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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934420/higher-prevalence-and-faster-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-middle-aged-individuals-compared-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-uninfected-controls
#1
Katherine W Kooij, Liffert Vogt, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Marc van der Valk, Rosan A van Zoest, Abraham Goorhuis, Maria Prins, Frank A Post, Peter Reiss
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute. Methods: We compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933169/-history-and-presence-of-hepatitis-b%C3%A2-and-c%C3%A2-therapy
#2
Petr Husa
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the worlds major causes of chronic liver disease. Care of patients infected with HBV and HCV and/or over the last 20 years has significantly improved thanks to the better understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, improvement of diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive options. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to extend the length of life and improve its quality through the barriers of the progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, decompensation cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932931/usefulness-of-zebrafish-larvae-to-evaluate-drug-induced-functional-and-morphological-renal-tubular-alterations
#3
Rita Gorgulho, Raquel Jacinto, Susana S Lopes, Sofia A Pereira, Erin M Tranfield, Gabriel G Martins, Emilio J Gualda, Rico J E Derks, Ana C Correia, Evelyne Steenvoorden, Petra Pintado, Oleg A Mayboroda, Emilia C Monteiro, Judit Morello
Prediction and management of drug-induced renal injury (DIRI) rely on the knowledge of the mechanisms of drug insult and on the availability of appropriate animal models to explore it. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers unique advantages for assessing DIRI because the larval pronephric kidney has a high homology with its human counterpart and it is fully mature at 3.5 days post-fertilization. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of zebrafish larvae as a model of renal tubular toxicity through a comprehensive analysis of the renal alterations induced by the lethal concentrations for 10% of the larvae for gentamicin, paracetamol and tenofovir...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#4
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931037/assessment-of-renal-function-in-routine-care-of-people-living-with-hiv-on-art-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-urban-zambia
#5
Andreas Deckert, Florian Neuhann, Christina Klose, Thomas Bruckner, Claudia Beiersmann, John Haloka, Mannie Nsofwa, Greg Banda, Maik Brune, Helmut Reutter, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Martin Zeier
INTRODUCTION: Data on renal impairment in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains scarce, determination of renal function is not part of routine assessments. We evaluated renal function and blood pressure in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Renal Care Zambia project (ReCaZa). METHODS: Using routine data from an HIV outpatient clinic from 2011-2013, we retrospectively estimated the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-Epi formula) of PLWH on ART in Lusaka, Zambia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923315/development-of-a-digital-droplet-pcr-assay-to-measure-hbv-dna-in-patients-receiving-long-term-tdf-treatment
#6
Yang Liu, Andrea L Cathcart, William E Delaney, Kathryn M Kitrinos
The COBAS TaqMan assay has a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 169 HBV copies/mL and a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 58 copies/mL. HBV DNA below the TaqMan LLOQ is classified as target not detected (TND) (<58 copies/mL) or target detected (TD) (between 58 to 169 copies/mL). Here we have developed a more sensitive digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay to evaluate the impact of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment in patients that did or did not achieve HBsAg seroconversion. A ddPCR assay was developed to detect HBV DNA to 8 copies/mL...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919303/acquisition-of-wild-type-hiv-1-infection-in-a-patient-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-high-intracellular-concentrations-of-tenofovir-diphosphate-a-case-report
#7
Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Roel C A Achterbergh, Lycke R Woittiez, Marion Cornelissen, Suzanne Jurriaans, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter L Anderson, Peter Reiss, Henry J C de Vries, Jan M Prins, Godelieve J de Bree
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consistent use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: The patient participated in the Amsterdam PrEP project, a demonstration project of daily and event-driven PrEP...
September 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918877/raltegravir-1200-mg-once-daily-versus-raltegravir-400-mg-twice-daily-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine-for-previously-untreated-hiv-1-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-phase-3-non-inferiority-trial
#8
Pedro Cahn, Richard Kaplan, Paul E Sax, Kathleen Squires, Jean-Michel Molina, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Winai Ratanasuwan, Evelyn Rojas, Mohammed Rassool, Mark Bloch, Linos Vandekerckhove, Peter Ruane, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Christine Katlama, Xia Xu, Anthony Rodgers, Lilly East, Larissa Wenning, Sandy Rawlins, Brenda Homony, Peter Sklar, Bach-Yen Nguyen, Randi Leavitt, Hedy Teppler
BACKGROUND: Once daily regimens are preferred for HIV-1 treatment, to facilitate adherence and improve quality of life. We compared a new once daily formulation of raltegravir to the currently marketed twice daily formulation. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3, non-inferiority study, we enrolled participants aged 18 years or older with HIV-1 RNA of 1000 or more copies per mL and no previous antiretroviral treatment at 139 sites worldwide...
September 11, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917218/erythema-elevatum-diutinum-in-crohn-s-disease-associated-spondyloarthritis-a-rare-vasculitis-an-unusual-association
#9
Maria João Gonçalves, Vasco C Romão, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, Helena Canhão, José Carlos Romeu, Heinz Kutzner, José Alberto Pereira-da-Silva
Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare neutrophilic dermatoses with vasculitis, which presents as persistent, symmetrical, purple or brownish papules and nodules, mainly in the extensor surface of the limbs. We describe a case of erythema elevatum diutinum and polyarthritis as initial manifestations of Crohn's disease associated spondyloarthritis. A 51-year-old man, from São Tomé e Príncipe, with previous history of treated tuberculosis and chronic hepatitis B infection, was admitted due to 4 months history of polyarthritis, hyperpigmented papules on the extensor surfaces, occasional episodes of bloody mucous diarrhea and significant weight loss...
September 14, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906351/prevalence-evolution-and-related-risk-factors-of-kidney-disease-among-spanish-hiv-infected-individuals
#10
Javier Juega-Mariño, Anna Bonjoch, Nuria Pérez-Alvarez, Eugenia Negredo, Beatriu Bayes, Josep Bonet, Buenaventura Clotet, Ramon Romero
Prevalence of kidney disease (KD) is increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. Different factors have been related, varying on different published series.The objectives were to study prevalence of KD in those patients, its evolution, and associated risk factors.An observational cohort study of 1596 HIV-positive patients with cross-sectional data collection in 2008 and 2010 was conducted. We obtained clinical and laboratory markers, and registered previous or current treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and indinavir (IDV)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905173/pharmacokinetic-and-tissue-distribution-profile-of-long-acting-tenofovir-alafenamide-and-elvitegravir-loaded-nanoparticles-in-humanized-mice-model
#11
Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Subhra Mandal, Gregory Pon, Renuga Vivekanandan, Christopher J Destache
PURPOSE: Non-adherence to the antiretroviral (ARV) regimen is a critical factor in determining efficacy of ARV drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A long-acting parenteral formulation may be an effective alternative to daily oral dosing. A pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of drug-loaded nanoparticle (NP) was performed in female humanized CD34(+)-NSG mice. METHODS: Mice received 200 mg/kg each of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and elvitegravir (EVG) as free drugs (TAF + EVG solution) or as drug loaded NP (TAF + EVG NP) formulation by subcutaneous (SubQ) administration...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904656/reversal-of-tenofovir-induced-nephrotoxicity-case-reports-of-two-patients
#12
Fatuma Some, Mathew Koech, Emily Chesire, Gabriel Kigen
The use of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir has been associated with nephrotoxicity. However, the overall impact of this adverse effect has not comprehensively evaluated. Some researchers have reported that it is quite severe to warrant monitoring for renal toxicity, while others have concluded that the magnitude may not be that significant. We report two clinical cases seen in our renal clinic with high creatinine levels suggestive of nephrotoxicity who reverted back to normality upon withdrawal of tenofovir...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903510/changes-in-liver-steatosis-after-switching-from-efavirenz-to-raltegravir-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Juan Macías, María Mancebo, Dolores Merino, Francisco Téllez, M Luisa Montes-Ramírez, Federico Pulido, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Miguel Raffo, Montserrat Pérez-Pérez, Nicolás Merchante, Manuel Cotarelo, Juan A Pineda
Background: Antiretroviral drugs with a lower potential to induce hepatic steatosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection need to be identified. We compared the effect of switching efavirenz (EFV) to raltegravir (RAL) on hepatic steatosis among HIV-infected patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) receiving EFV plus 2 nucleoside analogues. Methods: HIV-infected patients on EFV plus tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine with NAFLD were randomized 1:1 to switch from EFV to RAL (400 mg twice daily), maintaining nucleoside analogues unchanged, or to continue with EFV plus 2 nucleoside analogues...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902074/plasma-tenofovir-levels-to-support-adherence-to-tdf-ftc-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-msm-in-los-angeles-california
#14
Raphael J Landovitz, Matthew Beymer, Ryan Kofron, K Rivet Amico, Christina Psaros, Lane Bushman, Peter L Anderson, Risa Flynn, David P Lee, Robert K Bolan, Wilbert C Jordan, Chi-Hong Tseng, Rhodri Dierst-Davies, Jim Rooney, Amy Rock Wohl
BACKGROUND: TDF/FTC PrEP is effective against rectal HIV acquisition when taken as prescribed. Strategies that identify and intervene with those challenged by adherence to daily medication are needed. SETTING: PATH-PrEP was an open-label single arm interventional cohort study conducted at 2 community-based clinical sites in Los Angeles, California. METHODS: We enrolled self-identified MSM and TGW ≥18 years of age at elevated risk of HIV acquisition...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898281/randomized-prospective-study-evaluating-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-prophylaxis-against-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-anti-hbc-positive-patients-with-rituximab-based-regimens-to-treat-hematologic-malignancies-the-preblin-study
#15
María Buti, María L Manzano, Rosa M Morillas, Montserrat García-Retortillo, Leticia Martín, Martín Prieto, María L Gutiérrez, Emilio Suárez, Mariano Gómez Rubio, Javier López, Pilar Castillo, Manuel Rodríguez, José M Zozaya, Miguel A Simón, Luis E Morano, José L Calleja, María Yébenes, Rafael Esteban
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with resolved HBV infection (HBsAg negative, antiHBc positive) is uncommon, but potentially fatal. The role of HBV prophylaxis in this setting is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) prophylaxis versus close monitoring in antiHBc-positive, HBsAg-negative patients under treatment with rituximab (RTX)-based regimens for hematologic malignancy. METHODS: PREBLIN is a phase IV, randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter, parallel-group trial conducted in 17 hospitals throughout Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895486/iatrogenic-adrenal-insufficiency-secondary-to-combination-therapy-with-elvitegravir-cobicistat-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-and-interlaminar-triamcinolone-injection-in-an-aids-patient
#16
Chanie Wassner, Sutapa Maiti, Kurt Kodroff, Henry Cohen
We report the first identified case of suspected iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency after an interlaminar injection of triamcinolone acetonide while on concomitant Stribild (elvitegravir 150 mg/cobicistat 150 mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg [EVG/c/TDF/FTC]). A 49-year-old female with HIV on EVG/c/TDF/FTC therapy presented to our endocrinology clinic to be evaluated for suspected Cushing syndrome. Prior to presentation, the patient had been given 2 interlaminar spinal injections of triamcinolone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893758/antiretroviral-therapy-for-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Reed A Siemieniuk, Farid Foroutan, Reza Mirza, Jinell Mah Ming, Paul E Alexander, Arnav Agarwal, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Arnaud Merglen, Yaping Chang, Yuan Zhang, Hassan Mir, Elliot Hepworth, Yung Lee, Dena Zeraatkar, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of various antiretroviral/antiviral regimens in pregnant women living with HIV or hepatitis B virus (HBV). DESIGN: We performed random effects meta-analysis for HIV-related outcomes and network meta-analysis for HBV outcomes, and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess quality separately for each outcome. DATA SOURCES: Embase and Medline to February 2017...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891788/week-48-resistance-analysis-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-versus-atazanavir-ritonavir-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-in-hiv-1-infected-women-waves-study-gs-us-236-0128
#18
Rima Kulkarni, Sally L Hodder, Huyen Cao, Silvia Chang, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
Background Women and those with non-B subtype HIV-1 are typically underrepresented in clinical trials. WAVES (GS-US-236-0128) was a double-blind phase 3b study among treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected women that demonstrated that elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; N = 289) was superior to atazanavir + ritonavir + FTC/TDF (ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF; N = 286) for HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL by FDA snapshot analysis at week 48. Here, we describe resistance development through week 48 in women with virologic failure and determine the impact of pre-existing mutations and HIV-1 subtype on viral suppression...
July 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890836/new-diagnosis-of-aids-based-on-salmonella-enterica-subsp-i-enterica-enteritidis-a-meningitis-in-a-previously-immunocompetent-adult-in-the-united-states
#19
Andrew C Elton, James Levin, Matthew P Lazio
Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885375/tenofovir-alafenamide-nephrotoxicity-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-a-case-report
#20
Tessa K Novick, Michael J Choi, Avi Z Rosenberg, Blaithin A McMahon, Derek Fine, Mohamed G Atta
RATIONALE: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is novel prodrug of Tenofovir, a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor. TAF is less nephrotoxic than its predecessor prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Tenofovir causes mitochondrial dysfunction and tubular injury when there is elevated accumulation in proximal tubule cells. TAF's unique pharmacokinetic profile enables provision of lower required doses for antiviral efficacy. Lower concentrations reach renal tubules minimizing intracellular accumulation and mitochondrial damage...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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