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Adhd motivation

Erin N Schoenfelder, Tyler Sasser
Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Rachel Shoham, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Hamutal Aloni, Ilan Yaniv, Yehuda Pollak
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often assumed to be associated with increased engagement in risk-taking behaviors. The current study sought to understand the mental processes underlying this association using a theory-driven behavioral economics perspective. Psychological risk-return models suggest that risk and benefit are inherently subjective, and risk taking is best understood as the interplay between cognitions and motivations regarding the benefits and risks of alternatives. A sample of 244 adults was assessed for ADHD symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Janneke Caw Peijnenborgh, Petra Pm Hurks, Albert P Aldenkamp, Erik D van der Spek, Gwm Rauterberg, Johan Sh Vles, Jos Gm Hendriksen
BACKGROUND: A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo's Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
Ili Ma, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk P J Scheres
This study examined reward-related decision-making in children and adolescents with ADHD in a social context, using economic games. We furthermore examined the role of individual differences in reward-related decision-making, specifically, the roles of reward sensitivity and prosocial skills. Children and adolescents (9-17 years) with ADHD-combined subtype (n = 29; 20 boys) and healthy controls (n = 38; 20 boys) completed the ultimatum game and dictator game as measures of reward-related decision-making in social contexts...
August 23, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Kerrie Glass Murphy, Kate Flory
BACKGROUND: The positive association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and smoking in youth has been well documented. Less research has examined why individuals with ADHD, particularly college students, are at increased risk for smoking. OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examined whether smoking motives [cognitive enhancement, tolerance, negative reinforcement (smoking to reduce negative affect or stress), craving, social influences, and weight control] helped to explain the relation between ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and cigarette smoking among college students...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Valerie Voon, Jeffrey W Dalley
Impulsivity and compulsivity have emerged as important dimensional constructs that challenge traditional psychiatric classification systems. Both are present in normal healthy populations where the need to act quickly and repeatedly without hesitation can be highly advantageous. However, when excessively expressed, impulsive and compulsive behavior can lead to adverse consequences and spectrum disorders exemplified by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism, and drug addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Ili Ma, Mieke van Holstein, Gabry W Mies, Maarten Mennes, Jan Buitelaar, Roshan Cools, Antonius H N Cillessen, Ruth M Krebs, Anouk Scheres
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by cognitive deficits (e.g., interference control) and altered reward processing. Cognitive control is influenced by incentive motivation and according to current theoretical models, ADHD is associated with abnormal interactions between incentive motivation and cognitive control. However, the neural mechanisms by which reward modulates cognitive control in individuals with ADHD are unknown. METHOD: We used event-related functional resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural responses during a rewarded Stroop color-word task in adolescents (14-17 years) with ADHD (n = 25; 19 boys) and healthy controls (n = 33; 22 boys)...
September 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Luis J Fuentes
INTRODUCTION: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael Liebrenz, Carl Erik Fisher, Romilda Nellen, Anja Frei, Anne-Catherine Biechl, Nina Hiestand, Alice Huber, Anna Buadze, Dominique Eich
BACKGROUND: Nicotine use has been reported to ameliorate symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, adults with ADHD have a relatively high prevalence of cigarette smoking and greater difficulty abstaining from smoking. Overall, though, there is scant literature investigating the beliefs, perceptions and experiences of smokers with ADHD regarding smoking cessation and withdrawal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 20) fulfilling criteria for ADHD and a past or current dependence from nicotine were recruited from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital and the Psychiatric Services Aargau (Switzerland)...
July 4, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Mehdi Abouzari, Scott Oberg, Matthew Tata
Problemgambling is thought to be comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We tested whether gamblers and ADHD patients exhibit similar reward-related brain activity in response to feedback in a gambling task. A series of brain electrical responses can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERP), when participants in a gambling task are given feedback regardless of winning or losing the previous bet. Here, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation between unmedicated ADHD patients with or without problem gambling traits and contrasted with a sex- and age-matched control group...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Lin Sørensen, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Heike Eichele, Heidi van Wageningen, Daniel Wollschlaeger, Kerstin Jessica Plessen
OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to distinguish difficulties in adjusting to changing probabilities of choice outcomes (so-called risk adjustment) from general risk proneness, and to distinguish these 2 processes from delay aversion (the tendency to choose the least delayed option) and impairments in the ability to reflect on choice options...
June 6, 2016: Neuropsychology
Julia D McQuade, Saaid A Mendoza, Kristy L Larsen, Rosanna P Breaux
The present study examined if a social positive illusory bias (PIB) is: a) simply a reflection of low adult-rated social acceptance, b) evident when children's perceived social acceptance is measured implicitly, and c) directly relates to impaired executive functioning (EF). Participants were 8 to 12 year-old children (N = 120; 55 boys and 65 girls) with and without clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ratings of the child's social acceptance were obtained from an adult and the child using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter 2012); social bias was calculated as the discrepancy between standardized adult- and child-ratings...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Caitlin A Orsini, Barry Setlow, Michael DeJesus, Stacy Galaviz, Kimberly Loesch, Thomas Ioerger, Deeann Wallis
BACKGROUND: The Latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) gene (recently renamed Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3 (ADGRL3)) has been linked to susceptibility to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and vulnerability to addiction. However, its role and function are not well understood as there are no known functional variants. METHODS: To characterize the function of this little known gene, we phenotyped Lphn3 null mice. We assessed motivation for food reward and working memory via instrumental responding tasks, motor coordination via rotarod, and depressive-like behavior via forced swim...
May 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Alison S Poulton, Emily J Hibbert, Bernard L Champion, Ralph K H Nanan
The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Frank Besag, Giuseppe Gobbi, Albert Aldenkamp, Rochelle Caplan, David W Dunn, Matti Sillanpää
The categorisation of the childhood epilepsies into a number of different syndromes has allowed greater insight into the prognosis, not only with regard to seizure control but also in relation to cognitive and behavioural outcome. The role of genetics in determining both the syndrome and the behavioural outcome remains promising, although the promise is still largely unfulfilled. The behavioural/psychiatric outcome of a selection of the large number of childhood epilepsy syndromes is presented. The rate of autism in West syndrome, particularly in children who have tuberous sclerosis with temporal tubers, is high...
May 16, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Eugenia Chan, Jason M Fogler, Paul G Hammerness
IMPORTANCE: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in adolescents and often persists into adulthood, most studies about treatment were performed in children. Less is known about ADHD treatment in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of ADHD in adolescents. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The databases of CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles published between January 1, 1999, and January 31, 2016, on ADHD treatment in adolescents...
May 10, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Saleh M H Mohamed, Norbert A Börger, Reint H Geuze, Jaap J van der Meere
INTRODUCTION: Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in allocating sufficient effort to regulate the motor activation state. Other studies have shown that the left hemisphere is relatively responsible for keeping humans motivated, allocating sufficient effort to complete their tasks...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Manonita Ghosh, Colleen Fisher, David B Preen, C D'Arcy J Holman
BACKGROUND: The use of stimulant medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to improve classroom behaviour and sustained concentration is well known. Achieving a better academic grade has been reported as the prime motivation for stimulant use and is an increasingly discussed topic. The proliferation of stimulant use for ADHD has been a cause for public, medical and policy concern in Australia. This paper explores individuals' perceptions of ADHD, the meaning that the diagnosis carries for them and their attitudes to stimulant medication treatment...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Dagmar Van Liefferinge, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Nady Van Broeck, Saskia Van Der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Marina Danckaerts
A new parent-completed questionnaire, the Cognition and Motivation in Everyday Life (CAMEL) scale, was developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of neuropsychological impairment in children related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across diverse cognitive, motivational and energetic domains. Its psychometric properties were investigated. A total of 60 items were generated to cover a wide range of putative ADHD-related neuropsychological processes. A clinical (n = 142) and community (n = 810) sample of parents with children between 6 and 16 years of age completed the questionnaire...
April 19, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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