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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#1
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140230/effect-of-tenofovor-diproxil-fumarate-on-renal-function-and-urinalysis-abnormalities-in-hiv-infected-cameroonian-adults
#2
Carlos Fritzsche, Jens Rudolph, Barbara Huenten-Kirsch, Christoph J Hemmer, Robert Tekoh, Pius B Kuwoh, Aenne Glass, Emil C Reisinger
In Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of HIV-associated kidney diseases is as high as 53.3%. Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), especially tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), is known to be nephrotoxic. We undertook this cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 at the Regional Hospital Limbe in the Southwest Region of Cameroon to determine the prevalence of renal dysfunction and its correlates among treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients on TDF and treatment-naïve patients. In April 2016, a follow-up was performed on those who had been treatment-naïve and were started on cART after enrolment in the study...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138653/the-incidence-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-changes-and-related-factors-among-hiv-infected-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#3
Frank Ndaks Ndakala, Julius Otieno Oyugi, Margaret Ng'wono Oluka, Joshua Kimani, Georg Martin Norbert Behrens
Introduction: In many settings, several factors including adverse drug reactions and clinical failure can limit treatment choices for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of first-line cART changes and associated factors in a cohort of Kenyan sex workers. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records collected from 2009 to 2013. The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136775/high-parathyroid-hormone-concentration-in-tenofovir-treated-patients-are-due-to-inhibition-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-activity
#4
Alessandra Mingione, Katia Maruca, Federica Chiappori, Francesca Pivari, Caterina Brasacchio, Tiziana Quirino, Ivan Merelli, Laura Soldati, Paolo Bonfanti, Stefano Mora
Bone health impairment is a common finding in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment. High serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration in patients on antiretroviral treatment containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been reported. Hyperparathyroidism was not always sustained by a reduction in vitamin D concentration. We thus hypothesized a direct inhibitory effect of TDF on the Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), leading to hyperparathyroidism. Human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with CASR wild-type gene or mutated in different sites (N124K, T1051G, C788T, T888M)...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135656/frequency-of-monitoring-kidney-function-in-hiv-uninfected-persons-using-daily-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#5
Kenneth K Mugwanya, Jared M Baeten, Christina Wyatt, Nelly R Mugo, Connie L Celum, Allan Ronald, John Kiarie, Elly Katabira, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: Wide-scale implementation of oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is now policy in many settings. However, the optimal frequency for monitoring kidney function remains uncertain. We investigated the impact of 6-monthly compared to 3-monthly creatinine clearance (CrCl) monitoring on the identification of moderate kidney dysfunction, defined as CrCl <60 mL/min. METHODS: Data were from two prospective daily oral PrEP studies in Kenya and Uganda: the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized safety and efficacy trial of PrEP that conducted 3-monthly CrCl monitoring (n=4404) and the Partners Demonstration Project (n=954), an open-label delivery study of PrEP that used 6-monthly monitoring...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135651/comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-single-dose-tenofovir-vaginal-film-and-gel-formulation-fame-05
#6
Jennifer A Robinson, Mark A Marzinke, Edward J Fuchs, Rahul P Bakshi, Hans M L Spiegel, Jenell S Coleman, Lisa C Rohan, Craig W Hendrix
OBJECTIVE: While pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine reduces HIV acquisition rates, poor adherence to and acceptability of daily vaginal gels has led to development of vaginal film formulations to improve adherence and, potentially, enable episodic use. STUDY DESIGN: In this two-arm, cross-over study of a fast-dissolving tenofovir film (40 mg) compared to a previously studied semisolid tenofovir 1% gel (40 mg), 10 healthy women received a single vaginal dose of each study product...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135577/protease-inhibitors-and-preterm-delivery-another-piece-in-the-puzzle
#7
Graziella Favarato, Claire L Townsend, Heather Bailey, Helen Peters, Pat Tookey, Graham P Taylor, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Questions remain regarding preterm delivery (PTD) risk in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including the role of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), timing of ART initiation and immune status. METHODS: We examined data from the UK/Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood on women with HIV delivering a singleton live infant in 2007-2015, including those pregnancies receiving PI/r-based (n=4184) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based regimens (n = 1889)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126456/virological-response-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-and-genetic-diversity-among-patients-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-n-djamena-chad-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Chatté Adawaye, Joseph Fokam, Erick Kamangu, Hamit Mahamat Alio, Aoudalkarim Moussa Chahad, Fabrice Susin, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Tchombou Hig-Zounet Bertin, Abdelsalam Tidjani, Dolores Vaira, Michel Moutschen
BACKGROUND: The national antiretroviral therapy in the Republic of Chad provides free of charge antiretroviral regimens and therapeutic monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy nationwide. For a successful programmatic uptake, these efforts merit to be supported by thorough assessments of antiretroviral therapy response and HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance, especially with risks of cross-resistance due to the gradual stavudine phasing out in such national settings. We therefore evaluated the virological response to antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 drug resistance emergence and circulating HIV-1 clades in a Chad context...
November 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126299/cns-penetration-of-art-in-hiv-infected-children
#9
Malon Van den Hof, Charlotte Blokhuis, Sophie Cohen, Henriette J Scherpbier, Ferdinand W N M Wit, M C M Pistorius, Neeltje A Kootstra, Charlotte E Teunissen, Ron A A Mathot, Dasja Pajkrt
Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired CSF and blood samples of clinically stable HIV-infected children between 8 and 18 years old on long-term combined ART. Plasma drug concentrations were corrected for protein binding...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125261/hepatitis-b-and-liver-transplantation
#10
Alberto Ferrarese, Alberto Zanetto, Francesco P Russo
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only effective treatment for hepatitis B-virus (HBV) related end stage liver disease, even if the outcome of these patients, has significantly improved after introduction of effective and well tolerated nucleos/tide analogues (NUC). Pre-transplant therapy has been initially based on lamivudine, but entecavir and tenofovir represent the currently recommended first-line therapeutic option in patients with HBV decompensated cirrhosis. After LT, the development of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) in the early 1990s change dramatically the prognosis of these patients by reducing the incidence of HBV recurrence and increasing survival rate...
November 10, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121445/viraemia-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-hiv-infected-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-2010-2015
#11
Terusha Chetty, Marie-Louise Newell, Claire Thorne, Anna Coutsoudis
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy and postpartum viral load suppression is critical to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and ensure maternal health. We measured viraemia risk before, during and after pregnancy in HIV-infected women. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 1425 HIV-infected pregnant women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least six months pre-pregnancy were enrolled in a cohort study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Odds ratios were estimated in multilevel logistic regression, with pregnancy period time varying...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119473/preference-of-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-versus-rectal-tenofovir-reduced-glycerin-1-gel-regimens-for-hiv-prevention-among-cisgender-men-and-transgender-women-who-engage-in-receptive-anal-intercourse-with-men
#12
Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Curtis Dolezal, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Iván C Balán, William Brown, Christine Rael, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna M Piper, Linda-Gail Bekker, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Pedro Gonzales, Timothy H Holtz, Albert Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Carmen D Zorrilla, Javier R Lama, Ian McGowan, Ross D Cranston
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission. Yet, some may prefer not to take systemic daily medication. MTN-017 was a 3-period, phase 2 safety and acceptability study of microbicide gel applied rectally either daily or before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI), compared to daily oral tablet. At baseline, cisgender men and transgender women who reported RAI (N = 187) rated the daily oral regimen higher in overall liking, ease of use, and likelihood of future use than the gel regimens...
November 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119381/comparison-of-tenofovir-plasma-and-tissue-exposure-using-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-and-bootstrap-a-simulation-study-from-observed-data
#13
Jon W Collins, J Heyward Hull, Julie B Dumond
Sparse tissue sampling with intensive plasma sampling creates a unique data analysis problem in determining drug exposure in clinically relevant tissues. Tissue exposure may govern drug efficacy, as many drugs exert their actions in tissues. We compared tissue area-under-the-curve (AUC) generated from bootstrapped noncompartmental analysis (NCA) methods and compartmental nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling. A model of observed data after single-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was used to simulate plasma and tissue concentrations for two destructive tissue sampling schemes...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118562/obstetricians-and-gynecologists-knowledge-education-and-practices-regarding-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#14
Bolin Niu, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Steven K Herrine
Background: In pregnant women with high viral loads, third-trimester initiation of antiviral agents can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. We aimed to assess obstetricians' and gynecologists' (OB-GYN) knowledge and clinical practice when treating pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: All program directors (PDs) from 250 US OB-GYN residency programs were invited to anonymously complete an 18-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112956/hiv-1-persistence-following-extremely-early-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-an-observational-study
#15
Timothy J Henrich, Hiroyu Hatano, Oliver Bacon, Louise E Hogan, Rachel Rutishauser, Alison Hill, Mary F Kearney, Elizabeth M Anderson, Susan P Buchbinder, Stephanie E Cohen, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Remi Fromentin, Rebecca Hoh, Albert Y Liu, Joseph M McCune, Jonathan Spindler, Kelly Metcalf-Pate, Kristen S Hobbs, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Robert F Siliciano, Richard W Price, Douglas D Richman, Nicolas Chomont, Janet D Siliciano, John W Mellors, Steven A Yukl, Joel N Blankson, Teri Liegler, Steven G Deeks
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112071/the-role-of-menopause-in-tenofovir-diphosphate-and-emtricitabine-triphosphate-concentrations-in-cervical-tissue
#16
Melanie R Nicol, Lindsey M Brewers, Angela Dm Kashuba, Craig Sykes
OBJECTIVE: Although postmenopausal women have behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV infection, the activity of pre-exposure prophylaxis agents in older adults has not been well studied. DESIGN: We used an ex-vivo approach to compare the tissue concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) and emtricitabine triphosphate (FTCtp) in cervical tissues from premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHOD: Cervical explants from 16 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women were incubated in 10-300 μg/mL tenofovir or emtricitabine for 24 hours...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112066/emulating-a-target-trial-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-started-before-conception-and-risk-of-adverse-birth-outcomes
#17
Ellen C Caniglia, Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Shahin Lockman, Jennifer Chen, Mompati Mmalane, Joseph Makhema, Miguel A Hernán, Roger L Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pre-conception initiation of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP) versus tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV) on adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: Emulation of a hypothetical (target) trial using a birth surveillance study in Botswana during an era of CD4-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: In women who initiated ART < 3 years from HIV diagnosis, conceived 0...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111056/optimization-of-tenofovir-release-from-mucoadhesive-vaginal-tablets-by-polymer-combination-to-prevent-sexual-transmission-of-hiv
#18
Fernando Notario-Pérez, Raúl Cazorla-Luna, Araceli Martín-Illana, Roberto Ruiz-Caro, Aitana Tamayo, Juan Rubio, María-Dolores Veiga
The use of sustained-release mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of antiretroviral drugs as microbicidal formulations can be an effective strategy for reducing the sexual transmission of HIV from men to women, which is a main problem particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Different polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan, guar gum and Eudragit(®) RS) have proven some good features for this purpose. At this work, these polymers have been combined in pairs in different proportions to enhance the advantages offered by each one individually...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110395/antiretroviral-pill-count-and-clinical-outcomes-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-hiv-infection
#19
J Young, C Smith, R Teira, P Reiss, I Jarrín Vera, H Crane, J M Miro, A D'Arminio Monforte, M Saag, R Zangerle, H C Bucher
OBJECTIVES: Treatment guidelines recommend single-tablet regimens for patients with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy. These regimens might be as effective and cost less if taken as separate drugs. We assessed whether the one pill once a day combination of efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir reduces the risk of disease progression compared with multiple-pill formulations of the same regimen. METHODS: We selected treatment-naïve patients starting one-, two- or three-pill formulations of this regimen in data from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration...
November 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108212/-tenofovir-in-treatment-of-postoperative-recurrent-hepatitis-b-in-a-patient-with-positive-anti-hbs-before-kidney-transplantation-a-case-report
#20
D M Zhu, M Y Qian, L G Liu, C Y Ye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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