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Weiwei Fan, Nanhai He, Chun Shi Lin, Zong Wei, Nasun Hah, Wanda Waizenegger, Ming-Xiao He, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
PGC1α is a pleiotropic co-factor that affects angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative muscle remodeling via its association with multiple transcription factors, including the master oxidative nuclear receptor ERRγ. To decipher their epistatic relationship, we explored ERRγ gain of function in muscle-specific PGC1α/β double-knockout (PKO) mice. ERRγ-driven transcriptional reprogramming largely rescues muscle damage and improves muscle function in PKO mice, inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defense, angiogenesis, and a glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation independent of PGC1α/β...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Chittaranjan Andrade
The use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications during pregnancy has increased in recent years. An earlier article in this column examined whether psychostimulant medications, used to treated ADHD and related disorders, increase the risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies with first trimester exposure to these drugs. This article examines whether amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine exposure during early and late pregnancy are associated with other adverse gestational outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
T V Azizova, E Batistatou, E S Grigorieva, R McNamee, R Wakeford, H Liu, F de Vocht, R M Agius
Mortality from circulatory disease (CD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) was investigated in relationship to cumulative doses of external gamma radiation and internal alpha radiation to the liver from deposited plutonium over long follow-up periods in two large cohorts of nuclear workers: the Russian Mayak Worker Cohort (MWC) and the UK Sellafield Worker Cohort (SWC). The MWC comprised 22,374 workers (74.6% males) with 5,123 CD deaths registered during 842,538 person-years of follow-up, while the SWC comprised 23,443 workers (87...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Research
Gian Luca Erre, Matteo Piga, Anna Laura Fedele, Silvia Mura, Alessandra Piras, Maria Luisa Cadoni, Ignazio Cangemi, Martina Dessi, Gabriele Di Sante, Barbara Tolusso, Elisa Gremese, Alberto Cauli, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, Pier Sergio Saba, Ciriaco Carru, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Alessandro Mathieu, Giuseppe Passiu
Objectives: To define the prevalence and determinants of peripheral microvascular endothelial dysfunction (ED) in a large series of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients free of previous cardiovascular events. Materials and Methods: Data from 874 RA patients enrolled in the EDRA study (Endothelial Dysfunction Evaluation for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Estimation in Rheumatoid NCT02341066) were analyzed. Log-transformed reactive hyperemia index (Ln-RHI) was evaluated by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) using the EndoPAT2000 device: values of Ln-RHI < 0...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Olga A Smirnova, Francis A Cucinotta
A recently developed biologically motivated dynamical model of the assessment of the excess relative risk (ERR) for radiogenic leukemia among acutely/continuously irradiated humans (Smirnova, 2015, 2017) is applied to estimate the ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in long-term interplanetary space missions. Numerous scenarios of space radiation exposure during space missions are used in the modeling studies. The dependence of the ERR for leukemia among astronauts on several mission parameters including the dose equivalent rates of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and large solar particle events (SPEs), the number of large SPEs, the time interval between SPEs, mission duration, the degree of astronaut's additional shielding during SPEs, the degree of their additional 12-hour's daily shielding, as well as the total mission dose equivalent, is examined...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Óscar Herrero, Mónica Aquilino, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, Rosario Planelló
Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis...
2018: PloS One
Xiao-Wen Zhang, Xin-Lin Zhang, Biao Xu, Li-Na Kang
AIMS: To determine the safety and efficacy of insulin degludec versus glargine in patients with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Databases were searched until July 5, 2017. We included randomized controlled trials comparing degludec with glargine in diabetic patients, each with a minimum of 16 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Eighteen trials with 16,791 patients were included. Degludec was associated with a statistically significant reduction in risk for all confirmed hypoglycemia at the maintenance treatment period [estimated rate ratio (ERR) 0...
February 8, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Ptolemaios G Sarrigiannis, Yifan Zhao, Fei He, Stephen A Billings, Kathleen Baster, Chris Rittey, John Yianni, Panagiotis Zis, Hualiang Wei, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Richard Grünewald
OBJECTIVE: To determine the origin and dynamic characteristics of the generalised hyper-synchronous spike and wave (SW) discharges in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). METHODS: We applied nonlinear methods, the error reduction ratio (ERR) causality test and cross-frequency analysis, with a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model, to electroencephalograms (EEGs) from CAE, selected with stringent electro-clinical criteria (17 cases, 42 absences). We analysed the pre-ictal and ictal strength of association between homologous and heterologous EEG derivations and estimated the direction of synchronisation and corresponding time lags...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Bruno Levecke, Alice V Easton, Piet Cools, Marco Albonico, Shaali Ame, John S Gilleard, Jennifer Keiser, Antonio Montresor, Roger Prichard, Johnny Vlaminck, Jozef Vercruysse
The egg reduction rate (ERR) is the current standard mean to assess the efficacy of drugs against human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Although the timing of post-treatment sampling is pivotal for a readily interpretation of drug efficacy, there is lack empirical data that allows recommending the optimal time point for a follow-up egg counting. In the present study, we re-analyzed both the kinetics of worm expulsion and egg output for Ascaris lumbricoides following a single oral dose of albendazole in a series of studies previously conducted in Kenyan communities...
January 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Mónica Morales, Pedro Martínez-Paz, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can mimic the action of oestrogens by interacting with hormone receptors, is potentially able to influence reproductive functions in vertebrates and invertebrates. The freshwater pulmonate Physa acuta is a sensitive organism to xenobiotics appropriate for aquatic toxicity testing in environmental studies. This study was conducted to explore the effects of BPA on the Gastropoda endocrine system. The effects following a range of exposure times (5-96h) to BPA in P...
January 31, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marcin Grześkowiak, Zbigniew Krawiecki, Wojciech Łabędź, Jacek Kaczmarczyk, Jacek Lewandowski, Dawid Łochyński
CONTEXT: Kinesio taping® (KT) is a therapeutic modality frequently used in the clinical practice for the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. It is often applied in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) to decrease pain and improve functional capacity. However, it is not known, whether thoracolumbar fascia Kinesio Taping® (KT) technique can decrease back pain, restore normal activity of paraspinal muscles and improve functional capacity in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Jessica Mandrioli, Sara Angela Malerba, Ettore Beghi, Nicola Fini, Antonio Fasano, Elisabetta Zucchi, Silvia De Pasqua, Carlo Guidi, Emilio Terlizzi, Elisabetta Sette, Alessandro Ravasio, Mario Casmiro, Fabrizio Salvi, Rocco Liguori, Lucia Zinno, Yasmin Handouk, Romana Rizzi, Annamaria Borghi, Rita Rinaldi, Doriana Medici, Mario Santangelo, Enrico Granieri, Vittoria Mussuto, Marina Aiello, Salvatore Ferro, Marco Vinceti
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective population-based registry study on ALS survival, we investigated the role of riluzole treatment, together with other clinical factors, on the prognosis in incident ALS cases in Emilia Romagna Region (ERR), Italy. METHODS: A registry for ALS has been collecting all incident cases in ERR since 2009. Detailed clinical data from all patients diagnosed with ALS between 1.1.2009 and 31.12.2014 have been analyzed for this study, with last follow up date set at 31...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Rachel S Morris, Jessica Ruck, Alison M Conca-Cheng, Thomas J Smith, Thomas W Carver, Fabian M Johnston
BACKGROUND: Surgical patients increasingly have more comorbidities and are of an older age, complicating surgical decision-making in emergent situations. Little is known about surgeons' perceptions of shared decision-making in these settings. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with practicing surgeons at two large academic medical centers. Thirteen questions and two case vignettes were used to assess perceptions of decision-making, considerations when deciding whether to offer surgery, and communication patterns with patients and families...
January 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Marco Bo, Magdalena Niegowska, Gian Luca Erre, Marco Piras, Maria Giovanna Longu, Pierangela Manchia, Mario Manca, Giuseppe Passiu, Leonardo A Sechi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive joint damage due to largely unknown environmental factors acting in concert with risk alleles conferring genetic susceptibility. A major role has been attributed to viral infections that include past contacts with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, more recently, to non-protein coding sequences of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) integrated in the human genome. Molecular mimicry between viral and self proteins is supposed to cause the loss of immune tolerance in predisposed hosts...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Young-Ok Son, Jang-Soo Chun
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is a leading cause of disability with a large socioeconomic cost. OA is a whole-joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, synovial inflammation, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone sclerosis. To date, however, no effective disease-modifying therapies for OA have been developed. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), a family of orphan nuclear receptor transcription factors, are composed of ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ, which play diverse biological functions such as cellular energy metabolism...
January 25, 2018: BMB Reports
Tetsuya Fujimura, Kenichi Takayama, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely prescribed for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) to control key signaling pathways via androgen receptor (AR) and AR-collaborative transcriptional factors; however, PC gradually acquires a lethal phenotype and results in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during ADT. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in clinical practice. In addition, ARs; estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ); and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs; ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) have been reported to be involved in the development or regulation of PC...
January 23, 2018: Cancers
Cari M Kitahara, Dale L Preston, Gila Neta, Mark P Little, Michele M Doody, Steven L Simon, Alice J Sigurdson, Bruce H Alexander, Martha S Linet
Although childhood exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer, the risk associated with adulthood exposure remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between cumulative, low-to-moderate dose occupational radiation exposure to the thyroid and thyroid cancer incidence in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort. The study included 89,897 members who completed at least two of four mailed questionnaires and were cancer-free at the time of the first questionnaire...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Marco Bo, Gian Luca Erre, Magdalena Niegowska, Marco Piras, Loredana Taras, Maria Giovanna Longu, Giuseppe Passiu, Leonardo A Sechi
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterised by a pro-inflammatory cytokines linked erosive joint damage and by humoral and cellular response against a broad range of self-peptides. Molecular mimicry between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and host peptides has long been regarded as an RA pathogenetic mechanism. Using bioinformatic analysis we identified high sequence homology among interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), EBV antigen BOLF1 and MAP antigen MAP_4027...
January 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Richard W Harbron, Claire-Louise Chapple, John J O'Sullivan, Choonsik Lee, Kieran McHugh, Manuel Higueras, Mark S Pearce
Children and young adults with heart disease appear to be at increased risk of developing cancer, although the reasons for this are unclear. A cohort of 11,270 individuals, who underwent cardiac catheterizations while aged ≤ 22 years in the UK, was established from hospital records. Radiation doses from cardiac catheterizations and CT scans were estimated. The cohort was matched with the NHS Central Register and NHS Transplant Registry to determine cancer incidence and transplantation status. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with associated confidence intervals (CI) were calculated...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Ashley C Crimmins, Ambrose H Wong, James W Bonz, Alina Tsyrulnik, Karen Jubanyik, James D Dziura, Kelly L Dodge, Leigh V Evans
INTRODUCTION: Although error disclosure is critical in promoting safety and patient-centered care, physicians are inconsistently trained in its practice, and few objective methods to assess competence exist. We used an immersive simulation scenario to determine whether providers with varying levels of clinical experience adhere to the disclosure safe practice guidelines when exposed to a serious adverse event simulation scenario. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study with medical students, junior emergency medicine (EM) residents (PGY 1-2), senior EM residents (PGY 3-4), and attending EM physicians participating in a simulated case in which a scripted medication overdose resulted in an adverse event...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
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