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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355231/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-negative-persons-with-partners-living-with-hiv-uptake-use-and-effectiveness-in-an-open-label-demonstration-project-in-east-africa
#1
Renee Heffron, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Edna Tindimwebwa, Ting Hong, Lara Kidoguchi, Deborah Donnell, Nelly R Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Elly Katabira, Stephen Asiimwe, Jennifer Morton, Susan Morrison, Harald Haugen, Andrew Mujugira, Jessica E Haberer, Norma C Ware, Monique A Wyatt, Mark A Marzinke, Lisa M Frenkel, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can provide high protection against HIV infection and is a recommended intervention for HIV-negative persons with substantial HIV risk, such as individuals with a partner living with HIV.  Demonstration projects of PrEP have been conducted in diverse settings worldwide to illustrate practical examples of how PrEP can be delivered.  Methods: We evaluated delivery of PrEP for HIV-negative partners within heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#2
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351338/stockouts-of-hiv-commodities-in-public-health-facilities-in-kinshasa-barriers-to-end-hiv
#3
Tinne Gils, Claire Bossard, Kristien Verdonck, Philip Owiti, Ilse Casteels, Maria Mashako, Gilles Van Cutsem, Tom Ellman
Stockouts of HIV commodities increase the risk of treatment interruption, antiretroviral resistance, treatment failure, morbidity and mortality. The study objective was to assess the magnitude and duration of stockouts of HIV medicines and diagnostic tests in public facilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. This was a cross-sectional survey involving visits to facilities and warehouses in April and May 2015. All zonal warehouses, all public facilities with more than 200 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (high-burden facilities) and a purposive sample of facilities with 200 or fewer patients (low-burden facilities) in Kinshasa were selected...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338458/tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-treatment-of-hbv-what-are-the-unanswered-questions
#4
Mauro Viganò, Alessandro Loglio, Glenda Grossi, Pietro Lampertico
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is one of the recommended drugs for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, reduced kidney function and loss of bone mineral density have been reported in some CHB patients treated with TDF. Consequent to these safety issues, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) [Vemlidy®], a phosphonate prodrug of TFV, was developed for the treatment of CHB patients. Areas covered: The favourable pharmacological profile of TAF allows a marked reduction in dosage (25 mg/day) thus reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir and improving the bone and renal safety, keeping however the same virological efficacy, compared to TDF 300 mg/day...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337165/establishment-of-intracellular-tenofovir-diphosphate-as-the-key-determinant-for-in-vitro-in-vivo-translation-of-antiviral-efficacy
#5
Bennett Ma, Aline Barth, Carolyn M McHale, Ming-Tain Lai
In vitro evaluation of tenofovir disproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) revealed comparable antiviral effects with respect to the tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) level in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), despite the EC50 values determined based on prodrug concentrations were nearly two orders of magnitude apart. In vivo EC50 obtained from meta-analyses were in good agreement with the in vitro results, indicating intracellular TFV-DP can be employed for in vitro-in vivo translation of viral inhibition for tenofovir prodrugs...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335905/influence-of-antiviral-therapy-on-the-liver-stiffness-in-chronic-hbv-hepatitis
#6
Luca Rinaldi, Antonio Ascione, Vincenzo Messina, Valerio Rosato, Giovanna Valente, Vincenzo Sangiovanni, Rosa Zampino, Aldo Marrone, Luca Fontanella, Nicolina de Rosa, Pasquale Orabona, Carmela Buonomo, Antonio Chirianni, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Guido Piai
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antiviral therapy on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). METHODS: Two hundred HBV patients were enrolled from four hospital centers in southern Italy; median age was 50.7 (25-75) males were 68%; 171 patients underwent to liver biopsy and 200 patients had LSM at baseline and 189 at the end of follow-up. One hundred and forty-nine patients were treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs, while 51 patients were untreated...
January 15, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334883/renal-outcomes-in-patients-initiated-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-antiretroviral-therapy-at-a-community-health-centre-in-malawi
#7
Bongani Chikwapulo, Bagrey Ngwira, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Rhys Evans
Tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (TDF ART) is the first-line regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. However, contemporary data on nephrotoxicity are lacking. We determined the renal outcomes of patients commenced on TDF ART in Malawi. ART-naïve patients initiated on TDF ART at a community health centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Cockcroft-Gault) was recorded at the initiation of therapy and over 18 months thereafter...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334548/plasma-and-intracellular-pharmacokinetics-of-tenofovir-in-patients-switched-from-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-to-tenofovir-alafenamide
#8
Anthony T Podany, Sara H Bares, Joshua Havens, Ravi Dyavar Shetty, Jennifer O'neill, Sarah Lee, Courtney V Fletcher, Susan Swindells, Kimberly K Scarsi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the intra-individual plasma and intracellular peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir (TFV) and its intracellular metabolite, tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in patients switched from a fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/ elvitegravir (EVG)/ cobicistat (COBI) to a FDC containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC/EVG/COBI. DESIGN: A single arm, prospective, non-randomized, cross-over, PK study in patients receiving a TDF-containing regimen (TDF 300 mg/ FTC 200 mg/ EVG 150 mg/ COBI 150 mg) switched to a TAF-containing FDC regimen (TAF 10 mg/ FTC 200 mg/ EVG 150 mg/ COBI 150 mg)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329318/erythrocyte-inosine-triphosphatase-activity-a-potential-biomarker-for-adverse-events-during-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv
#9
N Chantal Peltenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jaap A Bakker, Jolanda A Schippers, Selwyn H Lowe, Aimée D C Paulussen, Bianca J C van den Bosch, Mathie P G Leers, Bettina E Hansen, Annelies Verbon
The purine analogues tenofovir and abacavir are precursors of potential substrates for the enzyme Inosine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase). Here, we investigated the association of ITPase activity and ITPA genotype with the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In 393 adult HIV-seropositive patients, AEs were defined as events that led to stop of cART regimen. ITPase activity ≥4 mmol IMP/mmol Hb/hour was considered as normal...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329305/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-switching-from-lamivudine-plus-adefovir-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-in-lamivudine-resistant-stable-hepatitis-b-patients
#10
Heon Ju Lee, Sang Jin Kim, Young Oh Kweon, Soo Young Park, Jeong Heo, Hyun Young Woo, Jae Seok Hwang, Woo Jin Chung, Chang Hyeong Lee, Byung Seok Kim, Jeong Ill Suh, Won Young Tak, Byoung Kuk Jang
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy from lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy (stable switching) in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is not clear. METHODS: In this non-inferiority trial, patients with LAM-resistant CHB and undetectable serum HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) for >6 months after initiating LAM+ADV combination therapy were randomized (1:2) either to continue the combination therapy (LAM+ADV group, n = 58) or switched to TDF monotherapy (TDF group, n = 111)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324463/fractures-related-to-tenofovir-a-case-noncase-study-in-the-european-pharmacovigilance-database
#11
Montserrat G García, Unai Larrinaga-Torrontegui, Eduardo Eduardo Martinez, Unax Lertxundi, Itziar Palacios-Zabalza, Carmelo Aguirre
BACKGROUND: There is no clear consensus on the relationship between tenofovir (TDF) and fracture risk because the studies published so far present contradictory findings. STUDY QUESTION: Our objective was to detect, from the European pharmacovigilance database (EudraVigilance), a signal of fracture risk during TDF exposure in patients infected with HIV. METHODS: Herein, we analyze all the cases of fractures suspected to be related to TDF recorded in EudraVigilance between 2001 and November 10, 2016...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318459/incidence-and-predictors-of-single-drug-discontinuation-according-to-the-presence-of-hcv-coinfection-in-hiv-patients-from-the-icona-foundation-cohort-study
#12
Sebastiano Leone, Milensu Shanyinde, Alessandro Cozzi Lepri, Fiona C Lampe, Pietro Caramello, Andrea Costantini, Andrea Giacometti, Andrea De Luca, Antonella Cingolani, Francesca Ceccherini Silberstein, Massimo Puoti, Andrea Gori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte
To evaluate incidence rates of and predictors for any antiretroviral (ART) drug discontinuation by HCV infection status in a large Italian cohort of HIV infected patients. All patients enrolled in ICONA who started combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing abacavir or tenofovir or emtricitabine or lamivudine plus efavirenz or rilpivirine or atazanavir/r or darunavir/r (DRV/r) or lopinavir/r or dolutegravir or elvitegravir or raltegravir were included. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors independently associated with single ART drug discontinuation...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316069/entecavir-and-tenofovir-reduce-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-more-effectively-than-other-antivirals
#13
Hyeki Cho, Hongkeun Ahn, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Yong Jin Jung, Young Chang, Joon Yeul Nam, Young Youn Cho, Dong Ho Lee, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Jeong Min Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon
Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) have been shown to decrease the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. This study evaluated whether high-potency NAs (entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [TDF]) reduce the risk of tumor recurrence more potently than low-potency NAs after curative treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. This study included 607 consecutive HBV-related HCC patients treated with surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation. The patients were categorized into three groups according to antiviral treatment: group A (no antiviral; n=261), group B (low-potency NA; n=90), and group C (high-potency NA; n=256)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315307/comparing-pharmacologic-measures-of-tenofovir-exposure-in-a-u-s-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-randomized-trial
#14
Sanjiv M Baxi, Eric Vittinghoff, Peter Bacchetti, Yong Huang, Kata Chillag, Ryan Wiegand, Peter L Anderson, Robert Grant, Ruth M Greenblatt, Susan Buchbinder, Monica Gandhi, Albert Y Liu
Clinical Trials.gov NCT00131677.
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314573/higher-efficacy-of-pegylated-interferon-alpha-2b-add-on-therapy-in-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-on-tenofovir-monotherapy
#15
Ankur Jindal, Ashish Kumar Vyas, Devesh Kumar, Guresh Kumar, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Monotherapy with Peg-IFNα or nucleos(t)ide analogues(NA) currently approved for treating chronic hepatitis B(CHB) have limited efficacy. Studies on combination of Peg-IFN-α/NA have shown conflicting results. We investigated whether sequential adding-on Peg-IFNα to tenofovir enhances serological response rates. METHODS: Treatment naïve, HBeAg-positive CHB patients with moderately elevated ALT(48 to 200IU/mL) were started on tenofovir(300 mg/day) and enrolled at week 12 in 1:1 ratio to either receive Peg-IFNα2b add-on(1...
January 4, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309806/decreased-expression-of-megalin-and-cubilin-and-altered-mitochondrial-activity-in-tenofovir-nephrotoxicity
#16
Alexandre Cez, Isabelle Brocheriou, François-Xavier Lescure, Clovis Adam, Pierre-Marie Girard, Gilles Pialoux, Søren K Moestrup, Soraya Fellahi, Jean-Philippe Bastard, Pierre Ronco, Emmanuelle Plaisier
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a commonly used antiretroviral drug for HIV, rarely causing Fanconi syndrome and acute kidney injury. We retrospectively analyzed the clinico-pathological presentation of 20 cases of tenofovir-induced tubulopathy, and investigated the renal expression of the megalin and cubilin proteins, as well as the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before TDF exposure was 92 ml/min/1,73m2, decreasing to 27.5 ml/min/1,73m2 at the time of biopsy, with 30% of patients requiring renal replacement therapy...
January 5, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309634/plasma-and-breast-milk-pharmacokinetics-of-emtricitabine-tenofovir-and-lamivudine-using-dried-blood-and-breast-milk-spots-in-nursing-african-mother-infant-pairs
#17
Catriona Waitt, Adeniyi Olagunju, Shadia Nakalema, Isabella Kyohaire, Andrew Owen, Mohammed Lamorde, Saye Khoo
Background: Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood. Objectives: To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother-infant pairs. Methods: Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309397/assessment-of-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-treated-with-third-generation-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-comparison-between-tenofovir-and-entecavir
#18
Marta Tonon, Salvatore Piano, Antonietta Romano, Silvano Fasolato, Marialuisa Stanco, Chiara Pilutti, Patrizia Pontisso, Sara Mareso, Carmine Gambino, Leonardo Sartori, Paolo Angeli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tenofovir and entecavir are nowadays the first-line treatment in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis. Both drugs were shown to be effective in HBV suppression and well tolerated. The effects of tenofovir on bone mineral density (BMD), however, were shown to worsen the rate of osteoporosis, which is already a common feature in cirrhosis. In contrast, entecavir seems to have no effect on mineral metabolism. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of nucleos(t)ide analogs on bone density in HBV-related cirrhosis...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303483/uptake-of-tenofovir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-hbv-coinfected-patients-in-the-eurosida-study
#19
Lars Peters, Amanda Mocroft, Daniel Grint, Santiago Moreno, Alexandra Calmy, Djordje Jevtovic, Helen Sambatakou, Karine Lacombe, Stephane De Wit, Jürgen Rockstroh, Jelena Smidt, Igor Karpov, Anna Grzeszczuk, Vesnadarjan Haziosmanovic, Magnus Gottfredsson, Roxana Radoi, Elena Kuzovatova, Chloe Orkin, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Jose Zapirain, Jens Lundgren
BACKGROUND: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: All HBsAg+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Changes in the proportion taking tenofovir-based cART over time were described. Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between tenofovir use and clinical events...
January 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300980/distinct-relapse-rates-and-risk-predictors-after-discontinuing-tenofovir-and-entecavir-therapy
#20
Tung-Hung Su, Hung-Chih Yang, Tai-Chung Tseng, Jyh-Ming Liou, Chen-Hua Liu, Chi-Ling Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Ding-Shinn Chen, Chun-Jen Liu, Jia-Horng Kao
Background: We investigated the patterns; predictors for virological relapse (VR), clinical relapse (CR), sustained clinical response (SCR); and retreatment outcomes after nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) therapy discontinuation. Methods: Chronic hepatitis B patients discontinuing NUC were prospectively enrolled. Viral and host predictors, including HBsAg, anti-HBc, the single nucleotide polymorphisms of NTCP (rs2296651), CTLA4 (rs231775), rs3077 (HLA-DPA1), and rs9277535 (HLA-DPB1), and post-therapy predictors were investigated...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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