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Respiratory medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223018/targeting-oxidant-dependent-mechanisms-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases-and-their-comorbidities
#1
REVIEW
Neil C Thomson
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, such as COPD and its comorbidities, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and radiation pneumonitis. Antioxidants drugs, such as small molecule thiols, nuclear erythroid-2 related factor 2 activators and catalytic enzyme mimetics have been developed to target oxidant-dependent mechanisms. The therapeutic effects of antioxidants have been generally disappointing. A small number of antioxidants are approved for clinical use, such as the small molecule thiol N-acetyl-l-cysteine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in the United States, the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 for severe radiation pneumonitis...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222852/free-breathing-whole-heart-3d-cine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-prospective-respiratory-motion-compensation
#2
Mehdi H Moghari, Ashita Barthur, Maria E Amaral, Tal Geva, Andrew J Powell
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a new prospective respiratory motion compensation algorithm for free-breathing whole-heart 3D cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging. METHODS: In a 3D cine SSFP sequence, 4 excitations per cardiac cycle are re-purposed to prospectively track heart position. Specifically, their 1D image is reconstructed and routed into the scanner's standard diaphragmatic navigator processing system. If all 4 signals are in end-expiration, cine image data from the entire cardiac cycle is accepted for image reconstruction...
December 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221893/cardioprotective-effect-of-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Andrzej Ciszewski
Due to the wide interaction between the respiratory and the circulatory systems, influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review summarizes the results of recent studies and meta-analyses demonstrating that in this group of high-risk patients both vaccinations have potentially beneficial properties. However, in the era of Evidence Base Medicine, there is still a lack of randomized prospective clinical trials, especially those evaluating the effect of pneumococcal vaccination...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217935/bronchoscopy-in-nigerian-clinical-practice-a-survey-of-medical-doctors-perception-use-and-associated-challenges
#4
Adekunle Olatayo Adeoti, Olufemi Olumuyiwa Desalu, Joseph Olusesan Fadare, Wemimo Alaofin, Cajetan Chigozie Onyedum
Background: Bronchoscopy is a vital diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in pulmonological practice. The aim of this study was to determine the perception, use and challenges encountered by Nigerian medical doctors involved in this procedure. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 medical doctors recruited from three major tertiary institutions in Nigeria between September 2013 and June 2014. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered to adult physicians, paediatricians, and surgeons as well as their trainees to obtain their perception, use and associated challenges in the use of bronchoscopy in clinical practice...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214185/administration-of-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-during-mouse-pregnancy-and-lactation-stimulates-innate-but-not-adaptive-immunity-of-the-offspring
#5
Sławomir Lewicki, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Aleksandra Brewczyńska, Robert Zdanowski
The use of antibiotics during pregnancy and lactation is associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders. One of the natural medicinal plants-Rhodiola kirilowii, widely used as an immunostimulant in adults-might be a good alternative to antibiotic treatment. The aim of present study was to assess whether daily oral administration of 20 mg/kg of Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous (RKW) or 50% hydroalcoholic (RKW-A) extracts affected hematological and immunological parameters of 6-week-old mouse progeny...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214157/towards-a-global-initiative-for-fibrosis-treatment-gift
#6
Maria Molina-Molina, Alvar Agusti, Bruno Crestani, David A Schwartz, Melanie Königshoff, Rachel C Chambers, Toby M Maher, Rosa Faner, Ana Lucia Mora, Mauricio Rojas, Katerina M Antoniou, Jacobo Sellares
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease characterised by increased scarring of lung tissue. Despite the recent introduction of novel drugs that slow disease progression, IPF remains a deadly disease, and the benefits of these new drugs differ markedly between patients. Human diseases arise due to alterations in an almost limitless network of interconnected genes, proteins, metabolites, cells and tissues, in direct relationship with a continuously changing macro- or microenvironment...
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209419/breathe-palliative-care-in-respiratory-medicine
#7
Renata L Riha
The December issue of Breathe focuses on palliative care in respiratory disease http://ow.ly/LN5130fTQus.
December 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205419/community-pharmacists-leaders-for-antibiotic-stewardship-in-respiratory-tract-infection
#8
S Essack, J Bell, A Shephard
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hospital-based pharmacists are established antibiotic stewards, but the potential for community pharmacists is largely untapped. This commentary explores the potential leadership role of the community pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship using upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) as an example. COMMENT: Community pharmacists are well placed for antibiotic stewardship, possessing the capability (knowledge of medicines), opportunity (contact with prescribers and patients) and inherent commitment...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202543/-experts-consensus-on-the-management-of-the-right-heart-function-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
X T Wang, D W Liu, H M Zhang, Y Long, X D Guan, H B Qiu, K J Yu, J Yan, H Zhao, Y Q Tang, X Ding, X C Ma, W Du, Y Kang, B Tang, Y H Ai, H W He, D C Chen, H Chen, W Z Chai, X Zhou, N Cui, H Wang, X Rui, Z J Hu, J G Li, Y Xu, Y Yang, B Ouyan, H Y Lin, Y M Li, X Y Wan, R L Yang, Y Z Qin, Y G Chao, Z Y Xie, R H Sun, Z Y He, D F Wang, Q Q Huang, D P Jiang, X Y Cao, R G Yu, X Wang, X K Chen, J F Wu, L N Zhang, M G Yin, L X Liu, S W Li, Z J Chen, Z Luo
To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197437/periodontal-diseases-and-systemic-disorders-what-do-our-doctors-know-a-general-practitioner-s-survey-conducted-in%C3%A2-southern-france
#10
Vinel Alexia, Vachon Chloé, Barthet Pierre, Laurencin-Dalicieux Sara
OBJECTIVES: With 39,359 entries on PubMed, periodontal medicine has a prominent position in periodontal research. Good patient care requires well-advised physicians, and whereas the dental community is informed about the relationships between periodontal diseases (PDs) and an increasing number of systemic pathologies, we wondered whether general practitioners were too. Thus, we aimed to evaluate their knowledge of the links between periodontal and systemic diseases. METHODS: To this end, we sent an electronic questionnaire to the 2350 general practitioners registered to the URPS (Union régionale des Professionnels de Santé) of Midi-Pyrénées, France...
December 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196879/the-feasibility-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-forensic-medicine-illustrated-by-the-example-of-morphine
#11
Nadine Schaefer, Daniel Moj, Thorsten Lehr, Peter H Schmidt, Frank Ramsthaler
In forensic medicine, expert opinion is often required concerning dose and time of intake of a substance, especially in the context of fatal intoxications. In the present case, a 98-year-old man died 4 days after admission to a hospital due to a femur neck fracture following a domestic fall in his retirement home. As he had obtained high morphine doses in the context of palliative therapy and a confusion of his supplemental magnesium tablets with a diuretic by the care retirement home was suspected by the relatives, a comprehensive postmortem examination was performed...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193260/racer-grasp-respiratory-weighted-aortic-contrast-enhancement-guided-and-coil-unstreaking-golden-angle-radial-sparse-mri
#12
Li Feng, Chenchan Huang, Krishna Shanbhogue, Daniel K Sodickson, Hersh Chandarana, Ricardo Otazo
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a novel dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging technique called RACER-GRASP (Respiratory-weighted, Aortic Contrast Enhancement-guided and coil-unstReaking Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) MRI that extends GRASP to include automatic contrast bolus timing, respiratory motion compensation, and coil-weighted unstreaking for improved imaging performance in liver MRI. METHODS: In RACER-GRASP, aortic contrast enhancement (ACE) guided k-space sorting and respiratory-weighted sparse reconstruction are performed using aortic contrast enhancement and respiratory motion signals extracted directly from the acquired data...
November 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189528/incidence-and-diagnostic-evaluation-of-postoperative-fever-in-pediatric-patients-with-neuromuscular-disorders
#13
Mohamed A A Yousef, Darius Dranginis, Scott Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Children with neuromuscular disorders have a significant chance of developing scoliosis and/or hip dislocation during childhood and adolescence and often undergo surgical reconstruction. Because of their high rate of medical comorbidities, these patients are at higher risk of postoperative complications and are therefore often comanaged, along with orthopaedics, by pediatric medicine and critical care teams. Fever during the postoperative stay is a frequent occurrence and often prompts extensive diagnostic workup which increases the cost and burden on the health system but have unclear effects on the care of the patient...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184413/near-fatal-asthma-responsive-to-mepolizumab-after-failure-of-omalizumab-and-bronchial-thermoplasty
#14
Francesco Menzella, Carla Galeone, Mirco Lusuardi, Anna Simonazzi, Claudia Castagnetti, Patrizia Ruggiero, Nicola Facciolongo
Severe asthma affects between 5% and 10% of patients with asthma worldwide and requires best standard therapies at maximal doses, but there is a subgroup of patients refractory to all treatments. We share a case report of a 53-year-old woman with a history of severe allergic asthma that progressively worsened over the years despite the best therapy. She had been hospitalized 35 times, including nine admissions to the respiratory intensive care unit due to severe exacerbations. To rule out other possible diagnoses, several investigations were performed, such as computed tomography scan of the chest and neck, fiberoptic laryngoscopy, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and complete blood cell count...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182886/school-nurses-on-the-front-lines-of-medicine-take-a-breath-the-approach-to-a-student-with-respiratory-distress
#15
Morgann Loaec, Robert P Olympia
Students presenting with varying degrees of respiratory symptoms and distress occur commonly in the school setting. It is important to develop a differential diagnosis for respiratory distress, to initiate stabilization of the student with life-threatening symptoms, and to triage these students to an appropriate level of care (back to the classroom, home with their guardian with follow up at their primary health care provider's office, or directly to the closest emergency department via Emergency Medical Services)...
November 1, 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181006/protective-effect-of-panax-notoginseng-root-water-extract-against-influenza-a-virus-infection-by-enhancing-antiviral-interferon-mediated-immune-responses-and-natural-killer-cell-activity
#16
Jang-Gi Choi, Young-Hee Jin, Heeeun Lee, Tae Woo Oh, Nam-Hui Yim, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by the influenza A virus, which causes economic losses and social disruption mainly by increasing hospitalization and mortality rates among the elderly and people with chronic diseases. Influenza vaccines are the most effective means of preventing seasonal influenza, but can be completely ineffective if there is an antigenic mismatch between the seasonal vaccine virus and the virus circulating in the community. In addition, influenza viruses resistant to antiviral drugs are emerging worldwide...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180257/insights-on-animal-models-to-investigate-inhalation-therapy-relevance-for-biotherapeutics
#17
REVIEW
A Guillon, T Sécher, L A Dailey, L Vecellio, M De Monte, M Si-Tahar, P Diot, C P Page, N Heuzé-Vourc'h
Acute and chronic respiratory diseases account for major causes of illness and deaths worldwide. Recent developments of biotherapeutics opened a new era in the treatment and management of patients with respiratory diseases. When considering the delivery of therapeutics, the inhaled route offers great promises with a direct, non-invasive access to the diseased organ and has already proven efficient for several molecules. To assist in the future development of inhaled biotherapeutics, experimental models are crucial to assess lung deposition, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179708/comparing-doctors-legal-compliance-across-three-australian-states-for-decisions-whether-to-withhold-or-withdraw-life-sustaining-medical-treatment-does-different-law-lead-to-different-decisions
#18
Ben P White, Lindy Willmott, Colleen Cartwright, Malcolm Parker, Gail Williams, Juliet Davis
BACKGROUND: Law purports to regulate end-of-life care but its role in decision-making by doctors is not clear. This paper, which is part of a three-year study into the role of law in medical practice at the end of life, investigates whether law affects doctors' decision-making. In particular, it considers whether the fact that the law differs across Australia's three largest states - New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and Queensland - leads to doctors making different decisions about withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from adults who lack capacity...
November 28, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179596/celastrol-attenuates-impairments-associated-with-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards-in-rats
#19
Yongjun Wei, Yu Wang
Celastrol, a constituent from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb belonging to the family Celastraceae, has been shown to impart anti-inflammatory properties, in part, by inhibiting NF-κB activity and related induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine formation/release. The present study investigated the effects of celastrol in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Celastrol pre-treatment groups received celastrol by intraperitoneal injection on seven consecutive days before LPS treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176994/antiobesity-potential-of-piperonal-promising-modulation-of-body-composition-lipid-profiles-and-obesogenic-marker-expression-in-hfd-induced-obese-rats
#20
Balaji Meriga, Brahmanaidu Parim, Venkata Rao Chunduri, Ramavat Ravindar Naik, Harishankar Nemani, Pothani Suresh, Saravanan Ganapathy, Satthi Babu Vvu
Background: Black pepper or Piper nigrum is a well-known spice, rich in a variety of bioactive compounds, and widely used in many cuisines across the world. In the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it is used to treat gastric and respiratory ailments. The purpose of this investigation is to study the antihyperlipidemic and antiobesity effects of piperonal in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Methods: Piperonal, an active constituent of Piper nigrum seeds, was isolated and confirmed by HPLC, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
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