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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164728/adhd-and-sct-symptomatology-in-relation-to-college-students-use-of-self-regulated-learning-strategies
#1
Christopher R Shelton, William E Addison, Cynthia M Hartung
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relation between self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies and ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. METHOD: Participants were 303 college students, aged 18 to 25 ( M = 20.04, SD = 1.45), from a Midwestern university who completed the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV), and a shortened, generalized version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). RESULTS: Among college students, inattention symptomatology was consistently predictive of deficits in use of value, expectancy, and self-regulation strategies, while SCT symptomatology was only predictive of deficits in the use of self-regulation strategies...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132125/does-the-presence-of-anxiety-and-adhd-symptoms-add-to-social-impairment-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Reina S Factor, Sarah M Ryan, Julee P Farley, Thomas H Ollendick, Angela Scarpa
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience internalizing and externalizing problems at higher rates than typically developing children, which could worsen social impairment. The present study compared impairment scores (social responsiveness scale, 2nd edition; SRS-2 scores) in 57 children (3-17 years, 82.5% male) with ASD, either with or without heightened levels of anxiety or ADHD symptoms, all per parent report. Children with heightened anxiety problems showed higher scores on four SRS-2 subscales (Social Cognition, Social Communication, Social Motivation, and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106934/neuroimaging-the-neural-correlates-of-increased-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#3
Vitria Adisetiyo, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers. Our objective was to review the existing neuroimaging research on high-risk ADHD (ie, ADHD with disruptive behavior disorders, familial SUD and/or early substance use), focusing on impulsivity as one possible mechanism underlying SUD risk. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using combinations of the keywords "ADHD," "substance use," "substance use disorder," "SUD," "addiction," "dependence," "abuse," "risk," "brain" "MRI," "imaging" and "neuroimaging...
January 20, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095885/symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-adult-eating-disorder-patients
#4
Nils Erik Svedlund, Claes Norring, Ylva Ginsberg, Yvonne von Hausswolff-Juhlin
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder and even less in other eating disorders. This knowledge gap is of clinical importance since stimulant treatment is proven effective in Binge Eating Disorder and discussed as a treatment possibility for Bulimia Nervosa. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and types of self-reported ADHD symptoms in an unselected group of eating disorder patients assessed in a specialized eating disorder clinic...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054712/early-high-school-engagement-in-students-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Nardia Zendarski, Emma Sciberras, Fiona Mensah, Harriet Hiscock
BACKGROUND: Students with attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to languish behind their peers with regard to academic achievement and education attainment. School engagement is potentially modifiable, and targeting engagement may be a means to improve education outcomes. AIMS: To investigate school engagement for students with ADHD during the crucial high school transition period and to identify factors associated with low school engagement. SAMPLE: Participants are adolescents (12-15 years) in the first and third year of high school with diagnosed ADHD (n = 130)...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052706/research-brief
#6
Erin Schoenfelder, Connor McCabe, Aurora Fife, Lisa Herzig, Kym Ahrens
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with ADHD are at risk of functional problems that may be mitigated by consistent ADHD treatment. This study pilots a brief intervention for adolescents with ADHD and their parents to increase treatment knowledge and family motivation to seek treatment. METHOD: The 3-hr curriculum was developed by a multidisciplinary team and included psychoeducation, goal setting, and motivational interviewing. Fifteen adolescents and 20 caregivers participated in the workshop, completed pre- and post-test assessments, and reported on acceptability...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943064/investigating-the-impact-of-cognitive-load-and-motivation-on-response-control-in-relation-to-delay-discounting-in-children-with-adhd
#7
Mary K Martinelli, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in impulse control across a range of behaviors, from simple actions to those involving complex decision-making (e.g., preference for smaller-sooner versus larger later rewards). This study investigated whether changes in motor response control with increased cognitive load and motivational contingencies are associated with decision-making in the form of delay discounting among 8-12 year old children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 26; 8 girls) and typically developing controls (n = 40; 11 girls) completed a standard go/no-go (GNG) task, a GNG task with motivational contingencies, a GNG task with increased cognitive load, and two measures of delay discounting: a real-time task in which the delays and immediately consumable rewards are experienced in real-time, and a classic task involving choices about money at longer delays...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943032/subtyping-non-treatment-seeking-problem-gamblers-using-the-pathways-model
#8
Miea Moon, Jamey J Lister, Aleks Milosevic, David M Ledgerwood
This study examined whether distinct subgroups could be identified among a sample of non-treatment-seeking problem and pathological/disordered gamblers (PG) using Blaszczynski and Nower's (Addiction 97:487-499, 2002) pathways model (N = 150, 50% female). We examined coping motives for gambling, childhood trauma, boredom proneness, risk-taking, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and antisocial personality disorder as defining variables in a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify subgroups...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735973/skills-versus-pills-psychosocial-treatments-for-adhd-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#9
Erin N Schoenfelder, Tyler Sasser
Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725684/adhd-associated-risk-taking-is-linked-to-exaggerated-views-of-the-benefits-of-positive-outcomes
#10
Rachel Shoham, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Hamutal Aloni, Ilan Yaniv, Yehuda Pollak
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often assumed to be associated with increased engagement in risk-taking behaviors. The current study sought to understand the mental processes underlying this association using a theory-driven behavioral economics perspective. Psychological risk-return models suggest that risk and benefit are inherently subjective, and risk taking is best understood as the interplay between cognitions and motivations regarding the benefits and risks of alternatives. A sample of 244 adults was assessed for ADHD symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690507/prescription-stimulant-medication-misuse-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#11
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658428/a-study-on-the-validity-of-a-computer-based-game-to-assess-cognitive-processes-reward-mechanisms-and-time-perception-in-children-aged-4-8-years
#12
Janneke Caw Peijnenborgh, Petra Pm Hurks, Albert P Aldenkamp, Erik D van der Spek, Gwm Rauterberg, Johan Sh Vles, Jos Gm Hendriksen
BACKGROUND: A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo's Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553218/decision-making-in-social-contexts-in-youth-with-adhd
#13
Ili Ma, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk P J Scheres
This study examined reward-related decision-making in children and adolescents with ADHD in a social context, using economic games. We furthermore examined the role of individual differences in reward-related decision-making, specifically, the roles of reward sensitivity and prosocial skills. Children and adolescents (9-17 years) with ADHD-combined subtype (n = 29; 20 boys) and healthy controls (n = 38; 20 boys) completed the ultimatum game and dictator game as measures of reward-related decision-making in social contexts...
August 23, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494646/motives-underlying-smoking-in-college-students-with-adhd
#14
Kerrie Glass Murphy, Kate Flory
BACKGROUND: The positive association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and smoking in youth has been well documented. Less research has examined why individuals with ADHD, particularly college students, are at increased risk for smoking. OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examined whether smoking motives [cognitive enhancement, tolerance, negative reinforcement (smoking to reduce negative affect or stress), craving, social influences, and weight control] helped to explain the relation between ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and cigarette smoking among college students...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418067/translatable-and-back-translatable-measurement-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-convergent-and-divergent-processes
#15
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Jeffrey W Dalley
Impulsivity and compulsivity have emerged as important dimensional constructs that challenge traditional psychiatric classification systems. Both are present in normal healthy populations where the need to act quickly and repeatedly without hesitation can be highly advantageous. However, when excessively expressed, impulsive and compulsive behavior can lead to adverse consequences and spectrum disorders exemplified by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism, and drug addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399612/ventral-striatal-hyperconnectivity-during-rewarded-interference-control-in-adolescents-with-adhd
#16
Ili Ma, Mieke van Holstein, Gabry W Mies, Maarten Mennes, Jan Buitelaar, Roshan Cools, Antonius H N Cillessen, Ruth M Krebs, Anouk Scheres
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by cognitive deficits (e.g., interference control) and altered reward processing. Cognitive control is influenced by incentive motivation and according to current theoretical models, ADHD is associated with abnormal interactions between incentive motivation and cognitive control. However, the neural mechanisms by which reward modulates cognitive control in individuals with ADHD are unknown. METHOD: We used event-related functional resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural responses during a rewarded Stroop color-word task in adolescents (14-17 years) with ADHD (n = 25; 19 boys) and healthy controls (n = 33; 22 boys)...
September 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378972/the-adhd-concomitant-difficulties-scale-adhd-cds-a-brief-scale-to-measure-comorbidity-associated-to-adhd
#17
Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Luis J Fuentes
INTRODUCTION: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377376/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-nicotine-withdrawal-a-qualitative-study-of-patient-perceptions
#18
Michael Liebrenz, Carl Erik Fisher, Romilda Nellen, Anja Frei, Anne-Catherine Biechl, Nina Hiestand, Alice Huber, Anna Buadze, Dominique Eich
BACKGROUND: Nicotine use has been reported to ameliorate symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, adults with ADHD have a relatively high prevalence of cigarette smoking and greater difficulty abstaining from smoking. Overall, though, there is scant literature investigating the beliefs, perceptions and experiences of smokers with ADHD regarding smoking cessation and withdrawal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 20) fulfilling criteria for ADHD and a past or current dependence from nicotine were recruited from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital and the Psychiatric Services Aargau (Switzerland)...
July 4, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318102/theta-band-oscillatory-activity-differs-between-gamblers-and-nongamblers-comorbid-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-probabilistic-reward-learning-task
#19
Mehdi Abouzari, Scott Oberg, Matthew Tata
Problemgambling is thought to be comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We tested whether gamblers and ADHD patients exhibit similar reward-related brain activity in response to feedback in a gambling task. A series of brain electrical responses can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERP), when participants in a gambling task are given feedback regardless of winning or losing the previous bet. Here, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation between unmedicated ADHD patients with or without problem gambling traits and contrasted with a sex- and age-matched control group...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267090/suboptimal-decision-making-by-children-with-adhd-in-the-face-of-risk-poor-risk-adjustment-and-delay-aversion-rather-than-general-proneness-to-taking-risks
#20
Lin Sørensen, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Heike Eichele, Heidi van Wageningen, Daniel Wollschlaeger, Kerstin Jessica Plessen
OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to distinguish difficulties in adjusting to changing probabilities of choice outcomes (so-called risk adjustment) from general risk proneness, and to distinguish these 2 processes from delay aversion (the tendency to choose the least delayed option) and impairments in the ability to reflect on choice options...
June 6, 2016: Neuropsychology
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