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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691604/parent-psychopathology-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-children-with-adhd
#1
Sharifah Shameem Agha, Stanley Zammit, Anita Thapar, Kate Langley
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association between parent mental health (ADHD and depression) and offspring performance on neurocognitive tasks in children with ADHD. METHOD: The clinical sample consisted of 570 children (85% males, mean age: 10.77 years) with ADHD who completed neurocognitive tasks measuring working memory, attention set-shifting, and motivational deficits. Questionnaire measures were used to assess ADHD and depression symptom presence in parents...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630479/attention-cognitive-control-and-motivation-in-adhd-linking-event-related-brain-potentials-and-dna-methylation-patterns-in-boys-at-early-school-age
#2
Hartmut Heinrich, Juliane Grunitz, Valeska Stonawski, Stefan Frey, Simone Wahl, Björn Albrecht, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Peter A Fasching, Gunther H Moll, Anna Eichler
In order to better understand the underpinnings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we targeted the relationship of attentional, cognitive control and motivational processes with DNA methylation patterns of 60 candidate genes in boys at early school age. Participants (6 to 8 years; N = 82) were selected from a German longitudinal cohort (FRANCES). ADHD-related behaviour was assessed via maternal ratings. Performance and event-related potential measures (inter alia Cue-P3 and Nogo-P3), which were recorded in a motivational go/nogo task, indicated diminished attentional orienting, reduced inhibitory response control and a larger motivational effect on performance in ADHD already at this relatively young age...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608744/methylphenidate-related-improvements-in-math-performance-cannot-be-explained-by-better-cognitive-functioning-or-higher-academic-motivation-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Pierre Bet, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether improvements in working memory, reaction time, lapses of attention, interference control, academic motivation, and perceived competence mediated effects of methylphenidate on math performance. METHOD: Sixty-three children (ADHD diagnosis; methylphenidate treatment; age 8-13; IQ > 70) were randomly allocated to a 7-day methylphenidate or placebo treatment in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study and compared with 67 controls...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598701/a-double-blind-randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-computerized-cognitive-exercises-to-tetris-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Aida Bikic, Torben Østergaard Christensen, James F Leckman, Niels Bilenberg, Søren Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this trial was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of computerized cognitive exercises from Scientific Brain Training (SBT), compared to the computer game Tetris as an active placebo, in a pilot study of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Eighteen adolescents with ADHD were randomized to treatment or control intervention for 7 weeks. Outcome measures were cognitive test, symptom, and motivation questionnaires...
June 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587607/design-of-a-syndemic-based-intervention-to-facilitate-care-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-high-risk-behaviour-the-syn-bas-in-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Roel C A Achterbergh, Jannie J van der Helm, Wim van den Brink, Henry J C de Vries
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a risk group for sexual transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Despite counselling interventions, risk behaviour remains high. Syndemic theory holds that psychosocial problems often co-occur, interact and mutually reinforce each other, thereby increasing high risk behaviours and co-occurring diseases. Therefore, if co-occurring psychosocial problems were assessed and treated simultaneously, this might decrease high risk behaviour and disease...
June 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536846/time-on-task-effects-in-children-with-and-without-adhd-depletion-of-executive-resources-or-depletion-of-motivation
#6
Tycho J Dekkers, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Alette Koole, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, Arne Popma, Anika Bexkens, Reino Stoffelsen, Anouk Diekmann, Hilde M Huizenga
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation...
May 23, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527018/predicting-academic-impairment-and-internalizing-psychopathology-using-a-multidimensional-framework-of-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-with-parent-and-adolescent-reports
#7
Zoe R Smith, Joshua M Langberg
Adolescents with Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) exhibit symptoms of slowness, mental confusion, excessive daydreaming, low motivation, and drowsiness/sleepiness. Although many symptoms of SCT reflect internalizing states, no study has evaluated the clinical utility of self-report of SCT in an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) sample. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether SCT is best conceptualized as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In a sample of 262 adolescents comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD, the present study used adolescent- and parent reports of SCT to evaluate the predictive utility of a general SCT factor from a bifactor modeling approach compared the utility of three specific SCT factors (slow, sleepy, and daydreamer) for predicting academic impairment and internalizing psychopathology...
May 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447335/positive-alcohol-expectancies-mediate-associations-between-adhd-behaviors-and-alcohol-related-problems-among-college-students
#8
Alexis Elmore, Molly Nikolas, Will Canu
An increasing percentage of college students report being affected by ADHD behaviors, and this population is at increased risk of experiencing negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption. However, specific factors motivating alcohol consumption and contributing to negative outcomes among these individuals are not well understood. Recent work suggests alcohol expectancies may interact with ADHD behaviors to influence negative drinking-related outcomes among those with elevated inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity...
April 26, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446885/the-impact-of-inattention-hyperactivity-impulsivity-symptoms-and-executive-functions-on-learning-behaviors-of-children-with-adhd
#9
Carla Colomer, Carmen Berenguer, Belén Roselló, Inmaculada Baixauli, Ana Miranda
Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#10
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418789/transitions-and-motivations-for-substance-misuse-in-prison-inmates-with-adhd-and-conduct-disorder-validation-of-a-new-instrument
#11
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Kim Wolff, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
OBJECTIVE: There is a reasonable theoretical base for understanding the possible causes and motivations behind substance misuse and its dependency. There is a need for a reliable and valid measure that delineates the markers of substance use from its initiation and identifies different motivations for drug use transitioning, maintenance, and dependency. We addressed this gap in the United Kingdom by examining and validating the Substance Transitions in Addiction Rating Scale (STARS). METHODS: For this review, 390 male prisoners were screened for conduct disorder and assessed with a clinical diagnostic interview for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
April 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413998/optimising-treatment-strategies-for-adhd-in-adolescence-to-minimise-lost-in-transition-to-adulthood
#12
J K Buitelaar
The persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from adolescence to adulthood is not matched by continuity of care in this transition period. Many adolescents with ADHD have poor medication adherence or even stop medication treatment, and use of behavioural interventions is also suboptimal. The present commentary focuses on treatment strategies that might improve effects of ADHD medication treatment by improving adherence in adolescents with ADHD and/or optimise behavioural interventions for ADHD in adolescence...
April 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406942/the-brain-anatomy-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-adults-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Jean-G Gehricke, Frithjof Kruggel, Tanyaporn Thampipop, Sharina Dyan Alejo, Erik Tatos, James Fallon, L Tugan Muftuler
BACKGROUND: This is one of the first studies to examine the structural brain anatomy and connectivity associated with an ADHD diagnosis and child as well as adult ADHD symptoms in young adults. It was hypothesized that an adult ADHD diagnosis and in particular childhood symptoms, are associated with widespread changes in the brain macro- and microstructure, which can be used to develop a morphometric biomarker for ADHD. METHODS: Voxel-wise linear regression models were used to examine structural and diffusion-weighted MRI data in 72 participants (31 young adults with ADHD and 41 controls without ADHD) in relation to diagnosis and the number of self-reported child and adult symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391109/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-abuse-an-investigation-in-young-austrian-males
#14
Anita Riegler, Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Otto Lesch, Henriette Walter, Katrin Skala
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found an association between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. We intended to determine whether substance abuse and SUDs are associated with former and current ADHD symptomatology in a non-clinical sample of 17 and 18 year old males. METHOD: A representative sample of 3280 young men (6.8% of all males born in Austria in the respective year) was investigated during the examination for military service...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375718/trait-impulsivity-and-the-externalizing-spectrum
#15
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee R Zisner, Colin L Sauder
This article reviews evidence that trait impulsivity-expressed early in life as the hyperactive-impulsive and combined presentations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-is a bottom-up, subcortically mediated vulnerability to all externalizing disorders. This vulnerability arises from deficient mesolimbic dopamine responding, which imbues psychological states (irritability, discontentment) that motivate excessive approach behavior (hyperactivity, impulsivity). Through complex interactions with (a) aversive motivational states that arise from largely independent subcortical systems, (b) emotion regulatory mechanisms that arise from top-down, cortical modulation of subcortical neural function, and (c) environmental risk factors that shape and maintain emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity confers vulnerability to increasingly severe externalizing behaviors across development...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373837/living-in-the-fast-lane-evidence-for-a-global-perceptual-timing-deficit-in-childhood-adhd-caused-by-distinct-but-partially-overlapping-task-dependent-cognitive-mechanisms
#16
Ivo Marx, Steffen Weirich, Christoph Berger, Sabine C Herpertz, Stefan Cohrs, Roland Wandschneider, Jacqueline Höppner, Frank Häßler
Dysfunctions in perceptual timing have been reported in children with ADHD, but so far only from studies that have not used the whole set of timing paradigms available from the literature, with the diversity of findings complicating the development of a unified model of timing dysfunctions and its determinants in ADHD. Therefore, we employed a comprehensive set of paradigms (time discrimination, time estimation, time production, and time reproduction) in order to explore the perceptual timing deficit profile in our ADHD sample...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266790/short-report-symptom-overlap-on-the-srs-2-adult-self-report-between-adults-with-asd-and-adults-with-high-anxiety
#17
Mikle South, AnnaLisa W Carr, Kevin G Stephenson, Max E Maisel, Jonathan C Cox
Many people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also experience significant symptoms of anxiety, while many people with anxiety disorders likewise experience social difficulties. These concerns can be difficult to tease apart in general clinical settings. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is one of the most frequently used measures of dimensional ASD symptoms. In order to investigate the overlap of autism and anxiety on the SRS, we compared three groups of adults (an ASD group, n = 40; a high anxious group, n = 56; and a typical comparison group, n = 29) using the new Adult Self Report version of the SRS-2nd Edition (SRS-2-ASR) alongside a battery of anxiety questionnaires...
March 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260347/adhd-and-enuresis-a-study-about-effectiveness-of-treatment-with-methylphenidate-or-desmopressin-in-a-pediatric-population
#18
Pietro Ferrara, Valeria Sannicandro, Francesca Ianniello, Enrica Quattrocchi, Annamaria Sbordone, Tommasangelo Petitti, Paolo Mariotti
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with methylphenidate or desmopressin (dDAVP) in patients with comorbid ADHD and enuresis. METHODS: We enrolled 103 patients affected by ADHD and 125 patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NE). Data were collected between January 2014 and December 2015. The study was carried out in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration. RESULTS: About children with ADHD, 9/103 (8,7%) were also suffering from NE; of those 8/9 followed treatment with methylphenidate and cognitive behavioral therapy...
March 3, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221060/outcomes-for-adolescents-who-comply-with-long-term-psychosocial-treatment-for-adhd
#19
Brandon K Schultz, Steven W Evans, Joshua M Langberg, Alexander M Schoemann
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a large (N = 216) multisite clinical trial of the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP)-a yearlong afterschool program that provides academic and interpersonal skills training for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Intent-to-treat analyses suggest that, as predicted, the CHP resulted in significant reductions in problem behaviors and academic impairment when compared to community care. However, attendance in the CHP ranged from zero to 60 sessions, raising questions about optimal dosing...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164728/adhd-and-sct-symptomatology-in-relation-to-college-students-use-of-self-regulated-learning-strategies
#20
Christopher R Shelton, William E Addison, Cynthia M Hartung
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relation between self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies and ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. METHOD: Participants were 303 college students, aged 18 to 25 ( M = 20.04, SD = 1.45), from a Midwestern university who completed the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV), and a shortened, generalized version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). RESULTS: Among college students, inattention symptomatology was consistently predictive of deficits in use of value, expectancy, and self-regulation strategies, while SCT symptomatology was only predictive of deficits in the use of self-regulation strategies...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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