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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782827/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-mild-chronic-renal-failure-in-hiv-infected-patients-influence-of-female-gender-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Marina Pontello Cristelli, Joan Carles Trullàs, Federico Cofán, Naira Rico, Christian Manzardo, Juan Ambrosioni, Josep Lluis Bedini, Asunción Moreno, Fritz Diekmann, Jose Maria Miro
BACKGROUND: In people living with HIV, much is known about chronic kidney disease, defined as a glomerular filtration rate under 60mL/min. However, there is scarce data about prevalence and risk factors for milder impairment (60-89mL/min). OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to assess the influence of sex, antiretroviral therapy, and classical risk factors on the occurrence of mild decreased renal function in a large Spanish cohort of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional, single center study, including all adult HIV-1-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment with at least two serum creatinine measures during 2014, describing the occurrence of and the risk factors for mildly decreased renal function (eGFR by CKD-EPI creatinine equation of 60-89mL/min)...
May 18, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782548/dyslipidemia-among-rural-and-urban-hiv-patients-in-south-east-malawi
#2
Alemayehu Amberbir, Victor Singano, Alfred Matengeni, Zahra Ismail, Gift Kawalazira, Adrienne K Chan, Sumeet D Sodhi, Joep J van Oosterhout
BACKGROUND: While dyslipidemia importantly contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), data on lipid patterns among African adults on ART are limited. We describe the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and associated factors in two HIV clinics in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2014 and enrolled adult patients at a rural and an urban HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi. We recorded patient characteristics, CVD risk factors and anthropometric measurements, using the WHO STEPS validated instrument...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781878/hiv-1-proviral-sequence-and-treatment-outcome-of-virologically-suppressed-patients-switching-to-coformulated-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#3
Kristen Andreatta, Silvia Chang, Ross Martin, Rima Kulkarni, Martin Daeumer, Alexander Thielen, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777425/the-use-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-forensic-medicine-following-incidents-of-sexual-violence-in-hamburg-germany-a-retrospective-study
#4
Julia Ebert, Jan Peter Sperhake, Olaf Degen, Ann Sophie Schröder
In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#5
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772084/switching-to-tenofovir-vs-continuing-entecavir-for-hbv-with-partial-virologic-response-to-entecavir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Hyung Joon Yim, In Hee Kim, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Jong Eun Yeon, Chang Wook Kim, So Young Kwon, Sang Hoon Park, Myung Seok Lee, Soon Ho Um, Kwan Soo Byun
Entecavir 0.5 mg (ETV) is widely used among treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, 10%-30% of patients show partial virologic response (PVR) to the drug. If the hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to replicate, the underlying liver disease may progress. Herein, we compared the efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of continuing ETV in CHB patients with PVR to ETV. This was an open-label randomized controlled trial including CHB patients who had been receiving 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771790/patterns-and-correlates-of-participant-retention-in-a-multi-city-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-demonstration-project
#7
Susanne Doblecki-Lewis, Albert Y Liu, Daniel J Feaster, Stephanie E Cohen, Richard Elion, Oliver Bacon, Megan Coleman, Gabriel Cardenas, Michael A Kolber
BACKGROUND: Safe and effective use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on retention in care after initial engagement. SETTING: The United States PrEP Demonstration Project offered daily oral tenofovir/emtricitabine to participants in San Francisco, Miami, and Washington, D.C. for 48 weeks from 2012-2014. METHODS: Demo Project participants' patterns of retention were assigned to one of three categories: early loss to follow-up (ELTF) within the first 12 weeks of the study, retention throughout the study, or intermittent retention in which missed or delayed visits resulted in gaps in medication availability...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771789/raltegravir-1200-mg-once-daily-vs-400-mg-twice-daily-with-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-previously-untreated-hiv-1-infection-week-96-results-from-oncemrk-a-randomized-double-blind-non-inferiority-trial
#8
Pedro Cahn, Paul E Sax, Kathleen Squires, Jean-Michel Molina, Winai Ratanasuwan, Mohammed Rassool, Mark Bloch, Xia Xu, Yan Zhou, Brenda Homony, Deborah Hepler, Hedy Teppler, George J Hanna, Bach-Yen Nguyen, Wayne Greaves
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir 1200mg (2x600mg tablets) once daily (QD) demonstrated non-inferior efficacy and similar safety to raltegravir 400mg BID at Week 48 of the ONCEMRK trial. Here we report the Week 96 results from this study. METHODS: ONCEMRK is a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, non-inferiority trial comparing raltegravir 1200mg QD to raltegravir 400mg BID in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. Participants were assigned (2:1) to raltegravir 2x600mg QD or 400mg BID, both with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) for 96 weeks...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770060/setting-the-stage-for-expanding-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-canada
#9
EDITORIAL
M Hull, Dhs Tan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to disproportionately affect vulnerable populations in Canada; particularly men who have sex with men (MSM). Novel HIV prevention strategies have recently expanded from the use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) after high risk exposures to the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in which individuals reduce risk of HIV infection through use of combination antiretrovirals taken prior to risk exposure. With approval of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for use as PrEP only in early 2016, and with limited public funding to date, uptake in Canada is in its preliminary stages...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767681/drug-side-effects-and-retention-on-hiv-treatment-a-regression-discontinuity-study-of-tenofovir-implementation-in-south-africa-and-zambia
#10
Alana T Brennan, Jacob Bor, Mary-Ann Davies, Gilles Wandeler, Hans Prozesky, Geoffrey Fatti, Robin Wood, Kathryn Stinson, Frank Tanser, Till Bärnighausen, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Arianna Zanolini, Matthew P Fox
Tenofovir is less toxic than other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may improve retention of HIV-infected patients on ART. We assessed the impact of national guideline changes in South Africa (2010) and Zambia (2007) recommending tenofovir in first-line ART. We applied regression discontinuity in a prospective cohort of 52,294 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART within ±12-months of each guideline change. We compared outcomes in patients presenting just before/after the guideline changes using local linear regression and estimated intention-to-treat effects on initiation of tenofovir, retention in care, and other treatment outcomes at 24-months...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767639/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-tenofovir-reduced-glycerin-1-gel-in-the-rectal-and-vaginal-compartments-in-women-a-cross-compartmental-study-with-directly-observed-dosing
#11
Jessica E Justman, Gonasagrie Lulu Nair, Craig W Hendrix, Jeanna M Piper, Mark A Marzinke, James Y Dai, Zhenyu Pan, Beth Galaska, Lisa Levy, Jill L Schwartz, Bhavna Balar, Ratiya P Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ivy Mushamiri, Ian McGowan, Charlene S Dezzutti
BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking regarding whether vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis with topical tenofovir (TFV) reduces the risk of rectal HIV acquisition. SETTING: Bronx, NY. METHODS: MTN-014 was a phase 1, cross-over, randomized sequence trial comparing the cross-compartment pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of daily TFV reduced-glycerin 1% gel after 14 days each of rectal and vaginal application, with directly observed dosing and a 6-week washout period between phases...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767638/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-and-kidney-tubular-dysfunction-in-hiv-uninfected-individuals
#12
Vasantha Jotwani, Rebecca Scherzer, David V Glidden, Megha Mehrotra, Patricia Defechereux, Albert Liu, Monica Gandhi, Michael Bennett, Steven G Coca, Chirag R Parikh, Robert M Grant, Michael G Shlipak
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is becoming increasingly adopted for HIV prevention. Tenofovir can cause proximal tubular damage and chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons, but little is known regarding its nephrotoxic potential among HIV-uninfected persons. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PrEP on urine levels of the following: α1-microglobulin (α1m), a marker of impaired tubular reabsorption; albuminuria, a measure of glomerular injury; and total proteinuria...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767543/efficacy-of-single-tablet-darunavir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-1
#13
Eugènia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet
HIV eradication is not feasible and lifelong treatment is warranted to manage HIV infection. In this scenario, the advent of single-tablet, once-daily, fixed-dose co-formulations is important for reducing pill burden and maximize long-term drug adherence. Cobicistat-boosted darunavir along with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide co-formulation (DRV/c/FTC/TAF or the trade name Symtuza®) is the first marketed protease inhibitor-based fixed-dose combination regimen for the treatment of HIV infection. It was approved in late 2017 by the European Medical Agency both for naïve patients and treatment-experienced patients with viral suppression...
May 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766745/incidence-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-receiving-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-a-real-world-urban-ryan-white-clinic
#14
Jessica L Michal, Saira Rab, Manish Patel, Alison Kyle, Lesley Miller, Kirk A Easley, Aley Kalapila
Background Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), an antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an antiretroviral for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may be co-administered in patients co-infected with these viruses. A drug interaction between LDV and TDF could increase TDF-associated nephrotoxicity rates; however, there is minimal clinical evidence describing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates in this population. Setting This study was conducted at a Ryan White-funded facility in Atlanta, Georgia, that cares for over 5,000 patients with AIDS...
May 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762175/pregnancy-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-babies-with-in-utero-exposure-to-tenofovir-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#15
Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Ting Hong, Connie Celum, Mark A Marzinke, Kenneth Ngure, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Global guidelines recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy. METHODS: In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761604/remaining-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-receiving-entecavir-tenofovir-in-south-korea
#16
Jung Hwan Yu, Young-Joo Jin, Jin-Woo Lee, Don-Haeng Lee
BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to identify the incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with entecavir or tenofovir in South Korea, and to identify predictors of HCC development in these patients. METHODS: Between January, 2007 and December, 2015, 582 CHB patients initially received entecavir (n=406, 69.8%) or tenofovir (n=176, 30.2%) for CHB. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 57.1 months, HCC developed in 38 (6...
May 14, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761350/effects-of-gel-volume-on-pharmacokinetics-for-vaginal-and-rectal-applications-of-combination-duogel-iqb4012-a-dual-chamber-dual-drug-hiv-microbicide-gel-in-pigtailed-macaques
#17
Lara E Pereira, Tyana Singletary, Amy Martin, Chuong T Dinh, Frank Deyounks, Angela Holder, Janet McNicholl, Karen W Buckheit, Robert W Buckheit, Anthony Ham, David F Katz, James M Smith
This study evaluated effects of differing gel volumes on pharmacokinetics (PK). IQB4012, a gel containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor IQP-0528 and tenofovir (TFV), was applied to the pigtailed macaque vagina and rectum. Vaginal gel volumes (1% loading of both drugs) were 0.5 or 1.5 ml; following wash-out, 1 or 4 ml of gel were then applied rectally. Blood, vaginal, and rectal fluids were collected at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h. Vaginal and rectal tissue biopsies were collected at 4 and 24 h...
May 14, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759422/executive-summary-of-the-gesida-national-aids-plan-consensus-document-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-adults-infected-by-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-updated-january-2018
#18
(no author information available yet)
This update to the document on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults, which has been prepared jointly by GeSIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan for the last two decades, supersedes the document published in 2017.1 The update provides physicians treating HIV-1-infected adults with evidence-based recommendations to guide their therapeutic decisions. The main difference with respect to the previous document concerns recommended initial ART regimens, only three of which are maintained as preferential. All three include dolutegravir or raltegravir, together with emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or abacavir/lamivudine...
May 11, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758335/normal-on-treatment-alt-during-antiviral-treatment-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-hepatic-events-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Yee-Kit Tse, Terry Cheuk-Fung Yip, Kelvin Long-Yan Lam, Grace Chung-Yan Lui, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies reveal the rate of normal on-treatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) appears different for different nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs); yet its clinical significance is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of normal on-treatment ALT during antiviral treatment with entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A territory-wide cohort of CHB patients who received ETV and/or TDF in 2005-2016 was identified...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757383/considerations-of-antiviral-treatment-to-interrupt-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-china
#20
Fuqiang Cui, Joseph Woodring, Polin Chan, Fujie Xu
Background: Treating high-risk women with antivirals in their third trimester is a promising intervention to further reduce perinatal transmission in neonates born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive [HBsAg(+)] mothers. Methods: We estimated the number of perinatal infections based on coverage and effectiveness of hepatitis B immunization. We compared cost-effectiveness of different approaches to identify high-risk women for antiviral treatment, by region and urban/rural residence...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
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