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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782975/heterogeneity-in-development-of-aspects-of-working-memory-predicts-longitudinal-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-change
#1
Sarah L Karalunas, Hanna C Gustafsson, Nathan F Dieckmann, Jessica Tipsord, Suzanne H Mitchell, Joel T Nigg
The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. METHOD: The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n = 437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change...
August 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768457/greater-delay-discounting-among-girls-but-not-boys-with-adhd-correlates-with-cognitive-control
#2
Connor H G Patros, Kristie L Sweeney, E Mark Mahone, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i...
August 2, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#3
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696032/research-review-harnessing-the-power-of-individual-participant-data-in-a-meta-analysis-of-the-benefits-and-harms-of-the-incredible-years-parenting-program
#4
REVIEW
Patty Leijten, Frances Gardner, Sabine Landau, Victoria Harris, Joanna Mann, Judy Hutchings, Jennifer Beecham, Eva-Maria Bonin, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Parenting programs aim to reduce children's conduct problems through improvement of family dynamics. To date, research on the precise benefits and possible harms of parenting programs on family well-being has been unsystematic and likely to be subject to selective outcome reporting and publication bias. Better understanding of program benefits and harms requires full disclosure by researchers of all included measures, and large enough numbers of participants to be able to detect small effects and estimate them precisely...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686562/-impulsivity-as-an-immediate-factor-between-addictive-disorders-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
H Lazaratou, A Palaiologou, D Anagnostopoulos
Impulsivity is a behavior in everyday life of mentally healthy individuals. But in some cases the degree of impulsivity begins to create negative effects on one's life and acquires pathological connotation. Two clinical entities in which can be observed a high degree of impulsivity is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Addictive disorders. In these disorders, both impulsive act and impulsive choice are observed. According to some researchers, genetic factors are involved in the control of impulsivity...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686107/critical-exploration-of-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-mood-disorder-and-substance-use-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Judith Regnart, Ilse Truter, Anneke Meyer
Co-occurring disorders (CODs) describe a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) accompanied by a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders are common CODs with high prevalence rates in SUD populations. It is proposed that literature on a tri-condition presentation of ADHD, mood disorder and SUD is limited. Areas covered: A literature search was conducted using a keyword search on EBSCOhost. Initially 2 799 records were identified, however, only two articles included all three conditions occurring concurrently in individuals...
June 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511579/does-an-attention-bias-to-appetitive-and-aversive-words-modulate-interference-control-in-youth-with-adhd
#8
Ili Ma, Gabry W Mies, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation...
May 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#9
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481903/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-delay-discounting-and-risky-financial-behaviors-a-preliminary-analysis-of-self-report-data
#10
Theodore P Beauchaine, Itzhak Ben-David, Aner Sela
Delay discounting-often referred to as hyperbolic discounting in the financial literature-is defined by a consistent preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, and by failure of future consequences to curtail current consummatory behaviors. Previous research demonstrates (1) excessive delay discounting among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (2) common neural substrates of delay discounting and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD, and (3) associations between delay discounting and both debt burden and high interest rate borrowing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444321/evidence-of-altered-brain-responses-to-nicotine-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#11
Guillaume L Poirier, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Introduction: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are susceptible to earlier and more severe nicotine addiction. To shed light on the relationship between nicotine and ADHD, we examined nicotine's effects on functional brain networks in an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Awake magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare functional connectivity in adolescent (postnatal day 44±2) males of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain and two control strains, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague Dawley (n = 16 each)...
April 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433093/impact-of-a-common-genetic-variation-associated-with-putamen-volume-on-neural-mechanisms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Bing Xu, Tianye Jia, Christine Macare, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Sylvane Desrivières
OBJECTIVE: In a recent genomewide association study of subcortical brain volumes, a common genetic variation at rs945270 was identified as having the strongest effect on putamen volume, a brain measurement linked to familial risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine whether rs945270 might be a genetic determinant of ADHD, its effects on ADHD-related symptoms and neural mechanisms of ADHD, such as response inhibition and reward sensitivity, were explored. METHOD: A large population sample of 1,834 14-year-old adolescents was used to test the effects of rs945270 on ADHD symptoms assessed through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and region-of-interest analyses of putamen activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging using the stop signal and monetary incentive delay tasks, assessing response inhibition and reward sensitivity, respectively...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423978/reward-processing-deficits-during-a-spatial-attention-task-in-patients-with-adhd-an-fmri-study
#13
Baris Metin, Zeynep C Tas, Merve Çebi, Ayşe Büyükaslan, Aysegül Soysal, Deniz Hatıloglu, Nevzat Tarhan
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore how cues signaling rewards and feedbacks about rewards are processed in ADHD. METHOD: Inside the scanner, 16 healthy children and 19 children with ADHD completed a spatial attention paradigm where cues informed about the availability of reward and feedbacks were provided about the earned reward. RESULTS: In ventral anterior thalamus (VA), the controls exhibited greater activation in response to reward-predicting cues, as compared with no-reward cues, whereby in the ADHD group, the reverse pattern was observed (nonreward > reward)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405786/maternal-responsiveness-as-a-predictor-of-self-regulation-development-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-across-preschool-ages
#14
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Katja Becker
Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms...
April 12, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398986/living-with-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#15
Merete B Bjerrum, Preben U Pedersen, Palle Larsen
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people diagnosed with ADHD do not necessarily regard themselves as being impaired. However, it is unclear how adults with ADHD experience and manage their symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on how adults experience living with ADHD...
April 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289850/neurophysiological-correlates-of-attentional-fluctuation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Celeste H M Cheung, Gráinne McLoughlin, Daniel Brandeis, Tobias Banaschewski, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
Cognitive performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised, in part, by frequent fluctuations in response speed, resulting in high reaction time variability (RTV). RTV captures a large proportion of the genetic risk in ADHD but, importantly, is malleable, improving significantly in a fast-paced, rewarded task condition. Using the temporal precision offered by event-related potentials (ERPs), we aimed to examine the neurophysiological measures of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and preparation (contingent negative variation, CNV), and their associations with the fluctuating RT performance and its improvement in ADHD...
May 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271452/testing-the-dual-pathway-model-of-adhd-in-obesity-a-pilot-study
#17
Saskia Van der Oord, Caroline Braet, Samuele Cortese, Laurence Claes
INTRODUCTION: There may be shared neuropsychological dysfunctions in ADHD and obesity. This study tested a neuropsychological model of ADHD (reward/executive dysfunctioning) in individuals with obesity. Furthermore, the association between co-morbid binge eating and reward/executive dysfunction was explored. METHODS: Reward/executive dysfunctioning was assessed using both neuropsychological measures and questionnaires in individuals (aged 17-68) with obesity (N = 39; mean BMI = 39...
March 7, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228742/sleep-dependent-consolidation-of-rewarded-behavior-is-diminished-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-a-comorbid-disorder-of-social-behavior
#18
Christian D Wiesner, Ina Molzow, Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Lioba Baving
Children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often also display impaired learning and memory. Previous research has documented aberrant reward processing in ADHD as well as impaired sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memory. We investigated whether sleep also fosters the consolidation of behavior learned by probabilistic reward and whether ADHD patients with a comorbid disorder of social behavior show deficits in this memory domain, too. A group of 17 ADHD patients with comorbid disorders of social behavior aged 8-12 years and healthy controls matched for age, IQ, and handedness took part in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#20
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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