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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799920/3-year-efficacy-and-durability-of-simplification-to-single-tablet-regimens-a-comparison-between-co-formulated-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-and-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir
#2
Roberta Gagliardini, Alessandra Bandera, Mauro Zaccarelli, Gaetana Sterrantino, Alessandra Latini, Alessandro D'Avino, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Antinori, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Gori, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani
BACKGROUND: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz(EFV)/emtricitabine(FTC)/tenofovir(TDF) versus rilpivirine(RPV)/emtricitabine/tenofovir in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at 5 Italian centers. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up...
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797967/multipurpose-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-electrospun-fibers-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-1-and-hsv-2-infections-in-vitro
#3
Kevin M Tyo, Hung R Vuong, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Houda Alatassi, Jinghua Duan, Walter H Watson, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. While current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. To address these needs, we created electrospun fibers (EFs) comprised of FDA-approved polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), to provide sustained-release and in vitro protection against HIV-1 and HSV-2...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797777/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-tenofovir-versus-tenofovir-plus-entecavir-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-patients-with-poor-efficacy-of-entecavir-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Jun Chen, Shu-Shan Zhao, Xiao-Xiao Liu, Ze-Bing Huang, Yan Huang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the efficacy between tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and TDF plus entecavir (ETV) combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with a poor response to ETV. METHODS: We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPE libraries for articles using the keywords chronic hepatitis B virus or CHB or HBV, entecavir or ETV, and tenofovir or TDF. FINDINGS: Five studies (from CNKI and PubMed) with a total of 408 patients met the inclusion criteria: 212 patients in the TDF group and 196 patients in the TDF plus ETV group...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797020/brief-report-selection-of-hiv-1-variants-with-higher-transmission-potential-by-1-tenofovir-gel-microbicide
#5
Nobubelo K Ngandu, Jonathan M Carlson, Denis R Chopera, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson
BACKGROUND: Women in the CAPRISA 004 trial assigned to use 1% tenofovir (TFV) microbicide gel, who became HIV-1 infected, had higher viral load set-point and slower antibody avidity maturation compared with placebo participants. We investigated whether TFV gel was selected for viruses with altered genetic characteristics. SETTING: The participants of the CAPRISA 004 trial (n = 28 TFV and 43 placebo) were from KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa and were infected with HIV-1 subtype C...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794904/qbd-based-approach-for-optimization-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-loaded-liquid-crystal-precursor-with-improved-permeability
#6
Sharvil Patil, Chandrashekhar Kadam, Varsha Pokharkar
BCS class III drugs suffer from a drawback of low permeability even though they have high aqueous solubility. The objective of current work was to screen the suitability of glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/Pluronic F127 cubic phase liquid crystals precursors for permeation enhancement and in turn the bioavailability of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a BCS class III drug. Spray-drying method was used for preparation of TDF loaded liquid crystal precursors (LCP) consisting of GMO/Pluronic F127 and lactose monohydrate with an ability to in situ transform into stable cubic phases upon hydration...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792168/indian-adolescent-living-with-hiv-aids-current-clinical-scenario
#7
Kavita S Joshi, Bhushan D Bhaware, Amar R Pazare
INTRODUCTION: Statistics suggest that, HIV has now largely become the disease of young patients. Hence, the adolescent HIV/AIDS needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. Relatively fewer Indian data exist to characterize the associations in adolescents and young adults infected with HIV disease. The present study explores the current challenges in the management of HIV infected adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating, relationship between CD4 count and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), effects of ART on body mass index and the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs in adolescent HIV positive patients...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791662/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-improves-cognitive-performance-and-functional-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Yuchuan Zhuang, Xing Qiu, Lu Wang, Qing Ma, Mark Mapstone, Amneris Luque, Miriam Weber, Madalina Tivarus, Eric Miller, Roberto C Arduino, Jianhui Zhong, Giovanni Schifitto
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#9
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777264/feasibility-acceptability-and-adherence-with-short-term-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-female-sexual-partners-of-migrant-miners-in-mozambique
#10
Maria Lahuerta, Allison Zerbe, Rachel Baggaley, Joana Falcao, Laurence Ahoua, Pietro DiMattei, Fernando Morales, Isaias Ramiro, Wafaa M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers protection from HIV acquisition if taken as prescribed. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and adherence with short-term PrEP among female sexual partners of migrant miners in Mozambique. METHODS: HIV-negative female sexual partners of migrant miners were offered daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for 6 weeks concurrent with miners' return home. Study visits occurred at baseline, Week 4, 6 and 8. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected at Week 4 and 6...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774415/new-treatments-to-reach-functional-cure-virological-approaches
#11
REVIEW
David Durantel
Current therapies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain limited to pegylated-interferon-alpha (pegIFN-α) or any of the five approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). If viral suppression can be achieved in the majority of patients with the high-barrier-to-resistance new-generation of NA, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir, HBsAg loss is achieved by PEG-IFN-α and/or NA in only 10% of patients, after a 5-year follow-up. Attempts to improve the response by administering two different NA or a combination of NA and PEG-IFN-α have not provided a dramatic increase in the rate of "functional cure"...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#12
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-neurotoxic-effects-of-efavirenz-are-greater-than-those-of-other-common-antiretrovirals
#13
Vincent T Ciavatta, Edyta K Bichler, Iris A Speigel, Courtney C Elder, Shavonne L Teng, William R Tyor, Paul S García
Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced the incidence of severe dementia associated with HIV infection, there has been a rise in milder neurocognitive complaints. Data from HIV patients taking ARVs have shown measurable neurocognitive improvements during drug cessation, suggesting a neurotoxic role of the therapy itself. Mechanisms underlying potential ARV neurotoxicity have not been thoroughly investigated, however pathologic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suspected. Using DIV 16 primary rat cortical neuron culture, we tested eight ARVs from the three most commonly prescribed ARV classes: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) for effects on neuron viability and morphology after 24 h of drug exposure...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764611/incidence-of-renal-fanconi-syndrome-in-patients-taking-antiretroviral-therapy-including-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#14
Nicholas A Medland, Eric Pf Chow, Rowan G Walker, Marcus Chen, Tim Rh Read, Christopher K Fairley
The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of Fanconi Syndrome (FS) in a cohort of patients taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Clinical records and laboratory investigations from patients receiving TDF between 2002 and 2016 were extracted. FS was defined as normoglycaemic glycosuria and proteinuria and at least one other marker of renal dysfunction. Regression analysis was performed with time to development of FS and the following covariates: ritonavir co-administration, age, gender, co-morbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, viral hepatitis), CD4 cell count nadir and baseline eGFR...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758027/australasian-society-for-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-sexual-health-medicine-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-clinical-guidelines
#15
EDITORIAL
Edwina Wright, Andrew Grulich, Katy Roy, Mark Boyd, Vincent Cornelisse, Darren Russell, Darryl O'Donnell, Bill Whittaker, Levinia Crooks, Iryna Zablotska
Daily use of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by populations at high risk of HIV infection is now recommended in guidelines from the United States, Europe and Australia and globally through the 2015 WHO guidelines. These 2017 Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine's (ASHM) PrEP Guidelines are an updated adaptation of the 2014 US Centers for Disease Control's PrEP guidelines and are designed to: •Support the prescription of PrEP using forms of coformulated tenofovir and emtricitabine that have been registered in Australia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and other bioequivalent generic drugs that are available in Australia through self-importation, private prescription or Australian PrEP clinical trials•Assist clinicians in the evaluation of patients who are seeking PrEP•Assist clinicians in commencing and monitoring patients on PrEP including PrEP dosing schedules, management of side-effects and toxicity, use of PrEP in pregnancy and in chronic hepatitis B infection and how to cease PrEP Daily PrEP with co-formulated tenofovir and emtricitabine, used continuously or for shorter periods of time, is recommended in these guidelines as a key HIV-prevention option for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender men and women, heterosexual men and women, and people who inject drugs (PWID) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757048/a-long-term-multicenter-study-entecavir-versus-tenofovir-in-treatment-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#16
Bircan Kayaaslan, Esragul Akinci, Alpay Ari, Zeliha Kocak Tufan, Saygın Nayman Alpat, Ozgur Gunal, Selma Tosun, Rahmet Guner, Fehmi Tabak
BACKGROUND: Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarat (TDF) are the two first-line therapies recommended in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B because of having potent antiviral effect and high genetic barriers against resistance. We aimed to compare efficacy of these drugs and to evaluate predictors of viral suppression. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients from different 6 centers...
July 27, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755558/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-oral-absorption-effect-of-experimental-variables-and-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#17
Joseph Shailender, Punna Rao Ravi, Paramita Saha, Avantika Dalvi, Srividya Myneni
In this study, PLGA based nanoparticles of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) were designed for enhancing its oral absorption. To develop PLGA based TDF nanoparticles with the goal of minimum particle size and maximum entrapment efficiency statistical optimization techniques (factorial design and response surface methodology) were employed. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized for size, shape, charge and physical state. Further, the stability, cytotoxicity and metabolic protective effect of the nanoparticles were evaluated...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754089/predictive-factors-and-prevalence-of-microalbuminuria-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#18
Katia Falasca, Marta Di Nicola, Italo Porfilio, Claudio Ucciferri, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Chiara Gabrielli, Daniela Francisci, Jacopo Vecchiet
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is a common problem in the HIV+ population, due to the effect of both the HIV virus and the several classes of ARV drugs such as tenofovir (TDF). It is also known that the presence of renal damage correlates with cardiovascular risk and therefore with the risk of mortality of the patients accordingly. The detection of early renal damage is very important. Albuminuria and microalbuminuria are markers of early kidney disease and cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in a large polycentric sample, of unselected and consecutive HIV-patients followed as outpatients, and to assess its association with different therapeutic regimens...
July 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#19
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752768/effects-of-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-cirrhosis
#20
Masako Okada, Masaru Enomoto, Norifumi Kawada, Mindie H Nguyen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of cirrhosis worldwide. The ultimate goal of current antiviral treatments for chronic hepatitis B (nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon-α) is to prevent the development of end-stage liver diseases. Areas covered: We present a review of the current literature on antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis. Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature from 1993 through January of 2017. Expert commentary: One randomized controlled trial and a number of observational studies have shown that nucleos(t)ide analogs can decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis...
July 28, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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