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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318904/dual-memory-neural-networks-for-modeling-cognitive-activities-of-humans-via-wearable-sensors
#1
Sang-Woo Lee, Chung-Yeon Lee, Dong-Hyun Kwak, Jung-Woo Ha, Jeonghee Kim, Byoung-Tak Zhang
Wearable devices, such as smart glasses and watches, allow for continuous recording of everyday life in a real world over an extended period of time or lifelong. This possibility helps better understand the cognitive behavior of humans in real life as well as build human-aware intelligent agents for practical purposes. However, modeling the human cognitive activity from wearable-sensor data stream is challenging because learning new information often results in loss of previously acquired information, causing a problem known as catastrophic forgetting...
February 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314871/-evidence-based-lichtenstein-technique
#2
W Reinpold, D Chen
Lichtenstein hernioplasty is the number one technique worldwide for open, mesh-based inguinal hernia repair. The principle of Lichtenstein hernioplasty is the tension-free reinforcement of the abdominal wall by covering the transversalis fascia and the oblique muscles with an artificial patch of mesh. The Lichtenstein technique has been modified since its inception. The technique has the benefits of low costs and a rapid learning curve and can be performed with the patient under local anesthesia. The recurrence rates after the Lichtenstein operation are significantly lower compared to open suture repair and equal to laparoendoscopic techniques...
March 17, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245500/rapid-learning-of-visual-ensembles
#3
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
We recently demonstrated that observers are capable of encoding not only summary statistics, such as mean and variance of stimulus ensembles, but also the shape of the ensembles. Here, for the first time, we show the learning dynamics of this process, investigate the possible priors for the distribution shape, and demonstrate that observers are able to learn more complex distributions, such as bimodal ones. We used speeding and slowing of response times between trials (intertrial priming) in visual search for an oddly oriented line to assess internal models of distractor distributions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#4
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220025/management-of-cancer-in-the-older-age-person-an-approach-to-complex-medical-decisions
#5
Maria Vallet-Regí, Miguel Manzano, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Marta Checa López, Matti Aapro, Lodovico Balducci
The management of cancer in older aged people is becoming a common problem due to the aging of the population. There are many variables determining the complex situation that are interconnected. Some of them can be assessed, such as risk of mortality and risk of treatment complications, but many others are still unknown, such as the course of disease, the host-related factors that influence cancer aggressiveness, and the phenotype heralding risk of permanent treatment-related damage.This article presents a dynamic and personalized approach to older people with cancer based on our experience on aging, cancer, and their biological interactions...
February 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152757/lung-cancer-diagnosis-transformation-aligning-the-people-processes-and-technology-sides-of-the-learning-system
#6
Donna E Maziak, Jason R Pantarotto, Jennifer Smylie, Leanne Taylor, Thomas Timlin, Tiziana Cacciotti, Patrick James Villeneuve, Carole Dennie, Chantal Bornais, Jose Aquino, Paul Wheatley-Price, David J Stewart
50 Background: The Ottawa Hospital, serving a population of 1.2 million across a large geographic area, redesigned its regional lung cancer diagnosis and patient intake process using a systems approach. Although having a strong record of excellent coordinated care, recent challenges had created strains on delivery metrics. Prior to the implementation of the project (October 2014), it took patients a range of 15 - 225 days to get from a referral with a suspicion of lung cancer to initial treatment, with a 90(th) percentile of 117 days...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152753/data-driven-quality-improvement-in-an-oncology-patient-centered-medical-home
#7
Maureen Lowry, Brian Flounders, Susan Higman Tofani
54 Background: In a 2012 abstract, Data driven transformation for an Oncology Patient-Centered Medical Home, Consultants in Medical Oncology (CMOH) demonstrated that standardized processes and enhanced IT capabilities (IRIS software app) provided a rapid learning system for the practice. Iris aggregated data became the basis for Quality Improvement Projects (QIPs) allowing CMOH to continue to improve in quality and cost measures. Deviation from performance trend is readily identifiable, providing operational direction...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123082/amygdala-contributions-to-stimulus-reward-encoding-in-the-macaque-medial-and-orbital-frontal-cortex-during-learning
#8
Peter H Rudebeck, Joshua A Ripple, Andrew R Mitz, Bruno B Averbeck, Elisabeth A Murray
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus-reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus-reward associations...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118109/perspectives-on-the-implementation-of-an-ethical-rapid-learning-health-system
#9
Peter Paul Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118107/patient-perspectives-on-the-ethical-implementation-of-a-rapid-learning-system-for-oncology-care
#10
Rochelle D Jones, Aaron N Sabolch, Erin Aakhus, Rebecca A Spence, Angela R Bradbury, Reshma Jagsi
INTRODUCTION: A rapid learning system (RLS) of health care harnesses data generated from routine patient care to create a virtuous cycle of data collection and analysis for quality improvement and research. The success of such systems depends on understanding patient perspectives regarding the ethical issues that arise from the ongoing implementation of this transformative concept. METHODS: An interview guide was designed to evaluate patient perspectives to inform the ethical implementation of an oncology RLS...
March 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118106/qualitative-study-of-oncologists-views-on-the-cancerlinq-rapid-learning-system
#11
Rachel M Mayo, Julie F Summey, Joel E Williams, Rebecca A Spence, Shally Kim, Reshma Jagsi
INTRODUCTION: ASCO is actively developing CancerLinQ (CLQ), a rapid learning system for oncology care. The purpose of this study was to explore providers' opinions and concerns related to implementation of CLQ, including ethical issues. METHODS: Twenty key informant oncologists were recruited for individual in-depth interviews through ASCO contacts, purposively selected to represent a wide variety of cancer specialties as well as different levels of familiarity with CLQ (familiar v unfamiliar)...
March 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043438/surgical-experience-and-long-term-results-of-baroreflex-activation-therapy-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#12
Fred A Weaver, William T Abraham, William C Little, Christian Butter, Anique Ducharme, Marcel Halbach, Didier Klug, Eric G Lovett, Navid Madershahian, Jochen Müller-Ehmsen, Jill E Schafer, Michele Senni, Vijay Swarup, Rolf Wachter, Michael R Zile
The purpose of this publication is to describe the intraoperative experience along with long-term safety and efficacy of the second-generation baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) system in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction HF (HFrEF). In a randomized trial of New York Heart Association Class III HFrEF, 140 patients were assigned 1:1 to receive BAT plus medical therapy or medical therapy alone. Procedural information along with safety and efficacy data were collected and analyzed over 12 months...
July 2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914374/the-effects-of-exposure-and-training-on-the-perception-of-time-compressed-speech-in-native-versus-nonnative-listeners
#13
Karen Banai, Yizhar Lavner
The present study investigated the effects of language experience on the perceptual learning induced by either brief exposure to or more intensive training with time-compressed speech. Native (n = 30) and nonnative (n = 30) listeners were each divided to three groups with different experiences with time-compressed speech: A trained group who trained on the semantic verification of time-compressed sentences for three sessions, an exposure group briefly exposed to 20 time-compressed sentences, and a group of naive listeners...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873063/-a%C3%A2-new-technique-to-facilitate-donor-preparation-for-dmek-surgery
#14
P W Rieck, T Engels
BACKGROUND: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is becoming more and more the method of choice to treat corneal endothelial diseases in specialized centers. The reasons that prevent this technique from becoming widespread are the delicate donor tissue preparation. By inverting the curvature of the cornea from convex to concave after mounting onto an artificial anterior chamber, we developed a combined manual delamination and hydrodissection technique, which allows a rapid and endothelium-preserving method of separating donor Descemet membranes from the underlying stroma...
November 21, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872368/complementary-learning-systems-within-the-hippocampus-a-neural-network-modelling-approach-to-reconciling-episodic-memory-with-statistical-learning
#15
Anna C Schapiro, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Matthew M Botvinick, Kenneth A Norman
A growing literature suggests that the hippocampus is critical for the rapid extraction of regularities from the environment. Although this fits with the known role of the hippocampus in rapid learning, it seems at odds with the idea that the hippocampus specializes in memorizing individual episodes. In particular, the Complementary Learning Systems theory argues that there is a computational trade-off between learning the specifics of individual experiences and regularities that hold across those experiences...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810700/robotic-nipple-sparing-mastectomy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-feasibility-and-safety-study
#16
Antonio Toesca, Nickolas Peradze, Andrea Manconi, Viviana Galimberti, Mattia Intra, Marco Colleoni, Bernardo Bonanni, Giuseppe Curigliano, Mario Rietjens, Giuseppe Viale, Virgilio Sacchini, Paolo Veronesi
BACKGROUND: We previously devised and reported on an innovative surgical technique of robotic nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate robotic breast reconstruction. Here we describe the outcome of the first 29 such consecutive procedures performed on breast cancer patients to assess feasibility, reproducibility and safety. METHODS: The following morbidity factors were tested: operation time, conversion rate to open technique, length of hospitalization, registration of complications for 1 year postoperatively and their characterization as either minor, major, or multiple, depending on clinical severity and treatment required...
February 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790098/adolescent-maturational-transitions-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-signaling-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-obesity-and-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-induced-cognitive-deficits
#17
REVIEW
Amy C Reichelt
Adolescence poses as both a transitional period in neurodevelopment and lifestyle practices. In particular, the developmental trajectory of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a critical region for behavioral control and self-regulation, is enduring, not reaching functional maturity until the early 20 s in humans. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly abundant during adolescence, tuning the brain to rapidly learn about rewards and regulating aspects of neuroplasticity. Thus, adolescence is proposed to represent a period of vulnerability towards reward-driven behaviors such as the consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar diets...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781485/big-data-in-radiation-therapy-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Arthur Jochems, Timo Deist, Yvonka van Wijk, Sean Walsh, Philippe Lambin, Andre Dekker
Data collected and generated by radiation oncology can be classified by the Volume, Variety, Velocity and Veracity (4Vs) of Big Data because they are spread across different care providers and not easily shared owing to patient privacy protection. The magnitude of the 4Vs is substantial in oncology, especially owing to imaging modalities and unclear data definitions. To create useful models ideally all data of all care providers are understood and learned from; however, this presents challenges in the guise of poor data quality, patient privacy concerns, geographical spread, interoperability and large volume...
January 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610128/deep-convolutional-extreme-learning-machine-and-its-application-in-handwritten-digit-classification
#19
Shan Pang, Xinyi Yang
In recent years, some deep learning methods have been developed and applied to image classification applications, such as convolutional neuron network (CNN) and deep belief network (DBN). However they are suffering from some problems like local minima, slow convergence rate, and intensive human intervention. In this paper, we propose a rapid learning method, namely, deep convolutional extreme learning machine (DC-ELM), which combines the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. It uses multiple alternate convolution layers and pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from input images...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606240/cumulative-instructional-time-and-relative-effectiveness-conclusions-extending-research-on-response-intervals-learning-and-measurement-scale
#20
Michelle P Black, Christopher H Skinner, Bethany E Forbes, Merilee McCurdy, Mari Beth Coleman, Kristie Davis, Maripat Gettelfinger
Adapted alternating treatments designs were used to evaluate three computer-based flashcard reading interventions (1-s, 3-s, or 5-s response intervals) across two students with disabilities. When learning was plotted with cumulative instructional sessions on the horizontal axis, the session-series graphs suggest that the interventions were similarly effective. When the same data were plotted as a function of cumulative instructional seconds, time-series graphs suggest that the 1-s intervention caused the most rapid learning for one student...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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