keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

"rapid-learning"

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#1
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735194/clinical-trial-strategies-to-compare-protons-with-photons
#2
REVIEW
Johannes A Langendijk, Liesbeth J Boersma, Coen R N Rasch, Marco van Vulpen, Johannes B Reitsma, Arjen van der Schaaf, Ewoud Schuit
The favorable beam properties of protons can be translated into clinical benefits by target dose escalation to improve local control without enhancing unacceptable radiation toxicity or to spare normal tissues to prevent radiation-induced side effects without jeopardizing local tumor control. For the clinical validation of the added value of protons to improve local control, randomized controlled trials are required. For the clinical validation of the added value of protons to prevent side effects, both model-based validation or randomized controlled trials can be used...
April 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733723/real-world-evidence-in-support-of-precision-medicine-clinico-genomic-cancer-data-as-a-case-study
#3
Vineeta Agarwala, Sean Khozin, Gaurav Singal, Claire O'Connell, Deborah Kuk, Gerald Li, Anala Gossai, Vincent Miller, Amy P Abernethy
The majority of US adult cancer patients today are diagnosed and treated outside the context of any clinical trial (that is, in the real world). Although these patients are not part of a research study, their clinical data are still recorded. Indeed, data captured in electronic health records form an ever-growing, rich digital repository of longitudinal patient experiences, treatments, and outcomes. Likewise, genomic data from tumor molecular profiling are increasingly guiding oncology care. Linking real-world clinical and genomic data, as well as information from other co-occurring data sets, could create study populations that provide generalizable evidence for precision medicine interventions...
May 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694423/computer-assisted-teaching-of-bilateral-sagittal-split-osteotomy-learning-curve-for-condylar-positioning
#4
Charles Savoldelli, Emmanuel Chamorey, Georges Bettega
Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is a widely-performed procedure in orthognathic surgery for the correction of dentofacial deformity. Condylar positioning is a critical step during BSSO to maximize functional and morphological results. The unsuitable positioning of condyles represents one of the causative mechanisms that may induce temporomandibular joint noxious effects after BSSO. Repositioning devices can assist surgeons in maintaining the preoperative condylar position; however, empirical repositioning methods based on experience gained are still commonly used...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693440/intraspecific-variation-in-learning-worker-wasps-are-less-able-to-learn-and-remember-individual-conspecific-faces-than-queen-wasps
#5
Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Allison Injaian, Michael J Sheehan, Nicole Desjardins
Research on individual recognition often focuses on species-typical recognition abilities rather than assessing intraspecific variation in recognition. As individual recognition is cognitively costly, the capacity for recognition may vary within species. We test how individual face recognition differs between nest-founding queens (foundresses) and workers in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps. Individual recognition mediates dominance interactions among foundresses. Three previously published experiments have shown that foundresses (1) benefit by advertising their identity with distinctive facial patterns that facilitate recognition, (2) have robust memories of individuals, and (3) rapidly learn to distinguish between face images...
May 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688449/odor-cued-bitter-taste-avoidance
#6
David M Coppola, Burton Slotnick
In the course of our ongoing studies of odor-cued taste avoidance (OCTA) to measure olfactory capabilities in animals, we observed that mice could rapidly learn to use the vapor of the classical bitterant quinine hydrochloride to avoid contact with the tastant. Here we expand on this observation to determine which among several compounds generally classed as bitter could be detected at a distance. Since mice were initially naïve we were able to assess whether the vapors of the bitter compounds tested were innately aversive as are their tastes...
April 23, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675649/an-easier-lichtenstein-hernioplasty
#7
L Zogbi
BACKGROUND: The Lichtenstein technique is used worldwide because of its rapid learning curve, good results and low recurrence rates. In this approach, a lateral tie-shaped incision is made on the mesh, involving the spermatic funiculus and thus correcting the deep inguinal ring defect by narrowing it. The lateral tie, however, does not prevent the wrinkling of the upper portion of the mesh that is caused by the arched shape of the inguinal ligament, where the lower edge of the prosthesis is sutured...
April 19, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655607/stressful-events-as-teaching-signals-for-the-brain
#8
Sabrina Trapp, John P O'Doherty, Lars Schwabe
Stressful events are better remembered than mundane events. We explain this advantage by reconceptualizing stress in terms of cumulative prediction errors (PEs) that promote rapid learning of events. This proposal integrates the effects of stress on perception and memory, and provides exciting new perspectives for research on stress and cognition.
April 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615854/contributions-of-lateral-and-orbital-frontal-regions-to-abstract-rule-acquisition-and-reversal-in-monkeys
#9
Giancarlo La Camera, Sebastien Bouret, Barry J Richmond
The ability to learn and follow abstract rules relies on intact prefrontal regions including the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Here, we investigate the specific roles of these brain regions in learning rules that depend critically on the formation of abstract concepts as opposed to simpler input-output associations. To this aim, we tested monkeys with bilateral removals of either LPFC or OFC on a rapidly learned task requiring the formation of the abstract concept of same vs...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601142/relocating-cued-goals-induces-population-remapping-in-ca1-related-to-memory-performance-in-a-two-platform-water-task-in-rats
#10
Justin Quinn Lee, Deryn O LeDuke, Kate Chua, Robert J McDonald, Robert J Sutherland
The activity of CA1 neurons in the rodent hippocampus represents multiple aspects of learning episodes, including cue and place information. Previous reports on cue and place representation in CA1 have examined activity in single neurons and population recordings during free exploration of an environment or when actions are directed to either cue or place aspects of memory tasks. To better understand cue and place memory representation in CA1, and how these interact during goal-directed navigation, we investigated population activity in CA1 during memory encoding and retrieval in a novel water task with two visibly distinct platforms, using mRNA for immediate early genes Arc and Homer1a as markers of neural activity...
March 30, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594204/infrastructure-and-distributed-learning-methodology-for-privacy-preserving-multi-centric-rapid-learning-health-care-eurocat
#11
Timo M Deist, A Jochems, Johan van Soest, Georgi Nalbantov, Cary Oberije, Seán Walsh, Michael Eble, Paul Bulens, Philippe Coucke, Wim Dries, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin
Machine learning applications for personalized medicine are highly dependent on access to sufficient data. For personalized radiation oncology, datasets representing the variation in the entire cancer patient population need to be acquired and used to learn prediction models. Ethical and legal boundaries to ensure data privacy hamper collaboration between research institutes. We hypothesize that data sharing is possible without identifiable patient data leaving the radiation clinics and that building machine learning applications on distributed datasets is feasible...
June 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556797/high-dimensional-brain-a-tool-for-encoding-and-rapid-learning-of-memories-by-single-neurons
#12
Ivan Tyukin, Alexander N Gorban, Carlos Calvo, Julia Makarova, Valeri A Makarov
Codifying memories is one of the fundamental problems of modern Neuroscience. The functional mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Experimental evidence suggests that some of the memory functions are performed by stratified brain structures such as the hippocampus. In this particular case, single neurons in the CA1 region receive a highly multidimensional input from the CA3 area, which is a hub for information processing. We thus assess the implication of the abundance of neuronal signalling routes converging onto single cells on the information processing...
March 19, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531297/memory-shapes-visual-search-strategies-in-large-scale-environments
#13
Chia-Ling Li, M Pilar Aivar, Matthew H Tong, Mary M Hayhoe
Search is a central visual function. Most of what is known about search derives from experiments where subjects view 2D displays on computer monitors. In the natural world, however, search involves movement of the body in large-scale spatial contexts, and it is unclear how this might affect search strategies. In this experiment, we explore the nature of memory representations developed when searching in an immersive virtual environment. By manipulating target location, we demonstrate that search depends on episodic spatial memory as well as learnt spatial priors...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389938/skill-or-lack-thereof-of-data-model-fusion-techniques-to-provide-an-early-warning-signal-for-an-approaching-tipping-point
#14
Riddhi Singh, Julianne D Quinn, Patrick M Reed, Klaus Keller
Many coupled human-natural systems have the potential to exhibit a highly nonlinear threshold response to external forcings resulting in fast transitions to undesirable states (such as eutrophication in a lake). Often, there are considerable uncertainties that make identifying the threshold challenging. Thus, rapid learning is critical for guiding management actions to avoid abrupt transitions. Here, we adopt the shallow lake problem as a test case to compare the performance of four common data assimilation schemes to predict an approaching transition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297353/strengthening-scaling-up-through-learning-from-implementation-comparing-experiences-from-afghanistan-bangladesh-and-uganda
#15
Sara Bennett, Shehrin Shaila Mahmood, Anbrasi Edward, Moses Tetui, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho
BACKGROUND: Many effective innovations and interventions are never effectively scaled up. Implementation research (IR) has the promise of supporting scale-up through enabling rapid learning about the intervention and its fit with the context in which it is implemented. We integrate conceptual frameworks addressing different dimensions of scaling up (specifically, the attributes of the service or innovation being scaled, the actors involved, the context, and the scale-up strategy) and questions commonly addressed by IR (concerning acceptability, appropriateness, adoption, feasibility, fidelity to original design, implementation costs, coverage and sustainability) to explore how IR can support scale-up...
December 28, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236938/10-000-attentive-hours-rapid-learning-dissemination-of-knowledge-and-the-future-of-experience-based-care-in-germ-cell-tumors
#16
Craig Nichols, Torgrim Tandstad, Will Lowrance, Siamak Daneshmand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211649/hearing-shapes-event-related-potentials-reveal-the-time-course-of-auditory-visual-sensory-substitution
#17
Christian Graulty, Orestis Papaioannou, Phoebe Bauer, Michael A Pitts, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez
In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training...
April 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175610/large-scale-coupling-dynamics-of-instructed-reversal-learning
#18
Holger Mohr, Uta Wolfensteller, Hannes Ruge
The ability to rapidly learn from others by instruction is an important characteristic of human cognition. A recent study found that the rapid transfer from initial instructions to fluid behavior is supported by changes of functional connectivity between and within several large-scale brain networks, and particularly by the coupling of the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the cingulo-opercular network (CON). In the present study, we extended this approach to investigate how these brain networks interact when stimulus-response mappings are altered by novel instructions...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140124/apprenticeship-based-training-in-neurogastroenterology-and-motility
#19
Dipesh H Vasant, Amol Sharma, Jigar Bhagatwala, Lavanya Viswanathan, Satish S C Rao
Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders affect 50% of patients seen in clinics, many gastroenterologists receive limited NGM training. One-month apprenticeship-based NGM training has been provided at ten centers in the USA for a decade, however, outcomes of this training are unclear. Our goal was to describe the effectiveness of this program from a trainees perspective. Areas covered: We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program...
March 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078337/importance-of-a-species-socioecology-wolves-outperform-dogs-in-a-conspecific-cooperation-task
#20
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Jonas F L Schwarz, Inga Kostelnik, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
keyword
keyword
21091
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"