS) upon medical and psychiatric conditions. While self-report instruments, with their intrinsic limitations of recall, remain the primary means of detecting ELS in humans, biological measures are generally limited to a single biological system. This paper describes the design, rationale and feasibility of a study to simultaneously measure neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to psychological and physiological stressors in relation to ELS...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
D Curtin, D O'Mahony, P Gallagher
Background: the last year of life for many older people is associated with high symptom burden and frequent hospitalizations. Hospital physicians have an opportunity to prioritize essential medications and deprescribe potentially futile medications. Objective: to measure medication consumption during hospitalization in the last year of life and the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) at hospital discharge. Design: retrospective chart review...
April 23, 2018: Age and Ageing
Yan-Yan Wei, Wan-Fu Lin, Tian-Hong Zhang, Yun-Xiang Tang, Ji-Jun Wang, Mao-Feng Zhong
Although recent studies focused on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia have reported that it may be beneficial, there is still lack of convincing evidence and critical meta-analytic work regarding its effectiveness as an adjunctive therapy. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of TCM in combination with antipsychotics for refractory schizophrenia. Fourteen articles involving 1725 patients published as of December 2016 were included which compared antipsychotic therapies to either TCM alone, or TCM as an adjunctive therapy...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abd Alhadi Hasan, Hussein Tumah
PURPOSE: The study examines the determinants of the quality of life (QoL) among outpatients with schizophrenia in Jordan. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used with 157 people with schizophrenia treated in outpatient clinics. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables were examined for their influence on QoL. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and stepwise forward multiple linear regression...
April 12, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Dharmesh Gol, Shreya Thakkar, Manju Misra
OBJECTIVE: In the present work nanocrystal-based formulation of risperidone (RIS) was proposed to overcome solubility issue of RIS, while lyophilization technique was used effectively, for conversion of RIS nanosuspension to solid state. SIGNIFICANCE: RIS nanosuspension was developed and stabilized with a combination of polycaprolactone and Pluronic® F-68 as stabilizers. With focus on critical parameters like nature of cryoprotectants and effect of eutectic temperature on properties of nanosuspension, the suitability of lyophilization technique in improving the physical stability of prepared nanosuspension was also evaluated...
April 11, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
J-F Lemay, S Lanzinger, D Pacaud, P L Plener, A Fürst-Burger, T Biester, D Hilgard, E Lilienthal, A Galler, G Berger, R W Holl
BACKGROUND: A paucity of reports in the literature exists concerning the co-existence between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical characteristics, diabetes management and metabolic control in youth with T1D and ASD (T1D-ASD) with youth without ASD (T1D-non ASD). METHODS: Using the German/Austrian diabetes patient follow-up registry, this study analyzed aggregated data from the last available year of observation for each patient with T1D, ages 1-20 with consistent data on insulin regimen and glycated hemoglobin (A1C), between January, 2005 and March, 2017...
March 26, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Joana I Real, Ana Patrícia Simões, Rodrigo A Cunha, Samira G Ferreira, Daniel Rial
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D1 - and D2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A2 A R-D2 R and synergistic A2 A R-D1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A2 A R and D1 /D2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices...
May 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jack René Foucher, Yi Fan Zhang, Mathilde Roser, Julien Lamy, Paulo Loureiro De Sousa, Sébastien Weibel, Pierre Vidailhet, Olivier Mainberger, Fabrice Berna
Schizophrenia as a single liability model was confronted to the multiple psychotic phenotypes model proposed by the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard school, focusing on two: periodic catatonia (PC) and cataphasia (C). Both are stable and heritable psychotic phenotypes with no crossed liability and are coming with the buildup of specific residual symptoms: impairment of psychomotricity for PC and a specific disorganization of thought and language in C. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was used as a biomarker. We attempted to refute the single phenotype model by looking at relevant and specific rCBF anomalies for PC and C, that would exceed anomalies in common relative to controls (CTR), i...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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