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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853928/d1-and-d2-specific-dopamine-antagonist-modulate-the-caudate-nucleus-neuronal-responses-to-chronic-methylphenidate-exposure
#1
Sidish Venkataraman, Catherine Claussen, Nachum Dafny
The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD), is the first line treatment as a pharmacotherapy to treat behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD is commonly misused in non-ADHD (normal) youth and young adults both as a recreational drug and for cognitive enhancing effects to improve their grades. MPD is known to act on the reward circuit; including the caudate nucleus (CN). The CN is comprised of medium spiny neurons containing largely dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818941/functional-connectivity-in-cortico-subcortical-brain-networks-underlying-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects are region-specific or related to changes in functional connectivity of networks supporting reward processing. Here we use resting-state fMRI to comprehensively delineate the functional connectivity architecture underlying aberrant reward processing in ADHD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817906/temporal-discounting-and-emotional-self-regulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Daniel Augusto Utsumi, Mônica Carolina Miranda, Mauro Muszkat
Temporal Discounting (TD) reflects a tendency to discount a reward more deeply the longer its delivery is delayed. TD tasks and behavioral scales have been used to investigate 'hot' executive functions in ADHD. The present study analyzed TD task performance shown by ADHD and control groups for correlations with emotional self-regulation metrics from two scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children (ages 8-12) with ADHD (n=25) and controls (n=24) were assessed using material rewards (toys) for three types of task: Hypothetical (H); Hypothetical with temporal expectation (HTE); and Real (R)...
October 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816696/acute-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-impulsivity-and-attentional-behavior-among-adolescents-comorbid-for-adhd-and-conduct-disorder
#4
Donald M Dougherty, Rene L Olvera, Ashley Acheson, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Stacy R Ryan, Charles W Mathias
Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) experience deficits in neuropsychological measures of attention, inhibition, and reward processes. Methylphenidate treatment for ADHD and CD has acute effects on these processes. Some of these same aspects of performance are separately described in the Behavioral Model of Impulsivity, which uses a modified approach to measurement. This study characterized the acute effects of methylphenidate attention, initiation, inhibition, and reward processes described in this model of impulsivity...
December 2016: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806078/decreased-left-caudate-volume-is-associated-with-increased-severity-of-autistic-like-symptoms-in-a-cohort-of-adhd-patients-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#5
Laurence O'Dwyer, Colby Tanner, Eelco V van Dongen, Corina U Greven, Janita Bralten, Marcel P Zwiers, Barbara Franke, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Wouter Groen, Nanda Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766464/calorie-intake-and-gambling-is-fat-and-sugar-consumption-impulsive
#6
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722208/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-monetary-delay-discounting-a-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#7
Jacob N S Jackson, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have investigated delay discounting, a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, and its relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with mixed findings. The current meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on the relationship between monetary delay discounting and ADHD in studies using case-control designs. Specifically, the objectives were: 1) to characterize the aggregated differences in monetary delay discounting between individuals with ADHD (cases) and controls in studies using categorical case-control designs; 2) to examine potential differences based on sample age (<18 vs...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713929/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-science-in-development
#8
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703788/personality-traits-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#9
Valentino Antonio Pironti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Ulrich Müller, Edward Thomas Bullmore, Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. However, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD, and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. AIMS: To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678006/children-with-adhd-symptoms-show-decreased-activity-in-ventral-striatum-during-the-anticipation-of-reward-irrespective-of-adhd-diagnosis
#10
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Dienke J Bos, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to more effective treatment options. However, differences in reward processing may not be specific to ADHD, but may be a trans-diagnostic feature of disorders that involve ADHD-like symptoms...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666382/suboptimal-maternal-diets-alter-mu-opioid-receptor-and-dopamine-type-1-receptor-binding-but-exert-no-effect-on-dopamine-transporters-in-the-offspring-brain
#11
Panayotis K Thanos, Jianmin Zhuo, Lisa Robison, Ronald Kim, Mala Ananth, Ilon Choai, Adam Grunseich, Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Foteini Delis, Teresa M Reyes
Birthweight is a marker for suboptimal fetal growth and development in utero. Offspring can be born large for gestational age (LGA), which is linked to maternal obesity or excessive gestational weight gain, as well as small for gestational age (SGA), arising from nutrient or calorie deficiency, placental dysfunction, or other maternal conditions (hypertension, infection). In humans, LGA and SGA babies are at an increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and social and mood disorders...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658428/a-study-on-the-validity-of-a-computer-based-game-to-assess-cognitive-processes-reward-mechanisms-and-time-perception-in-children-aged-4-8-years
#12
Janneke Caw Peijnenborgh, Petra Pm Hurks, Albert P Aldenkamp, Erik D van der Spek, Gwm Rauterberg, Johan Sh Vles, Jos Gm Hendriksen
BACKGROUND: A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo's Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611786/evidence-for-increased-behavioral-control-by-punishment-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
E Furukawa, B Alsop, P Sowerby, S Jensen, G Tripp
BACKGROUND: The behavioral sensitivity of children with ADHD to punishment has received limited theoretical and experimental attention. This study evaluated the effects of punishment on the response allocation of children with ADHD and typically developing children. METHOD: Two hundred and ten children, 145 diagnosed with ADHD, completed an operant task in which they chose between playing two simultaneously available games. Reward was arranged symmetrically across the games under concurrent variable interval schedules...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610420/low-resolution-electromagnetic-tomography-loreta-of-changed-brain-function-provoked-by-pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-in-one-adult-adhd-case
#14
Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Thomas McLaughlin, Joel Lubar, Marcelo Febo, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often continues into adulthood. Recent neuroimaging studies found lowered baseline dopamine tone in the brains of affected individuals that may place them at risk for Substance Use Disorder (SUD). This is an observational case study of the potential for novel management of Adult ADHD with a non-addictive glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex KB200z. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to evaluate the effects of KB220z on a 72-year-old male with ADHD, at baseline and one hour following administration...
2016: Open Journal of Clinical & Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601909/neurobiology-of-hedonic-tone-the-relationship-between-treatment-resistant-depression-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-abuse
#15
REVIEW
Tia Sternat, Martin A Katzman
Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one's characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579475/cadherin-13-human-cis-regulation-and-selectively-altered-addiction-phenotypes-and-cerebral-cortical-dopamine-in-knockout-mice
#16
Jana Drgonova, Donna Walther, G Luke Hartstein, Mohammad O Bukhari, Michael H Baumann, Jonathan Katz, Frank Scott Hall, Elizabeth R Arnold, Shaun Flax, Anthony Riley, Olga Rivero-Martin, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Juan Troncoso, Barbara Ranscht, George R Uhl
The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered Cdh13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive cdh13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine conditioned taste aversion...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564545/the-link-between-callous-unemotional-traits-and-neural-mechanisms-of-reward-processing-an-fmri-study
#17
Kim Veroude, Daniel von Rhein, Roselyne J M Chauvin, Eelco V van Dongen, Maarten J J Mennes, Barbara Franke, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jeffrey C Glennon, Jan K Buitelaar
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, i.e., unconcernedness and lack of prosocial feelings, may manifest in Conduct Disorder (CD), but also in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These disorders have been associated with aberrant reward processing, while the influence of CU traits is unclear. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we examined whether CU traits affect the neural circuit for reward. A Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task was administered to 328 adolescents and young adults with varying levels of CU traits: 40 participants with ODD/CD plus ADHD, 101 participants with ADHD only, 84 siblings of probands with ADHD and 103 typically developing (TD) individuals...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553218/decision-making-in-social-contexts-in-youth-with-adhd
#18
Ili Ma, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk P J Scheres
This study examined reward-related decision-making in children and adolescents with ADHD in a social context, using economic games. We furthermore examined the role of individual differences in reward-related decision-making, specifically, the roles of reward sensitivity and prosocial skills. Children and adolescents (9-17 years) with ADHD-combined subtype (n = 29; 20 boys) and healthy controls (n = 38; 20 boys) completed the ultimatum game and dictator game as measures of reward-related decision-making in social contexts...
August 23, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497734/attention-reward-and-inhibition-symptomatic-features-of-adhd-and-issues-for-offenders-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#19
Colleen M Berryessa
Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system...
August 6, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469395/childhood-adhd-and-delayed-reinforcement-a-direct-comparison-of-performance-on-hypothetical-and-real-time-delay-tasks
#20
Xue Yu, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with ADHD have been shown to prefer smaller sooner over larger later rewards. This has been explained in terms of abnormally steeper discounting of the value of delayed reinforcers. Evidence for this comes from different experimental paradigms. In some, participants experience delay in the laboratory (real-time delay tasks; R-TD), in others they imagine the delay to reinforcers (hypothetical delay tasks; HD). METHOD: We directly contrasted the performance of 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD (n = 23) and matched controls (n = 23) on R-TD and HD tasks with monetary rewards...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
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