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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719505/prevalence-of-persistent-renal-dysfunction-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents
#1
Torsak Bunupuradah, Tanit Phupitakphol, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Bunruan Sopa, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Ankanee Chanakul, Thanyawee Puthanakit
BACKGROUND: Persistent renal dysfunction (PRD) has been reported in up to 22% of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHA) in the US and Europe. There is limited data available on PRD among PHAs in resource-limited settings regarding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at more advanced HIV stages. METHODS: We retrospectively described the prevalence of PRD and associated factors in a Thai PHA cohort. Inclusion criteria were current age >10 years and at least 2 serum creatinine (Cr) measurements after ART initiation...
July 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712302/overcoming-the-hydrolytic-lability-of-a-reaction-intermediate-in-production-of-protein-drug-conjugates-conjugation-of-an-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonate-to-a-model-carrier-protein
#3
Shengsheng Xu, Igor A Kaltashov
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains one of the most serious public health challenges and a significant cause of mortality for certain populations. Despite the large number of antiretrovirals developed in the past two decades, the inability of small molecule therapeutics to target HIV reservoirs directly creates a significant obstacle to their effective utilization. Indeed, achieving the desired therapeutic outcome in the absence of an effective means of targeted delivery must rely on dosage escalation, which frequently causes severe toxicity...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708115/crystal-structure-analysis-of-the-first-discovered-stability-enhanced-solid-state-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-free-base-using-single-crystal-x-ray-diffraction
#4
Ji-Hun An, Alice Nguvoko Kiyonga, Woojin Yoon, Hyung Chul Ryu, Jae-Sun Kim, Chaeri Kang, Minho Park, Hoseop Yun, Kiwon Jung
Tenofovir disoproxil (TD), an anti-virus drug, is currently marketed under its most stable form, Form-I of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). However, studies regarding the properties of TD free base crystal as a promising drug as well as its crystal structure have not yet been reported. This assumption was made because TD free base is not directly produced in a solid form during the manufacturing process. TD free base is first obtained in an oil form, and is then synthesized into TDF crystal. In this regard, the present study was conducted to investigate both the potentiality of TD free base to be an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and its crystal structure...
July 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707319/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-significantly-decreases-serum-lipoprotein-levels-compared-with-entecavir-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#5
A A Shaheen, M AlMattooq, S Yazdanfar, K W Burak, M G Swain, S E Congly, M A Borman, S S Lee, R P Myers, C S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. AIM: To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers...
July 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705153/a-randomized-clinical-pharmacokinetic-trial-of-tenofovir-in-blood-plasma-and-urine-in-adults-with-perfect-moderate-and-low-prep-adherence-the-target-study
#6
Tim R Cressey, Oraphan Siriprakaisil, Virat Klinbuayaem, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Rachel W Kubiak, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Kanchana Than-In-At, Jared Baeten, Wasna Sirirungsi, Ratchada Cressey, Paul K Drain
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is key component of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, but existing tools to monitor drug adherence are often inaccurate. Detection of tenofovir (TFV) in accessible biological samples, such as fingerprick blood, urine or oral fluid samples could be a novel objective measure of recent TDF adherence. To measure TFV concentrations associated with different levels of TDF adherence, we designed a randomized clinical trial to assess the blood, urine and oral fluid concentrations of TFV in adults with perfect, moderate and low drug adherence...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701257/physician-testing-for-hiv-in-patients-treated-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-lamivudine-monotherapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus
#7
Jillian S Y Lau, Dilip Ratnam, Ian Woolley
Previously we found that local patients were often not tested for HIV prior to commencing nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI) therapy for hepatitis B virus. We performed a national cross-sectional cohort study of physician practices via an online survey. A small majority (23/44; 52%) of participants reported always testing their hepatitis B virus patients for HIV prior to NRTI therapy, and 8/44 (18%) reported testing for HIV the majority of the time. Thirteen (30%) respondents reported testing only if risk factors were present...
July 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700394/medication-adherence-condom-use-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-australian-preexposure-prophylaxis-users
#8
Luxi Lal, Jennifer Audsley, Dean A Murphy, Christopher K Fairley, Mark Stoove, Norm Roth, Richard Moore, Ban K Tee, Nalagafiar Puratmaja, Peter L Anderson, David Leslie, Robert M Grant, John De Wit, Edwina Wright
OBJECTIVE: HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) decreases risk of HIV acquisition; however, its efficacy is closely dependent on adherence. There is also concern that the preventive effect of PrEP may be offset by risk compensation, notably an increase in condomless anal sex. DESIGN: Multisite, open-label demonstration study that recruited people at current or recent risk of HIV infection in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: Participants were recruited from three general practice clinics and one sexual health clinic in Melbourne and consented to take daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (TFV/FTC) for 30 months...
July 31, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696345/optimal-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-regimen-completion-with-single-tablet-daily-elvitegravir-cobicistat-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-compared-with-more-frequent-dosing-regimens
#9
Kenneth H Mayer, Daniel Jones, Catherine Oldenburg, Sachin Jain, Marcy Gelman, Shayne Zaslow, Chris Grasso, Matthew J Mimiaga
STRUCTURE: The study evaluated elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) ("Quad pill") for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed individuals may benefit from PEP, but completion rates have been suboptimal because of regimen complexity and side effects. Newer antiretroviral combinations coformulated as single daily pills may optimize PEP adherence. SETTING: One hundred HIV-uninfected individuals who presented to a Boston community health center after an acute HIV sexual exposure were enrolled and initiated PEP with the daily, single-pill combination Quad pill for a 28-day course...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692542/the-effect-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-on-the-progression-of-hiv-1-seroconversion
#10
Deborah Donnell, Eric Ramos, Connie Celum, Jared Baeten, Joan Dragavon, Jordan Tappero, Jairam R Lingappa, Allan Ronald, Kenneth Fife, Robert W Coombs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) alters timing and patterns of seroconversion when PrEP use continues after HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective testing of the timing of Fiebig stage HIV-1 seroconversion in the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of PrEP conducted in Kenya and Uganda. METHODS: Specimens from 138 seroconverters were collected every 3 months and when HIV-1 infection was suspected based on monthly rapid HIV-1 tests...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692536/asymptomatic-anorectal-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections-are-associated-with-systemic-cd8-t-cell-activation
#11
Vinicius A Vieira, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Natalia B Cerqueira, Dayane A Costa, Priscilla R Costa, Ricardo P Vasconcelos, Valdez R Madruga, Ronaldo Ismério Moreira, Brenda Hoagland, Valdiléa G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Esper G Kallás
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been established as a pivotal strategy in HIV prevention. However, bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), are also highly prevalent. Although the presence of STI-related mucosal lesions is a known risk factor for HIV acquisition, the potential increase in risk associated with asymptomatic STIs is not completely understood. Recent data demonstrated higher T cell activation is a risk factor for sexually acquired HIV-1 infection...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689877/a-10-year-follow-up-of-bone-mineral-density-in-hiv-infected-youths-receiving-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#12
Vania Giacomet, Katia Maruca, Alessandro Ambrosi, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Stefano Mora
BACKGROUND: The use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has simplified the antiretroviral regimen for HIV-infected patients and improved their compliance with treatment, but it has been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in adult patients, and data in pediatric patients are debated. The aim of the current study was to assess the long-term effect of TDF on BMD in young patients. METHODS: BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and in the whole skeleton in 26 HIV-infected youths (13 female and 13 male, aged 5 to 17 years at baseline)...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689456/chest-deformity-and-disability-due-to-tenofovir-induced-hypophosphatemic-osteomalacia-case-report-and-call-for-improved-global-access-to-laboratory-testing
#13
Jan Hajek, Simple Ouma, Juliya Hemmett, Rob Starko, Paska Apiyo
Millions of people worldwide take tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis B infection. Although generally safe and well tolerated, clinicians need to be aware that TDF can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction and loss of bone mineral density, especially in patients with concomitant renal disease or other risk factors. We present the case of a patient with chronic HIV infection and urethral stricture who developed TDF-related proximal renal tubular dysfunction with hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia, presenting with bone pains, skeletal deformity, and disability...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689453/switching-to-the-single-tablet-regimen-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-df-from-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-plus-coformulated-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-df-regimens-week-96-results-of-strategy-nnrti
#14
Anton Pozniak, Jason Flamm, Andrea Antinori, Mark Bloch, Douglas Ward, Juan Berenguer, Pierre Cote, Kristen Andreatta, William Garner, Javier Szwarcberg, Thai Nguyen-Cleary, Damian J McColl, David Piontkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV-1-infected, virologically suppressed adults wanting to simplify or change their non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens may benefit from switching to the single-tablet regimen of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF). OBJECTIVE: We examined differences in the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL (Snapshot analysis), change in CD4 cell count, safety, and patient-reported outcomes in participants switching to E/C/F/TDF from an NNRTI + FTC/TDF (TVD) regimen...
July 9, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689442/drug-interactions-in-hiv-infected-patients-treated-for-hepatitis-c
#15
Vicente Soriano, Pablo Labarga, José V Fernandez-Montero, Carmen de Mendoza, Laura Benítez-Gutiérrez, José M Peña, Pablo Barreiro
The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C field. Most hepatitis C patients can now be cured, including those coinfected with HIV. However, drug-drug interactions (DDI) between DAA and antiretrovirals (ARV) should be known to prevent either toxicity due to drug overexposure or treatment failures due to low drug concentrations. Areas covered: Clinically significant DDI may be classified as major (when co-administration should be contraindicated) or minor (when they require close monitoring, changes in drug dosage or in timing)...
July 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687350/clinical-response-to-long-term-tenofovir-monotherapy-in-korean-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#16
Eun-Hyung Yoo, Hyun-Jung Cho
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a potent nucleotide analogue recommended as first-line monotherapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated the clinical response to TDF monotherapy in Korean CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 90 CHB patients [55 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 35 HBeAg-negative] who received TDF monotherapy for >2year, were enrolled. Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBeAg, anti-HBe and HBV DNA levels were measured during treatment...
July 4, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683720/rilpivirine-use-in-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Delphine Sculier, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Manuel Battegay, Matthias Cavassini, Jan Fehr, Cedric Hirzel, Patrick Schmid, Enos Bernasconi, Alexandra Calmy
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine is safe and effective in HIV-naïve patients with low baseline HIV-RNA or in switch strategy. It offers the advantages of few drug-drug interactions and a favourable toxicity profile. We aimed to determine the reasons for prescribing the rilpivirine (RPV)/tenofovir disoproxil (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) co-formulation within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and to assess its effectiveness and safety over a 24 months period. METHODS: All individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study who initiated a RPV/TDF/FTC co-formulation between April 2013 and March 2014 were included...
July 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683697/assessment-of-off-label-prescribing-profile-evidence-and-evolution
#18
Encarnación Blanco-Reina, Azucena Muñoz-García, Manuel Jesús Cárdenas-Aranzana, Ricardo Ocaña-Riola, José Ramón Del Prado-Llergo
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe the extent and profile of off-label prescriptions, to evaluate the level of evidence supporting these indications, to assess the research activity in these conditions, and to determine to what extent these were authorized as new indications five years after the application. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including all applications conducted in the Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía in Córdoba during 2010...
July 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676264/in-vivo-genotoxicity-evaluation-of-efavirenz-efv-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-tdf-alone-and-in-their-clinical-combinations-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Aroldo Vieira de Moraes Filho, Cláudia de Jesus Silva Carvalho, Cícero Jorge Verçosa, Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Cláudia Rohde, Daniela de Melo E Silva, Kênya Silva Cunha, Lee Chen-Chen
This study focuses on the antiretrovirals efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an oral prodrug of tenofovir analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate, which belongs to the class of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Both compounds act on the mechanisms of HIV replication, inhibiting the action of reverse transcriptase and thus preventing viral DNA synthesis. The toxic and genotoxic potential of EFV and TDF alone and in combinations {EFV+combivir [zidovudine (AZT)+lamivudine (3TC)] and TDF+3TC} were assessed using the comet assay and the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster...
August 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675222/the-memristive-effect-as-a-novelty-in-drug-monitoring
#20
Ioulia Tzouvadaki, Nima Aliakbarinodehi, Giovanni De Micheli, Sandro Carrara
Nanoscale devices exhibiting memristive properties show great potential in a plethora of applications. In this work, memristive nanowires are presented for the first time as ideal candidates for absolutely novel, ultrasensitive, highly specific and selective drug-biosensors, also paving the way for real-time monitoring applications, in coupling with the restoration properties of DNA-aptamers. The hysteretic properties exhibited by the hereby-presented special nanodevices, modified via surface treatments, are leveraged along the complete cycle consisting of DNA-aptamer immobilization, target binding, and DNA-aptamer regeneration for successful and effective detection of Tenofovir, an antiviral drug for HIV treatment, in buffer as well as in non-diluted human serum...
July 13, 2017: Nanoscale
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