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Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Arthur Jochems, Timo Deist, Yvonka van Wijk, Sean Walsh, Philippe Lambin, Andre Dekker
Data collected and generated by radiation oncology can be classified by the 4Vs of Big Data (Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity) because it is spread across different care providers and not easily shared due to patient privacy protection. The magnitude of the 4Vs is substantial in oncology, especially due to imaging modalities and unclear data definitions. To create useful models ideally all data of all care providers is understood and learned from, however this presents challenges in the guise of poor data quality, patient privacy concerns, geographical spread, interoperability, and the large volume...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Shan Pang, Xinyi Yang
In recent years, some deep learning methods have been developed and applied to image classification applications, such as convolutional neuron network (CNN) and deep belief network (DBN). However they are suffering from some problems like local minima, slow convergence rate, and intensive human intervention. In this paper, we propose a rapid learning method, namely, deep convolutional extreme learning machine (DC-ELM), which combines the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. It uses multiple alternate convolution layers and pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from input images...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Michelle P Black, Christopher H Skinner, Bethany E Forbes, Merilee McCurdy, Mari Beth Coleman, Kristie Davis, Maripat Gettelfinger
Adapted alternating treatments designs were used to evaluate three computer-based flashcard reading interventions (1-s, 3-s, or 5-s response intervals) across two students with disabilities. When learning was plotted with cumulative instructional sessions on the horizontal axis, the session-series graphs suggest that the interventions were similarly effective. When the same data were plotted as a function of cumulative instructional seconds, time-series graphs suggest that the 1-s intervention caused the most rapid learning for one student...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
David J Piekarski, Carolyn M Johnson, Josiah R Boivin, A Wren Thomas, Wan Chen Lin, Kristen Delevich, Ezequiel M Galarce, Linda Wilbrecht
Postnatal brain development is studded with sensitive periods during which experience dependent plasticity is enhanced. This enables rapid learning from environmental inputs and reorganization of cortical circuits that matches behavior with environmental contingencies. Significant headway has been achieved in characterizing and understanding sensitive period biology in primary sensory cortices, but relatively little is known about sensitive period biology in associative neocortex. One possible mediator is the onset of puberty, which marks the transition to adolescence, when animals shift their behavior toward gaining independence and exploring their social world...
August 31, 2016: Brain Research
Stephen Grossberg
Christiansen & Chater's (C&C's) key goals for a language system have been realized by neural models for short-term storage of linguistic items in an Item-Order-Rank working memory, which inputs to Masking Fields that rapidly learn to categorize, or chunk, variable-length linguistic sequences, and choose the contextually most predictive list chunks while linguistic inputs are stored in the working memory.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Jane Moeckli, Kenda R Stewart, Sarah Ono, Bruce Alexander, Tyler Goss, Marissa Maier, Phyllis C Tien, M Bryant Howren, Michael E Ohl
PURPOSE: Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO) is a provider-level telemedicine model successfully applied to hepatitis C care, but little is known about its application to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) care. We performed a mixed-methods evaluation of 3 HIV ECHO programs in the Veterans Health Administration, focusing on uptake by primary care clinics and veterans. METHODS: Administrative data were used to assess program uptake, including adoption (ie, proportion of primary care clinics participating) and reach (ie, proportion of eligible veterans participating)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Salim Said Al Busaidy, Santhosh Narayana Kurukkal, Qais Mohamed Al Hooti, Mohammed Sdky Alsaraf, Said Abdallah Al Mamari, Ahmed Khamis Al Saeedi
INTRODUCTION: The European Association of Urology (EAU) and the American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as the first-line treatment of renal stones greater than 20 mm, however multistage retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) is reported to have high stone-free rates (SFR), fewer complications and a rapid learning curve. This study presents our experience of RIRS in the management of 2 cm-4 cm renal stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent RIRS for 2 cm-4 cm renal stones over a period of 22 months...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Urology
Yanwei Li, Adam S Grabell, Lauren S Wakschlag, Theodore J Huppert, Susan B Perlman
Preschool (age 3-5) is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation...
August 4, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sören Enge, Monika Fleischhauer, Anne Gärtner, Andreas Reif, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Matthias Kliegel, Alexander Strobel
Several studies reported training-induced improvements in executive function tasks and also observed transfer to untrained tasks. However, the results are mixed and there is a large interindividual variability within and across studies. Given that training-related performance changes would require modification, growth or differentiation at the cellular and synaptic level in the brain, research on critical moderators of brain plasticity potentially explaining such changes is needed. In the present study, a pre-post-follow-up design (N = 122) and a 3-weeks training of two response inhibition tasks (Go/NoGo and Stop-Signal) was employed and genetic variation (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoting differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity was examined...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Srikanta K Mishra, Manasa R Panda
The rapid initial phase of training-induced improvement has been shown to reflect a genuine sensory change in perception. Several features of early and rapid learning, such as generalization and stability, remain to be characterized. The present study demonstrated that learning effects from brief training on a temporal gap detection task using spectrally similar narrowband noise markers defining the gap (within-channel task), transfer across ears, however, not across spectrally dissimilar markers (between-channel task)...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Felipe L Schiffino, Peter C Holland
The surprising omission of a reinforcer can enhance the associability of the stimuli that were present when the reward prediction error was induced, so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. Previous research from this laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by the omission of an expected event and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning. These elements include the amygdala, the midbrain substantia nigra, the basal forebrain substantia innominata, the dorsolateral striatum, the secondary visual cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lee A Baugh, Amelie Yak, Roland S Johansson, J Randall Flanagan
When lifting an object, individuals scale lifting forces based on long-term priors relating external object properties (such as material and size) to object weight. When experiencing objects that are poorly predicted by priors, people rapidly form and update sensorimotor memories that can be used to predict an object's atypical size-weight relation in support of predictively scaling lift forces. With extensive experience lifting such objects, long-term priors, assessed using weight judgements, are gradually updated...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mark R Somerfield, Kari Bohlke, George P Browman, Neelima Denduluri, Kaitlin Einhaus, Daniel F Hayes, Alok A Khorana, Robert S Miller, Supriya G Mohile, Thomas K Oliver, Eduardo Ortiz, Gary H Lyman
Since the beginning of its guidelines program in 1993, ASCO has continually sought ways to produce a greater number of guidelines while maintaining its commitment to using the rigorous development methods that minimize the biases that threaten the validity of practice recommendations. ASCO is implementing a range of guideline development and implementation innovations. In this article, we describe innovations that are designed to (1) integrate consideration of multiple chronic conditions into practice guidelines; (2) keep more of its guidelines current by applying evolving signals or (more) rapid, for-cause updating approaches; (3) increase the number of high-quality guidelines available to its membership through endorsement and adaptation of other groups' products; (4) improve coverage of its members' guideline needs through a new topic nomination process; and (5) enhance dissemination and promote implementation of ASCO guidelines in the oncology practice community through a network of volunteer ambassadors...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Jake Hillyer, P Cody Buchanan, Elizabeth Elkins, Stacey D Watson, Francois Cloutier, Douglas D Backous, Alexandra Parbery-Clark
OBJECTIVE: To determine how best to modify osseointegrated (OI) devices or environmental settings to maximize hearing performance. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Fourteen adults with single-sided deafness (SSD) with a minimum of 6 months OI usage and nine bilaterally normal hearing controls INTERVENTIONS: : Speech in noise (SIN) and localization ability were assessed in a multi-speaker array (R-Space) with patients repeating sentences embedded in competing noise and verbally indicating the source speaker, respectively...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Maurits Adam, Ivanina Reitenbach, Frank Papenmeier, Gustaf Gredebäck, Claudia Elsner, Birgit Elsner
Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal)...
August 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Felipe L Schiffino, Peter C Holland
Considerable evidence indicates that reinforcement prediction error, the difference between the obtained and expected reinforcer values, modulates attention to potential cues for reinforcement. The surprising delivery or omission of a reinforcer enhances the associability of the stimuli that were present when the error was induced, so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. Previous research from our laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by omission of an expected event and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning...
July 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Karolina Kuszewska, Krzysztof Miler, Michał Filipiak, Michal Woyciechowski
Learning abilities are exhibited by many animals, including insects. However, sedentary species are typically believed to have low capacities and requirements for learning. Despite this view, recent studies show that even such inconspicuous organisms as larval antlions, which employ an ambush predation strategy, are capable of learning, although their learning abilities are rather simple, i.e., limited to the association of vibrational cues with the arrival of prey. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that antlion larvae can use vibrational cues for complex modifications of their foraging strategies...
September 2016: Animal Cognition
Jacques Launay, Roger T Dean, Freya Bailes
Research has established that there is a cognitive link between perception and production of the same movement. However, there has been relatively little research into the relevance of this for non-expert perceivers, such as music listeners who do not play instruments themselves. In two experiments we tested whether participants can quickly learn new associations between sounds and observed movement without performing those movements themselves. We measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of participants' right hands while test tones were heard and single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses were used to trigger motor activity...
March 2016: Psychomusicology
Mahendra Awale, Jean-Louis Reymond
BACKGROUND: Similarly to the periodic table for elements, chemical space offers an organizing principle for representing the diversity of organic molecules, usually in the form of multi-dimensional property spaces that are subjected to dimensionality reduction methods to obtain 3D-spaces or 2D-maps suitable for visual inspection. Unfortunately, tools to look at chemical space on the internet are currently very limited. RESULTS: Herein we present webDrugCS, a web application freely available at www...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
Diego Gonzalez-Rivas
The development of thoracoscopy has more than one hundred years of history since Jacobaeus described the first procedure in 1910. He used the thoracoscope to lyse adhesions in tuberculosis patients. This technique was adopted throughout Europe in the early decades of the 20(th) century for minor and diagnostic procedures. It is only in the last two decades that interest in minimally invasive thoracic surgery was reintroduced by two key technological improvements: the development of better thoracoscopic cameras and the availability of endoscopic linear mechanical staplers...
March 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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