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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421857/risk-of-solid-cancer-in-low-dose-rate-radiation-epidemiological-studies-and-the-dose-rate-effectiveness-factor
#1
Roy Shore, Linda Walsh, Tamara Azizova, Werner Rühm
PURPOSE: Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF)...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406375/who-dares-who-errs-disentangling-cognitive-and-motivational-roots-of-age-differences-in-decisions-under-risk
#2
Thorsten Pachur, Rui Mata, Ralph Hertwig
We separate for the first time the roles of cognitive and motivational factors in shaping age differences in decision making under risk. Younger and older adults completed gain, loss, and mixed-domain choice problems as well as measures of cognitive functioning and affect. The older adults' decision quality was lower than the younger adults' in the loss domain, and this age difference was attributable to the older adults' lower cognitive abilities. In addition, the older adults chose the more risky option more often than the younger adults in the gain and mixed domains; this difference in risk aversion was attributable to less pronounced negative affect among the older adults...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392861/reported-exercise-related-respiratory-symptoms-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-asthmatic-children
#3
Demet Inci, Refoel Guggenheim, Derya Ufuk Altintas, Johannes H Wildhaber, Alexander Moeller
BACKGROUND: Unlimited physical activity is one of the key issues of asthma control and management. We investigated how reliable reported exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) are in predicting exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic children. METHODS: In this prospective study, 179 asthmatic children aged 7 - 15 years were asked for specific questions on respiratory symptoms related to exercise and allocated into two groups according to whether they complained about symptoms...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387560/clinical-evaluation-of-the-concussed-athlete-a-view-from-the-sideline
#4
Margot Putukian
CONTEXT: The sideline assessment of concussion is challenging, given its variable presentations, the limited sensitivity and specificity of sideline assessment tools, and how the presentation of the injury evolves over time. In addition, the diagnostic process, as well as the tools used to assess and manage concussion, continue to progress as research and what we know about concussion advance. This paper focuses on the initial assessment on the sideline by reviewing the concussion-evaluation literature, drawing from clinical experience to emphasize a standardized approach, and underscoring the importance of both familiarity with the athlete and clinical judgment...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385154/efficacy-of-praziquantel-on-schistosoma-haematobium-and-re-infection-rates-among-school-going-children-in-the-ndumo-area-of-umkhanyakude-district-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#5
Muhubiri Kabuyaya, Moses John Chimbari, Tawanda Manyangadze, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Despite its low cure rates and possible resistance, praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug available for schistosomiasis treatment. Hence, monitoring its efficacy is crucial. This study assessed the efficacy of PZQ, determined re-infection and incidence rates of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school-going children in the Ndumo area, KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: A cohort of 320 school-going children (10 - 15 years) in 10 primary schools was screened for S...
April 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370607/evidence-for-a-role-of-oestrogen-receptor-related-receptor-in-the-regulation-of-male-sexual-behaviour-in-the-moth-agrotis-ipsilon
#6
F Bozzolan, N Durand, E Demondion, T Bourgeois, E Gassias, S Debernard
The oestrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) are orphan nuclear receptors that were originally identified on the basis of their close homology to the oestrogen receptors. The three mammalian ERR genes participate in the regulation of vital physiological processes including reproduction, development and metabolic homeostasis. Although unique ERRs have been found in insects, data on the function and regulation of these receptors remain sparse. In the present study, a 2095-bp full-length cDNA encoding an ERR, termed AiERR, was isolated from males of the moth Agrotis ipsilon and deposited in the GenBank database under the accession number KT944662...
March 29, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369141/correction-of-confidence-intervals-in-excess-relative-risk-models-using-monte-carlo-dosimetry-systems-with-shared-errors
#7
Zhuo Zhang, Dale L Preston, Mikhail Sokolnikov, Bruce A Napier, Marina Degteva, Brian Moroz, Vadim Vostrotin, Elena Shiskina, Alan Birchall, Daniel O Stram
In epidemiological studies, exposures of interest are often measured with uncertainties, which may be independent or correlated. Independent errors can often be characterized relatively easily while correlated measurement errors have shared and hierarchical components that complicate the description of their structure. For some important studies, Monte Carlo dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of exposure estimates have been used to represent such complex error structures. While the effects of independent measurement errors on parameter estimation and methods to correct these effects have been studied comprehensively in the epidemiological literature, the literature on the effects of correlated errors, and associated correction methods is much more sparse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350475/occupational-radiation-exposure-and-deaths-from-malignant-intracranial-neoplasms-of-the-brain-and-cns-in-u-s-radiologic-technologists-1983-2012
#8
Cari M Kitahara, Martha S Linet, Stephen Balter, Donald L Miller, Preetha Rajaraman, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Steven L Simon, Mark P Little, Michele M Doody, Bruce H Alexander, Dale L Preston
OBJECTIVE: Childhood exposure to acute, high-dose radiation has consistently been associated with risk of benign and malignant intracranial tumors of the brain and CNS, but data on risks of adulthood exposure to protracted, low-to-moderate doses of radiation are limited. In a large cohort of radiologic technologists, we quantified the association between protracted, low-to-moderate doses of radiation and malignant intracranial tumor mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 83,655 female and 26,642 male U...
March 28, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346099/development-of-novel-cell-lines-for-high-throughput-screening-to-detect-estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-modulators
#9
Christina T Teng, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia, Negin Martin, Xiaohua Gao, Darlene Dixon, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt, B Alex Merrick
Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), the first orphan nuclear receptor discovered, is crucial for the control of cellular energy metabolism. ERRα and its coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), are required for rapid energy production in response to environmental challenges. They have been implicated in the etiology of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. ERRα also plays a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Identification of compounds that modulate ERRα signaling may elucidate environmental factors associated with these diseases...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330748/control-of-biofilm-forming-clinically-important-bacteria-by-green-synthesized-zno-nanoparticles-and-its-ecotoxicity-on-ceriodaphnia-cornuta
#10
Sekar Vijayakumar, Balasubramanian Malaikozhundan, Sathappan Shanthi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Nooruddin Thajuddin
Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Plb-ZnO NPs) and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, SEM and EDS. UV-Visible spectra recorded the absorbance peak of Plb-ZnO NPs at 343 nm. SEM analyses showed the spherical shape of Plb-ZnO NPs with the particle size between 30 and 60 nm. Plb-ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis at all tested concentrations. In contrast, Plb-ZnO NPs showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Proteus vulgaris only at 100 μg/ml...
March 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325209/-to-err-is-human-but-to-not-put-processes-in-place-to-avoid-errors-from-becoming-fatal-is-inhumane-5th-international-summit-of-the-patient-safety-movement-psm-california-usa-2017
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324619/identification-of-a-herv-k-env-surface-peptide-highly-recognized-in-ra-patients-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#12
G Mameli, G L Erre, E Caggiu, S Mura, D Cossu, Marco Bo, M L Cadoni, A Piras, N Mundula, E Colombo, G Buscetta, G Passiu, L A Sechi
Endogenous Retroviruses (HERV) are believed to be pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Among them, HERV-K viruses have been recently reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study we have explored the role of humoral immune response against HERV-K as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in RA. Four different peptides from the extracellular portion of the env protein of HERV-K (env-su 19-37 , env-su 109-26 , env-su 164-186 , env-su 209-226 ) were selected by bioinformatic analysis on the basis of their putative immunogenicity...
March 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323575/lung-laryngeal-and-other-respiratory-cancer-incidence-among-japanese-atomic-bomb-survivors-an-updated-analysis-from-1958-through-2009
#13
Elizabeth K Cahoon, Dale L Preston, Donald A Pierce, Eric Grant, Alina V Brenner, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Mai Utada, Kotaro Ozasa
The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases...
March 21, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322945/bifunctional-role-of-leucine-300-of-firefly-luciferase-in-structural-rigidity
#14
Farzad Yousefi, Farangis Ataei, Mojtaba Mortazavi, Saman Hosseinkhani
Firefly luciferase is susceptible to thermal inactivation, thereby its intracellular half-life decreased. Previous reports indicated that L(300)R mutation (LRR mutant) in E(354)R/Arg(356) double mutant (ERR mutant) from Lampyris turkestanicus luciferase has increased its thermal stability and rigidity through induction of some ionic bonds with Asp 270 and 271. Disruption of the deduced ionic bonds in an ultra-rigid mutant of firefly luciferase did not reverse the flexibility of the protein. In this study, we investigated the effects of this residue to find the truth behind an extraordinary increase in thermal stability and rigidity of luciferase after replacement of leucine 300 by arginine based on previous reports...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319463/solid-cancer-incidence-among-the-life-span-study-of-atomic-bomb-survivors-1958-2009
#15
Eric J Grant, Alina Brenner, Hiromi Sugiyama, Ritsu Sakata, Atsuko Sadakane, Mai Utada, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Caitlin M Milder, Midori Soda, Harry M Cullings, Dale L Preston, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Kotaro Ozasa
This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319436/estimating-the-risks-of-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-evidence-from-modern-radiation-doses-to-the-lungs-and-heart-and-from-previous-randomized-trials
#16
Carolyn Taylor, Candace Correa, Frances K Duane, Marianne C Aznar, Stewart J Anderson, Jonas Bergh, David Dodwell, Marianne Ewertz, Richard Gray, Reshma Jagsi, Lori Pierce, Kathleen I Pritchard, Sandra Swain, Zhe Wang, Yaochen Wang, Tim Whelan, Richard Peto, Paul McGale
Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315012/chlorinated-biphenyls-effect-on-estrogen-related-receptor-expression-steroid-secretion-mitochondria-ultrastructure-but-not-on-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-in-leydig-cells
#17
Agnieszka Milon, Malgorzata Opydo-Chanek, Waclaw Tworzydlo, Jerzy Galas, Laura Pardyak, Alicja Kaminska, Anna Ptak, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak
To characterize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) action on Leydig cells, PCBs congeners, low-chlorinated (delor 103; d103) and high-chlorinated ones (delor 106; d106) were selected. The cells were treated according to PCBs dose (d103 or d106 0.2 ng/ml in low doses:, or 2 ng/ml in high doses) and type (d103 + d106 in low doses or 103 + 106 in high doses). After 24 h treatment with PCBs, a distinct increase in estrogen-related receptors (ERRs type α, β and γ) expression was revealed. However, the dose- and type-dependent PCBs effect was mostly exerted on ERRα expression...
March 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260683/endocrine-related-genes-are-altered-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-in-chironomus-riparius-aquatic-larvae
#18
Pedro Martínez-Paz, Mónica Morales, Josune Urien, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent widely used in personal care and consumer products and commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of TCS on endocrine-related genes of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology, were evaluated. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures at 10µg/L, 100µg/L, and 1000µg/L TCS revealed that this xenobiotic was able to alter the transcriptional activity of ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp), the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR...
March 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252622/-risk-of-death-from-circulatory-diseases-in-a-cohort-of-patients-exposed-to-chronic-radiation
#19
T V Azizova, E S Grigoryeva, N Hunter, M V Pikulina, M B Moseeva
AIM: To assess mortality from circulatory diseases (CD) in a cohort of workers exposed occupationally to chronic radiation in relation to external and internal exposure, by taking into account known non-radiation risk factors (RFs), such as smoking (including smoking index), alcohol consumption, hypertension, and body mass index. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Mortality from CD (ICD-10: I00 - I99) was studied in a cohort of 22,377 nuclear power plant («Mayak» Production Association) workers exposed occupationally to chronic radiation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212414/decline-in-infection-related-morbidities-following-drug-mediated-reductions-in-the-intensity-of-schistosoma-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Gisele Andrade, David J Bertsch, Andrea Gazzinelli, Charles H King
BACKGROUND: Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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