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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434087/hepatitis-b-during-pregnancy-in-endemic-areas-screening-treatment-and-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission
#1
Naichaya Chamroonkul, Teerha Piratvisuth
The proper management of pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and to protect the baby from HBV infection. In the majority of cases, vertical transmission can be prevented with a universal screening program, HBV vaccine immunoprophylaxis, and administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) for babies born to mothers with HBV. However, in mothers with a high viral load (>200,000 or >1,000,000 IU/ml, depending on the guideline), the chance of immunoprophylaxis failure remains high...
April 22, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431556/factors-associated-with-loss-to-follow-up-after-occupational-hiv-exposure-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Nectarios Sophocles Papavarnavas, Kathryn Manning, Fahd Conrad, Milah Govender, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) of health care workers (HCWs) following occupational exposure to HIV, and most studies were conducted in an era when poorly tolerated antiretrovirals like zidovudine were used. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HCWs attending a referral hospital's Occupational Health Clinic in Cape Town, South Africa for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when tenofovir was available...
April 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428719/safety-and-efficacy-of-tenofovir-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-related-decompensated-cirrhosis
#3
Soon Kyu Lee, Myeong Jun Song, Seok Hyun Kim, Byung Seok Lee, Tae Hee Lee, Young Woo Kang, Suk Bae Kim, Il Han Song, Hee Bok Chae, Soon Young Ko, Jae Dong Lee
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as a first-line therapy in decompensated liver disease. METHODS: We enrolled 174 chronic hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis patients treated with 300 mg/d TDF at six Korean centers. Of the 174 cirrhosis patients, 57 were assigned to the decompensated cirrhosis group and 117 were assigned to the compensated cirrhosis group. We followed the patients for 12 mo and evaluated clinical outcomes, including biochemical, virological, and serological responses...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427875/easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#4
Pietro Lampertico, Kosh Agarwal, Thomas Berg, Maria Buti, Harry L A Janssen, George Papatheodoridis, Fabien Zoulim, Frank Tacke
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427498/plasma-and-saliva-concentrations-of-abacavir-tenofovir-darunavir-and-raltegravir-in-hiv-1-infected-patients%C3%A2
#5
Eiko Yamada, Ritsuo Takagi, Yoshinari Tanabe, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Naoki Hasegawa, Shingo Kato
OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationships between plasma and saliva concentrations of antiretroviral drugs to explore whether saliva can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). METHODS: Abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TFV), darunavir (DRV), and raltegravir (RAL) in plasma and saliva from 30 HIV-1-infected patients were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Mean saliva-to-plasma concentration ratios were 0...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#6
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425405/cost-effectiveness-and-clinical-impact-of-antiviral-strategies-of-hbeag-positive-and-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b
#7
Itziar Oyagüez, María Buti, Max Brosa, Magdalena Rueda, Miguel A Casado
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with high burden and healthcare costs. Virologic response achieved with antivirals is associated with progression avoidance. This study aimed to estimate the efficiency and clinical impact of antiviral strategies in CHB patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Markov model estimated lifetime complications and direct costs in both, HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative cohorts. Strategy 1 (71% of treated population) and strategy 2 (100%), both based on pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) followed by oral tenofovir or entecavir, were compared to no treatment...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418990/bone-density-microarchitecture-and-tissue-quality-following-long-term-treatment-with-tenofovir-emtricitabine-or-abacavir-lamivudine
#8
Robert Güerri-Fernández, Daniel Molina-Morant, Judit Villar-García, Sabina Herrera, Alicia González-Mena, Ana Guelar, Marta Trenchs-Rodríguez, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Hernando Knobel
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Antiretroviral therapy has a deleterious effect on BMD, but its effect on bone fragility is not clear. The objective of this study is to analyze the BMD, microarchitecture and tissue quality of bone in patients receiving long-term tenofovir- or abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study in HIV patients undergoing tenofovir or abacavir antiretroviral therapy for more than five years...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418989/impact-of-antiretroviral-treatment-containing-tenofovir-difumarate-on-the-telomere-length-of-aviremic-hiv-infected-patients
#9
Rocio Montejano, Natalia Stella-Ascariz, Susana Monge, José I Bernardino, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, MaLuisa Montes, Eulalia Valencia, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Victoria Moreno, Juan González-García, Francisco Arnalich, Jesús Mingorance, Laura Pintado Berniches, Rosario Perona, José R Arribas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo relevance of the inhibitory effect of tenofovir upon telomerase activity observed in vitro. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of HIV-infected patients with suppressed virological replication (HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL for more than one year) Methods: Telomere length in whole blood was measured by quantitative real time PCR. We performed a multivariate analysis to elucidate variables associated with telomere length and also evaluated the association between telomere length and use of tenofovir difumarate (TDF) adjusted by significant confounders RESULTS:: 200 patients included, 72% male, median age 49 (IQR 45-54...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418595/validation-of-page-b-model-in-asian-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-receiving-entecavir-or-tenofovir
#10
Mi Na Kim, Seong Gyu Hwang, Kyu Sung Rim, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seung Up Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A new hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk prediction model, PAGE-B, which includes age, gender, and platelet count as constituent variables, has recently been proposed in Caucasian chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We validated PAGE-B model and compared its accuracy with that of conventional risk prediction models in Asian CHB patients. METHODS: CHB patients treated with entecavir or tenofovir were consecutively recruited. The performance of PAGE-B and three conventional risk prediction models (CU-HCC, GAG-HCC, and REACH-B) were analyzed...
April 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418232/high-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-uptake-and-early-adherence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-at-risk-for-hiv-infection-the-prep-brasil-demonstration-project
#11
Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Raquel B De Boni, Esper G Kallas, José Valdez Madruga, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Silvia Goulart, Thiago S Torres, Luana M S Marins, Peter L Anderson, Paula M Luz, Iuri da Costa Leite, Albert Y Liu, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). METHODS: PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416547/simulating-intestinal-transporter-and-enzyme-activity-in-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#12
Darren M Moss, P Domanico, M Watkins, S Park, R Randolph, S Wring, J Hobson, S Rannard, M Siccardi, A Owen
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a prodrug of tenofovir, has oral bioavailability (25%) limited by intestinal transport (p-glycoprotein), and intestinal degradation (carboxylesterase).….
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415395/drug-kinetics-release-from-eudragit-tenofovir-sioc-tablets
#13
A Tamayo, M A Mazo, M D Veiga, R Ruiz-Caro, F Notario-Pérez, J Rubio
A novel drug release system has been obtained in form of tablets from Eudragit® RS and tenofovir loaded on porous silicon oxycarbide glasses (SiOC). Active carbon (AC) and mesoporous silica (MCM-41) have also been used for comparative purposes. The porous silicon oxycarbide presents a bimodal mesopore size distribution that is maintained after functionalization with amino groups. We have studied the adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium when the materials are loaded with tenofovir and, in all cases, pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm have been revealed as the most representative models describing the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414145/real-time-analysis-of-tenofovir-release-kinetics-using-quantitative-phosphorus-31-p-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#14
Vivek Agrahari, Jianing Meng, Sudhaunshu S Purohit, Nathan A Oyler, Bi-Botti C Youan
The dialysis method is classically used for drug separation before analysis, but, does not provide direct and real-time drug quantification and has limitations affecting the dialysis rate. In this study, a phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P-qNMR) method is developed for the real-time quantification of therapeutic molecules in vitro. The release kinetics of model drug tenofovir (TFV: anti-HIV microbicide) was analyzed in vaginal fluid simulant (VFS), semen fluid simulant (SFS), and human plasma (HP) from chitosan nanofibers (size ∼100-200nm) using the NMR (direct) method and compared with dialysis/UV-Vis (indirect) method...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413877/correction-to-reduction-sensitive-lipid-conjugates-of-tenofovir-synthesis-stability-and-antiviral-activity
#15
Kyle E Giesler, Jose Marengo, Dennis C Liotta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413362/bone-loss-in-hiv-infection
#16
Caitlin A Moran, M Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent fracture, and treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) leads to additional BMD loss, particularly in the first 1-2 years of therapy. The prevalence of low BMD and fragility fracture is expected to increase as the HIV-infected population ages with successful treatment with cART. Mechanisms of bone loss in the setting of HIV infection are likely multifactorial, and include viral, host, and immune effects, as well as direct and indirect effects of cART, particularly tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and the protease inhibitors (PIs)...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412974/acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-with-delayed-appearance-of-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#17
Nicholas Brousseau, Donald G Murphy, Vladimir Gilca, Jacynthe Larouche, Sema Mandal, Richard S Tedder
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B immunization programs worldwide, outbreaks of acute infection still occur in unimmunized individuals. A timely diagnosis of hepatitis B is necessary to ensure adequate clinical care and public health interventions that will reduce transmission. Yet, interpretation of hepatitis B serological markers can be complex. We present a case of hepatitis B with atypical markers, including delayed appearance of hepatitis B core antibody...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410249/when-could-new-antiretrovirals-be-recommended-for-national-treatment-programmes-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-results-of-a-who-think-tank
#18
Marco Vitoria, Nathan Ford, Polly Clayden, Anton L Pozniak, Andrew M Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss barriers and opportunities for the introduction of new antiretrovirals into national treatment programmes in low-income and middle-income countries to support further treatment scale-up. Invitees to a WHO Think Tank in February 2017 evaluated recently published results. RECENT FINDINGS: There is not sufficient clinical experience of dolutegravir (DTG), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or efavirenz 400 mg (EFV400) to recommend their use in pregnancy...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406595/changes-in-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-over-time-in-south-african-hiv-1-infected-patients-receiving-tenofovir-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Reneé De Waal, Karen Cohen, Matthew P Fox, Kathryn Stinson, Gary Maartens, Andrew Boulle, Ehimario U Igumbor, Mary-Ann Davies
INTRODUCTION: Tenofovir has been associated with decline in kidney function, but in patients with low baseline kidney function, improvements over time have been reported. Additionally, the magnitude and trajectory of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) changes may differ according to how eGFR is calculated. We described changes in eGFR over time, and the incidence of, and risk factors for, kidney toxicity, in a South African cohort. METHODS: We included antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥16 years old who started tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2002 and 2013...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404092/tenofovir-alafenamide-versus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-3-non-inferiority-trial
#20
Maria Buti, Edward Gane, Wai Kay Seto, Henry L Y Chan, Wan-Long Chuang, Tatjana Stepanova, Aric-Josun Hui, Young-Suk Lim, Rajiv Mehta, Harry L A Janssen, Subrat K Acharya, John F Flaherty, Benedetta Massetto, Andrea L Cathcart, Kyungpil Kim, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Calvin Q Pan, Maurizia Brunetto, Namiki Izumi, Patrick Marcellin
BACKGROUND: The novel prodrug tenofovir alafenamide delivers the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir to target cells more efficiently at a lower dose than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, thereby reducing systemic exposure. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two drugs in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a non-inferiority study. METHODS: In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority study in 105 centres in 17 countries, patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size six), stratified by plasma HBV DNA concentration and previous treatment status, to receive once-daily oral doses of tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, each with matching placebo...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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