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Hasmet Yazici, Sedat Doğan, Mehmet Akif Sönmez, Olcay Eser
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary surgery involving different techniques is often applied to the excision of benign adenomas. Operative interventions involved various approaches and techniques. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is the less traumatic route to the sella turcica, avoiding brain retraction, and also permitting good visualization, with lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Although mortality of pituitary surgery decreased by advances in surgical techniques morbidities such as synechiae formation, anosmia, bleeding, nasal septal perforations, drying, and incrustation due to traumatization of the nasal structures such as septum, nasal mucosa, and middle concha are the current problems in pituitary surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Jörn Lötsch, Thomas Hummel, Alfred Ultsch
The human sense of smell is often analyzed as being composed of three main components comprising olfactory threshold, odor discrimination and the ability to identify odors. A relevant distinction of the three components and their differential changes in distinct disorders remains a research focus. The present data-driven analysis aimed at establishing a cluster structure in the pattern of olfactory subtest results. Therefore, unsupervised machine-learning was applied onto olfactory subtest results acquired in 10,714 subjects with nine different olfactory pathologies...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Il Gyu Kong, So Young Kim, Min-Su Kim, Bumjung Park, Jin-Hwan Kim, Hyo Geun Choi
BACKGROUND: Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. METHODS: A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012...
2016: PloS One
Nader Salama
BACKGROUND: Kallmann syndrome (Kal S) is an isolated form of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in combination with a defect in smell sensation. Depending on the genetic form of the disease, a number of non-reproductive, non-olfactory abnormalities may also be existent. In the present report, we describe a male with Kal S associated with hearing loss, and the successful treatment of his sexual and reproductive defects. CASE: A 23-year-old Caucasian man presented with a lifelong lack of erection and ejaculation...
August 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Samantha Hagerty, Yasmine Daniels, Melissa Singletary, Oleg Pustovyy, Ludmila Globa, William A MacCrehan, Shin Muramoto, Gheorghe Stan, June W Lau, Edward E Morrison, Iryna Sorokulova, Vitaly Vodyanoy
Electrical responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants were examined in the presence of zinc nanoparticles of various sizes and degrees of oxidation. The zinc nanoparticles were prepared by the underwater electrical discharge method and analyzed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Small (1.2 ± 0.3 nm) zinc nanoparticles significantly enhanced electrical responses of olfactory neurons to odorants. After oxidation, however, these small zinc nanoparticles were no longer capable of enhancing olfactory responses...
September 20, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Masatoshi Yunoki, Kenta Suzuki, Atsuhito Uneda, Kimihiro Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare, aggressive tumor of the nasal cavity. It may invade the paranasal cavities and anterior skull base locally but may also metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes, lungs, or distant central nervous system. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a case of ONB in which emergency surgery was performed for intradural spinal metastasis (ISM). The patient was a 52-year-old male who underwent surgery for ONB. The tumor extended from the nasal cavity to the intracranial space and was resected completely...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Peyman Petramfar, Farideh Hosseinzadeh, S Saeed Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Luigi Maione, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Jérôme Nevoux, Jérôme Bouligand, Jacques Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Lütfi Postalci, İbrahim Erdim, Bülent Demirgil, Ömür Günaldi, Murad Asiltürk, Hakan Demirci, Hakan Kina, Uzay Erdoğan, Mine Yazici, Erhan Emel
AIM: Major complications from microscopic transnasal hypophyseal surgery (MTHS), such as cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, carotid injury, and optic nerve injury, are very rare. However, late rhinological complications can be ignored because they are a minor cause of morbidity compared with major complications. In this study, we extensively examined postoperative rhinological complications in patients who underwent MTHS for pituitary adenoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma, who underwent MTHS and whose preoperative nasal examinations were recorded between January 2007 and January 2014, were included in the study...
October 2, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
Gürkan Kayabaşoglu, Aytug Altundag, Dilcan Kotan, Denizhan Dizdar, Recep Kaymaz
Olfactory dysfunction and migraine has been associated for a long time. In this study, we planned to compare olfactory functions in patients with migraine and osmophobia with patients having migraine but no osmophobia, in addition with a normal control group using "Sniffin' Sticks" test. The main distinction of this study is that all qualitative and quantitative properties of olfactory functions; threshold, discrimination and identification, are evaluated separately and jointly. Thirty healthy person aged between 16 and 56 (18 women, 12 men) and 60 migraine patients aged between 15 and 54 (39 women, 21 man) were included in the study...
August 30, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Jörn Lötsch, Alfred Ultsch, Thomas Hummel
In the clinical diagnosis of olfactory function, 2 quantitative extremes of either lost or normal olfactory function are in the focus while no particular attention is directed at the interval between the 2 main diagnoses of "anosmia" or "normosmia", respectively. We analyzed the modal distribution of olfactory scores with the intention to describe a complex human olfactory pathology in a unifying model. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, olfactory performance scores acquired from 10714 individuals by means of a clinically established psychophysical test were analyzed with respect to their modal distribution by fitting a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to the data...
August 26, 2016: Chemical Senses
Vincent Kyu Lee, Raffaele Nardone, Fern Wasco, Ashok Panigrahy, Giulio Zuccoli
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging may help in elucidating the pathophysiology of post-traumatic anosmia. METHOD: Using an fMRI olfactory stimulus paradigm, this study compared BOLD activation of the brain in a 21-year old male research subject with post-traumatic anosmia and a 19-year old male normal healthy control participant. OUTCOMES: A delayed activation of the primary orbitofrontal cortex was found in the subject with traumatic anosmia, which may represent a crucial pathophysiological mechanism in the subject with traumatic anosmia due to axonal injury or traumatic transection at the lamina cribrosa level...
August 26, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Katherine L Whitcroft, Mandy Cuevas, Antje Haehner, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether the pattern of olfactory impairment seen in psychophysical testing reflects underlying disease etiology. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,226 patients from our tertiary referral center. Only hyposmic patients with the following conditions were included: postinfectious hyposmia, posttraumatic hyposmia, hyposmia secondary to sinonasal disease, and hyposmia secondary to Parkinson disease...
August 24, 2016: Laryngoscope
Marcin Fraczek, Maciej Guzinski, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Tomasz Krecicki
The aim of the study was to compare visualisation of the surgically relevant anatomical structures via low- and standard-dose multidetector CT protocol in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and higher risk for perioperative complications (i.e. presence of bronchial asthma, history of sinus surgery and advanced nasal polyposis). 135 adult CRS patients were divided randomly into standard-dose (120 kVp, 100 mAs) or low-dose CT groups (120 kVp, 45 mAs). The detectability of the vital anatomical structures (anterior ethmoid artery, optic nerve, cribriform plate and lamina papyracea) was scored using a five-point scale (from excellent to unacceptable) by a radiologist and sinus surgeon...
August 23, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Rodger A Weddell, Rodger L Wood
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often express concern that their personality has changed. Factors generating that conclusion are rarely explored quantitatively. Accordingly, this study examines neurobehavioural correlates of self-reported personality change. METHODS: Seventy-one participants and informants were interviewed M = 57.9 (SD = 46.9) months after a moderate-severe TBI. The degree of self-reported personality change was correlated with scores on measures of general cognitive functioning, executive functioning, olfaction, social-emotional behaviour, emotional distress and the Expressed Emotion close informants directed towards them...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Emine Güven Sakalar, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Murat Kar, Cemal Cingi
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to the combination of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, and acute upper and lower respiratory tract reactions to the ingestion of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) and other cyclooxygenase-1 inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AERD affects 0.3-0.9 % of the general population. AERD generally occurs due to abnormalities in mediators and expression of arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Local IgE responses to staphylococcal enterotoxins may also be responsible for eosinophilic activation in the nasal polyp tissues of AERD patients...
August 18, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Prashant Malhotra, Arthur Luka, Carla S McWilliams, Kaitlin G Poeth, Rebecca Schwartz, Mohammed Elfekey, Sandy Balwan
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory viral illnesses (RVI) are reliably diagnosed by respiratory viral panel using polymerase chain reaction (RVP-PCR); however, owing to the scant data, clinical presentation alone is unreliable in establishing viral etiology. The primary objective of this study was to characterize signs and symptoms of RVI among inpatients in a major tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, adult inpatients with RVI undergoing RVP-PCR were prospectively enrolled in our study...
August 2016: Southern Medical Journal
P F Herkert, F Hagen, G L de Oliveira Salvador, R R Gomes, M S Ferreira, V A Vicente, M D Muro, R L Pinheiro, J F Meis, F Queiroz-Telles
Cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, is an emerging disease that was initially found in (sub)tropical regions but recently expanded to temperate regions. Cryptococcus gattii s.l. infections are mostly encountered in healthy individuals, frequently affecting both lungs and the central nervous system (CNS). Usually, C. gattii s.l. is less susceptible to antifungal compounds than its counterpart, C. neoformans s.l. We studied 18 clinical C. gattii s.l. isolates with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, mating-typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antifungal susceptibility testing...
November 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Zachary M Soler, Preeti Kohli, Kristina A Storck, Rodney J Schlosser
Differences in testing modalities and cut-points used to define olfactory dysfunction contribute to the wide variability in estimating the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of olfactory impairment using each component of the Sniffin' Sticks test (threshold, discrimination, identification, and total score) with age-adjusted and ideal cut-points from normative populations. Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for CRS were enrolled from rhinology clinics at a tertiary academic center...
July 28, 2016: Chemical Senses
Christopher Le, Hilary C McCrary, Eugene Chang
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene(CFTR) resulting in impaired ion transport. Nearly all people with CF will develop chronic rhino-sinusitis (CRS) and present with the characteristic viscous mucus, impaired mucociliary clearance and chronic inflammation/infection of the sinonasal cavity. While some individuals with CF can appear relatively asymptomatic in terms of their sinus disease, commonly reported symptoms include anosmia, headache, facial pain, nasal obstruction, chronic congestion and nasal discharge...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
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