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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315328/pgc-1%C3%AE-regulates-alanine-metabolism-in-muscle-cells
#1
Yukino Hatazawa, Kun Qian, Da-Wei Gong, Yasutomi Kamei
The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, depositing energy as protein/amino acids, which are degraded in catabolic conditions such as fasting. Alanine is synthesized and secreted from the skeletal muscle that is used as substrates of gluconeogenesis in the liver. During fasting, the expression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, is increased in the liver and regulates gluconeogenesis. In the present study, we observed increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2) in the skeletal muscle during fasting...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313822/direct-adjustment-for-confounding-by-smoking-reduces-radiation-related-cancer-risk-estimates-of-mortality-among-male-nuclear-workers-in-japan-1999-2010
#2
Shin'ichi Kudo, Jun'ichi Ishida, Keiko Yoshimoto, Shoichi Mizuno, Sumio Ohshima, Hiroshige Furuta, Fumiyoshi Kasagi
The causal relationship between protracted exposure to low-dose rate radiation and health effects remains unclear despite extensive international studies of nuclear workers. One reason is that radiation epidemiological studies that adjust for smoking, which heavily influences mortality, have been limited. In the present study, we examined radiation-related cancer risk by directly assessing the possible confounding effect of smoking, using data from two questionnaire surveys performed among Japanese nuclear workers in 1997 and 2003...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283211/differentiating-research-quality-improvement-and-case-studies-to-ethically-incorporate-pregnant-women
#3
REVIEW
Julia C Phillippi, Katherine E Hartmann
Pregnant women have been called therapeutic orphans because data supporting common interventions, medications, health teaching, and models of care are meager. The generation of quality evidence benefits from proactive approaches that ensure ethical standards are met to protect participants. The purpose of this article is to differentiate among health care, quality improvement, and research and to discuss ethical involvement of women who are pregnant and potentially childbearing in these initiatives. Health care is provided to protect and improve individual health...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247173/estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-causes-osteoarthritis-by-upregulating-extracellular-matrix-degrading-enzymes
#4
Young-Ok Son, Seulki Park, Ji-Sun Kwak, Yoonkyung Won, Wan-Su Choi, Jinseol Rhee, Churl-Hong Chun, Je-Hwang Ryu, Don-Kyu Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi, Jang-Soo Chun
The estrogen-related receptor (ERR) family of orphan nuclear receptor is composed of ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ, which are known to regulate various isoform-specific functions under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigate the involvement of ERRs in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) in mice. Among ERR family members, ERRγ is markedly upregulated in cartilage from human OA patients and various mouse models of OA. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ERRγ in mouse knee joint or transgenic expression of ERRγ in cartilage leads to OA...
December 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228429/peripheral-blood-cd8-t-cell-profiles-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#5
E Colombo, G Galleri, G L Erre, C Piras, G Biondi, L Taras, A Zinellu, A A Mangoni, R Manetti, M Montesu, G Passiu
OBJECTIVE: While CD4+ T-cells are traditionally regarded as the main pathogenic T-cell subpopulation in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the role of circulating CD8+ T-cells remains poorly characterized. We evaluated the differential representation of CD8+ T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) of PsA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CD8+IL-17+, CD8+IFNγ+ and CD8+IL-17-IL-22+ T-cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry in 25 consecutive PsA patients, 7 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 26 healthy controls (HC)...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220609/evaluation-of-structured-assessment-and-mediating-factors-of-suicide-focused-group-therapy-for-veterans-recently-discharged-from-inpatient-psychiatry
#6
Lora L Johnson, Stephen S O'Connor, Barbara Kaminer, Peter M Gutierrez, Erin Carney, Brittany Groh, David A Jobes
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the impact of adding the Suicide Status Form (SSF) to a suicide-focused group therapy for veterans recently discharged from an inpatient psychiatry setting. METHODS: A sample of 141 veterans was enrolled and randomized into a Usual Assessment Group Therapy or SSF-Assessment Group Therapy. Participants completed interviews at baseline, 1, and 3 months. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between groups regarding group attendance (IRR = 1...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215327/factors-modifying-the-radon-related-lung-cancer-risk-at-low-exposures-and-exposure-rates-among-german-uranium-miners
#7
M Kreuzer, C Sobotzki, M Schnelzer, N Fenske
It is still not fully understood whether and how factors such as time, age and smoking modify the relationship between lung cancer and radon at low exposures and exposure rates. Improved knowledge is necessary for the dose conversion of radon in working level month (WLM) into effective dose, as currently discussed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). An update of the German uranium miner cohort study (n = 58,974 men) with a 10-year extension of mortality follow-up (1946-2013) was used to further examine this issue...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209696/serial-dependencies-act-directly-on-perception
#8
Guido Marco Cicchini, Kyriaki Mikellidou, David Burr
There is good evidence that biological perceptual systems exploit the temporal continuity in the world: When asked to reproduce or rate sequentially presented stimuli (varying in almost any dimension), subjects typically err toward the previous stimulus, exhibiting so-called "serial dependence." At this stage it is unclear whether the serial dependence results from averaging within the perceptual system, or at later stages. Here we demonstrate that strong serial dependencies occur within both perceptual and decision processes, with very little contribution from the response...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171378/-safe-administration-of-medicines-learning-from-our-mistakes
#9
D M Burger, M W L van der Cruijsen, R Schim van der Loeff
This issue of the Dutch Journal of Medicine (NTvG) features a review article by Van der Veen et al. on safe administration of medicines in hospitals. This topic is part of an increased focus on patient safety that started at the beginning of the 21st century, following publication of the renowned report 'To err is human'. Now, almost 20 years later, we are a little disappointed that there is still no set of interventions that can be implemented to guarantee safe administration of medicines in hospitals. Why ever not? In this commentary we discuss the main limitations of the interventions that have been studied, but also describe what we think can already be implemented without further research...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170690/correlation-between-the-functional-movement-screen-and-hip-mobility-in-ncaa-division-ii-athletes
#10
Matthew T Jenkins, Robert Gustitus, Mike Iosia, Taz Kicklighter, Yuichi Sasaki
The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a series of seven exercises designed to assess athletes prior to competitive training to determine dysfunctional movement patterns. The exercises include the deep squat (DS), hurdle step (HS), inline lunge (IL), shoulder mobility (SM), active straight leg raise (ASL), pushup (PU), and rotary stability (RS), all of which comprise the composite score (FMS CS). The purpose of this study was to determine correlations between the FMS screens and hip mobility. The specific hip range-of-motion exercises used were bilateral internal/external rotation (IRR, IRL ERL, ERR), and flexion/extension (FL, FR, ER, EL)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170074/study-design-considerations-for-the-standardized-treatment-of-pulmonary-exacerbations-2-stop2-a-trial-to-compare-intravenous-antibiotic-treatment-durations-in-cf
#11
Sonya L Heltshe, Natalie E West, Donald R VanDevanter, D B Sanders, Valeria V Beckett, Patrick A Flume, Christopher H Goss
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in cystic fibrosis (CF) are common and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Duration of IV antibiotic therapy to treat PEx varies widely in the US, and there are few data to guide treatment decisions. METHODS: We combined a survey of CF stakeholders with retrospective analyses of a recent observational study of CF PEx to design a multicenter, randomized, prospective study comparing the efficacy and safety of different durations of IV antibiotics for PEx to meet the needs of people with CF and their caregivers...
November 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165897/lithospermum-erythrorhizon-root-and-its-naphthoquinones-repress-srebp1c-and-activate-pgc1%C3%AE-through-ampk%C3%AE
#12
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161386/to-err-is-human-use-of-simulation-to-enhance-training-and-patient-safety-in-anaesthesia
#13
H Higham, B Baxendale
Human beings who work in complex, dynamic, and stressful situations make mistakes. This is as true for anaesthetists as for any other health-care professional, but we face unique challenges in the many roles and responsibilities we have in diverse clinical contexts. As a profession, we are well versed in the development and utilization of improvement techniques and technologies that prioritize high-quality, safe care for patients. This article focuses on one particular domain of patient safety in which anaesthetists have been pre-eminent, the use of simulation in training to improve both professional capabilities and patient safety in anaesthetic practice...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154617/objectifying-the-subjective-building-blocks-of-metacognitive-experiences-in-conflict-tasks
#14
Laurence Questienne, Anne Atas, Boris Burle, Wim Gevers
Metacognitive appraisals are essential for optimizing our information processing. In conflict tasks, metacognitive appraisals can result from different interrelated features (e.g., motor activity, visual awareness, response speed). Thanks to an original approach combining behavioral and electromyographic measures, the current study objectified the contribution of three features (reaction time [RT], motor hesitation with and without response competition, and visual congruency) to the subjective experience of urge-to-err in a priming conflict task...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100060/network-analysis-reveals-a-causal-role-of-mitochondrial-gene-activity-in-atherosclerotic-lesion-formation
#15
Baiba Vilne, Josefin Skogsberg, Hassan Foroughi Asl, Husain Ahammad Talukdar, Thorsten Kessler, Johan L M Björkegren, Heribert Schunkert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial damage and augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may represent an intermediate step by which hypercholesterolemia exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, in mice with severe but genetically reversible hypercholesterolemia (i.e. the so called Reversa mouse model), we performed time-resolved analyses of mitochondrial transcriptome in the aortic arch employing a systems-level network approach...
October 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074220/development-of-a-multiplexed-tumor-associated-autoantibody-based-blood-test-for-the-detection-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Chung-Wei Fan, Yung-Bin Kuo, Geng-Pin Lin, Si-Min Chen, Shih-Hsien Chang, Bo-An Li, Err-Cheng Chan
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and early diagnosis is vital to improving prognoses. We explored the diagnostic potential of a multiplex autoantibody panel as a biomarker for the detection of CRC by ELISA. METHODS: In total, 192 serum samples (92 CRC and 100 matched controls) were tested against a panel of 12 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs): RPH3AL, RPL36, SLP2, p53, survivin, ANAXA4, SEC61B, CCCAP, NYCO16, NMDAR, PLSCR1, and HDAC5...
October 23, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068917/to-peel-or-not-to-peel-the-internal-limiting-membrane-in-idiopathic-epiretinal-membranes
#17
Andrea Díaz-Valverde, Lihteh Wu
BACKGROUND: Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) have been described for more than 150 years. Currently, they are a common indication for vitreoretinal surgery. Recently, there has been an increasing trend to peel the internal limiting membrane (ILM). Although ILM peeling has generally been accepted as a fundamental step in macular hole repair, its current role in ERM remains controversial. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Proponents of ILM peeling argue that peeling of the ILM reduces the recurrence rate and facilitates a greater resolution of retinal folds...
October 24, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061011/-the-role-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-and-atp-dependent-k-channel-kcnj1-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Z M Wu, Q Yang, Z Y Li, D Chen, L J Jiang, X D Li, S L Chen, Z W Liu
Objective: To investigate the correlation between estrogen related-receptorγ (ERRγ) and ATP-dependent K(+) channel Kcnj1 in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and its possible role in regulating ischemic preconditioning. Methods: The expression of ERRγ in kidney tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of ERRγ and Kcnj1 in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) under hypoxia (1% O(2)) were detected by RT-PCR. The ERRγ-deficient heterozygous mice model and the ERRγ-deficient completely mice model were established...
October 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055886/impact-of-considering-non-occupational-radiation-exposure-on-the-association-between-occupational-dose-and-solid-cancer-among-french-nuclear-workers
#19
Lucie Fournier, Enora Cléro, Eric Samson, Sylvaine Caër-Lorho, Dominique Laurier, Klervi Leuraud
OBJECTIVES: The French nuclear worker cohort allows for the assessment of cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure, but workers are also exposed to medical and environmental radiation which can be of the same order of magnitude. This study aims to examine the impact of non-occupational radiation exposures on the dose-risk analysis between occupational radiation exposure and cancer mortality. METHODS: The cohort included workers employed before 1995 for at least one year by CEA, AREVA NC or EDF and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure...
October 21, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036656/relative-biological-effectiveness-of-neutrons-derived-from-the-excess-relative-risk-model-with-the-atomic-bomb-survivors-data-managed-by-hiroshima-university
#20
Kenichi Satoh, Hiroshi Yasuda, Hideshi Kawakami, Satoshi Tashiro
According to an analysis of the Life Span Study cohort data conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the sex-averaged excess relative risk (ERR) of all solid cancers was 0.42 Gy-Eq-1. On the other hand, analysis of the atomic bomb survivors (ABS) cohort data at Hiroshima University indicated the ERR value was 0.28 Gy-Eq-1 in Hiroshima. In both cases, initial radiation doses were derived from the dosimetry system DS02, in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was assumed to be a constant value of 10...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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