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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741969/frequency-and-prognostic-factors-of-olfactory-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Mette Bratt, Toril Skandsen, Thomas Hummel, Kent G Moen, Anne Vik, Ståle Nordgård, Anne-S Helvik
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and factors associated with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction, including anosmia, in a follow-up of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The setting was a cross-sectional study of patients that were consecutively included in the Trondheim TBI database, comprising injury-related variables. Eligible participants 18-65 years were contacted 9-104 months post trauma and asked olfactory-related questions...
May 9, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730147/development-of-an-international-odor-identification-test-for-children-the-universal-sniff-test
#2
Valentin A Schriever, Eduardo Agosin, Aytug Altundag, Hadas Avni, Helene Cao Van, Carlos Cornejo, Gonzalo de Los Santos, Gad Fishman, Claudio Fragola, Marco Guarneros, Neelima Gupta, Robyn Hudson, Reda Kamel, Antti Knaapila, Iordanis Konstantinidis, Basile N Landis, Maria Larsson, Johan N Lundström, Alberto Macchi, Franklin Mariño-Sánchez, Lenka Martinec Nováková, Eri Mori, Joaquim Mullol, Marie Nord, Valentina Parma, Carl Philpott, Evan J Propst, Ahmed Rawan, Mari Sandell, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski, Lisa-Marie Sparing-Paschke, Carolin Stetzler, Claudia Valder, Jan Vodicka, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: To assess olfactory function in children and to create and validate an odor identification test to diagnose olfactory dysfunction in children, which we called the Universal Sniff (U-Sniff) test. STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter study involving 19 countries. The U-Sniff test was developed in 3 phases including 1760 children age 5-7 years. Phase 1: identification of potentially recognizable odors; phase 2: selection of odorants for the odor identification test; and phase 3: evaluation of the test and acquisition of normative data...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726667/-kallmann-syndrome-with-deafness-caused-by-sox10-mutation-advances-in-research
#3
REVIEW
Xi Zhou, Wei-Wei Li, Qiu-Yue Wu, Mao-Mao Yu, Xin-Yi Xia
The transcription factor SOX10, as a major actor in the development of the neural crest, plays a key role in the maintenance of progenitor cell multipotency, lineage specification, and cell differentiation. Abnormalities of neural crest development in humans lead to a number of genetic diseases known as neurocristopathies or neural crest disorders. The mutation of SOX10 can cause Kallmann syndrome (KS), which is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition and defined by the association between anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to incomplete migration of neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells along the olfactory, vomeronasal, and terminal nerves...
September 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719895/-assessment-of-olfactory-and-gustatory-function-with-validated-tests
#4
Önder Göktas, Susann Fräßdorf, Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Pengfei Han, Thomas Hummel
Approximately 5 % of the general population is affected by functional anosmia. An additional 15 % exhibit decreased olfactory function. Many of these individuals ask ENT-doctors or neurologists for help. A cornerstone of the counselling process is the assessment of olfactory function. The aim of this work is to give a differentiated overview about the administration of commonly used psychophysical tests for olfactory and gustatory function including their normative data. The use of standardized, reliable and validated tools is mandatory to provide patients with state-of the-art counseling on treatment options...
May 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719130/activation-of-the-rat-olfactory-bulb-by-direct-ventral-stimulation-after-nerve-transection
#5
Daniel H Coelho, Leandro D Socolovsky, Richard M Costanzo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate how direct electrical stimulation can activate the olfactory bulb after denervation of the olfactory nerve input. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were anesthetized and olfactory bulbs exposed. Olfactory nerves were transected by passing a Teflon blade between the cribriform plate and ventral surface of the bulb. A cochlear implant electrode array was used to stimulate 6 different positions along the ventral surface of the olfactory bulb...
May 2, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699465/alterations-of-brain-grey-matter-density-and-olfactory-bulb-volume-in-patients-with-olfactory-loss-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Pengfei Han, Nicole Winkler, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Johannes Gerber, Thomas Hummel
Olfactory loss and traumatic brain injury (TBI) both lead to anatomical brain alterations in humans. Little research has been done on the structural brain changes for TBI patients with olfactory loss. Using voxel-based morphometry, the grey matter (GM) density was examined for twenty-two TBI patients with hyposmia, twenty-four TBI patients with anosmia, and twenty-two age-matched controls. Olfactory bulb (OB) volumes were measured by manual segmentation of acquired T2 weighted coronal slices using a standardized protocol...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692900/a-case-of-kallmann-syndrome-associated-with-a-non-functional-pituitary-microadenoma
#7
Taieb Ach, Hela Marmouch, Dorra Elguiche, Asma Achour, Hajer Marzouk, Hanene Sayadi, Ines Khochtali, Mondher Golli
Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in combination with a defect in sense of smell, due to abnormal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-producing neurons. We report a case of a 17-year-old Tunisian male who presented with eunuchoid body proportions, absence of facial, axillary and pubic hair, micropenis and surgically corrected cryptorchidism. Associated findings included anosmia. Karyotype was 46XY and hormonal measurement hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. MRI of the brain showed bilateral agenesis of the olfactory bulbs and 3...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685531/imaging-sinonasal-disease-with-mri-providing-insight-over-and-above-ct
#8
REVIEW
Geoiphy George Pulickal, Annakan V Navaratnam, Thi Nguyen, Alina Denisa Dragan, Magdalena Dziedzic, Ravi K Lingam
This article illustrates and discusses the applications and value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of sinonasal disease. There are several clinical scenarios where MRI can add value over conventional computed tomography (CT) evaluation of the sinonasal spaces. Specifically, MRI can provide insight through better depiction of the anatomy of certain sinonasal sub-sites including the olfactory structures. It can aid in evaluating anosmia, sinusitis (fungal sinusitis and complications), benign and malignant lesions, CSF leaks and pathology extending into sinonasal spaces...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678855/de-novo-sox10-nonsense-mutation-in-a-patient-with-kallmann-syndrome-deafness-iris-hypopigmentation-and-hyperthyroidism
#9
Fang Wang, Shaoli Zhao, Yanhong Xie, Wenjun Yang, Zhaohui Mo
Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and olfactory dysfunction. Recently, mutations in SOX10, a well-known causative gene of Waardenburg syndrome (WS), have been identified in a few KS patients with additional developmental defects including hearing loss. However, the understanding of SOX10 mutation associates with KS and other clinical consequences remains fragmentary. A 30-year-old Chinese male patient presented with no pubertal sex development when he was at the age of twelve years...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669134/giant-olfactory-groove-meningioma-2-staged-approach-2-dimensional-operative-video
#10
Alexandre B Todeschini, Mostafa Shahein, Alaa S Montaser, Douglas Hardesty, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau, Daniel M Prevedello
A 42-yr-old female presented with an olfactory groove meningioma causing progressive vision loss and anosmia. Given the size of the tumor, we opted for a 2-stage surgery: endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) followed by a craniotomy. Stage I surgery was a transcribriform transplanum EEA using a binostril 4-hand/2 surgeons (ENT and neuro) technique, with the patient positioned supine with the head slightly turned to the right side and tilted to the left, fixed in a 3-pin head clamp, under imaging guidance, in which we drilled out all the affected skull base bone, devascularized and debulked the tumor...
April 16, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628602/anosmia-after-caudal-epidural-steroid-injection
#11
Ayhan Kaydu, Ebru Tarikçi Kiliç, Erhan Gökçek, Cem Kivilcim Kaçar
There are no reports for anosmia after caudal epidural steroid injections (CESIs). General anesthesia is among the reasons, but the reports up to date are extremely limited. There are no identifiable factors contributing to anosmia after epidural injection, so it is worth discussing. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with no previous history of any sensory deficits. She experienced anosmia after CESI that had been performed due to her chronic low back pain and lasted for 4 months. Clinical and imaging studies did not reveal any pathology...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602963/evaluation-of-superior-concha-bullosa-by-computed-tomography
#12
Kadri İla, Nihat Yilmaz, Serkan Öner, Efser Başaran, Zülal Öner
OBJECTIVE: Concha bullosa is generally regarded as pneumatisation of the middle turbinate in the nose. However, pneumatisation may also be seen in the superior and inferior turbinate. Computed tomography (CT) of paranasal sinuses is extremely helpful for the examination of this inaccessible area. Coronal CT sections of paranasal sinuses are particularly useful for surgical anatomy, as these images show nearly the same regions as the endoscopic examinations. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the presence, incidence and unilaterality-bilaterality of superior turbinate pneumatisation and concomitant nasal pathologies...
March 30, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599751/circadian-rhythms-and-clock-genes-in-reproduction-insights-from-behavior-and-the-female-rabbit-s-brain
#13
REVIEW
Mario Caba, Gabriela González-Mariscal, Enrique Meza
Clock gene oscillations are necessary for a successful pregnancy and parturition, but little is known about their function during lactation, a period demanding from the mother multiple physiological and behavioral adaptations to fulfill the requirements of the offspring. First, we will focus on circadian rhythms and clock genes in reproductive tissues mainly in rodents. Disruption of circadian rhythms or proper rhythmic oscillations of clock genes provoke reproductive problems, as found in clock gene knockout mice...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598899/anosmia-and-nasal-obstruction
#14
J J Braun, S Riehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564141/work-related-olfactory-disorder-a-case-series-and-review
#15
Soon Woo Park, Young Joong Kang, Huisu Eom, Hyun-Jin Cho, Jungho Ahn, Sang-Gil Lee
Background: The olfactory bulb is anatomically exposed and thus can be directly damaged by external stimulation. This can occur as an occupational injury owing to contact with organic solvents or other causes. We present cases of eight patients who sustained occupation-related exposure to potentially toxic substances and later presented with signs and symptoms of anosmia. We examined the occupational and medical characteristics of the patients and evaluated their work-relatedness. Case presentation: Case 1: A 50-year-old man performed high-frequency heat treatments for approximately 11 years...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542232/molecular-characterization-and-evolution-of-a-chemosensory-receptor-gene-family-in-three-notorious-rice-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-sogatella-furcifera-and-laodelphax-striatellus-based-on-genome-and-transcriptome-analyses
#16
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535093/an-unusual-manifestation-of-olfactory-neuroblastoma
#17
Zona Batacchi, Nicole K Andeen, Subbulaxmi Trikudanathan
A 62-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of worsening nasal symptoms of rhinorrhoea, anosmia, nasal congestion and intermittent epistaxis. MRI revealed a large mass in the upper nasal vault. Biopsy of the mass revealed an olfactory neuroblastoma. While waiting resection, she acutely developed severe proximal muscle weakness, lethargy and lower extremity oedema. Blood glucose was elevated, and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis was noted. Elevated serum cortisol level of 95.7 µg/dL (8.7-22.4 µg/dL) and markedly elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol level of 6962...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504730/a-pituitary-abscess-with-one-year-follow-up-after-conservative-treatment-a-case-report
#18
Ning Yuan, Sanbao Chai, Jianbin Sun, Yufang Liu, Sixu Xin, Linong Ji, Xiaomei Zhang
Pituitary abscess (PA) is a rare intrasellar infectious disease presented in less than one percent of all cases of pituitary disease.We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) exhibited with headaches, nasal discharge, anosmia, diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism due to PA, she was diagnosed based on clinical presentations, endocrine examination and MRI image features. She was treated with nasal wash and antibiotic therapy without surgical intervention. She has received hormone replacement therapy for one year and her condition has gradually become stabilized...
February 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492466/olfactory-epithelium-cells-clinical-disorders-and-insights-from-an-adult-stem-cell-niche
#19
REVIEW
Rhea Choi, Bradley J Goldstein
Disorders causing a loss of the sense of smell remain a therapeutic challenge. Basic research has, however, greatly expanded our knowledge of the organization and function of the olfactory system. This review describes advances in our understanding of the cellular components of the peripheral olfactory system, specifically the olfactory epithelium in the nose. The article discusses recent findings regarding the mechanisms involved in regeneration and cellular renewal from basal stem cells in the adult olfactory epithelium, considering the strategies involved in embryonic olfactory development and insights from research on other stem cell niches...
February 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476257/a-case-of-anosmia-and-hypogeusia-as-a-complication-of-propofol
#20
Weijia Du, Zhendong Xu, Wenjing Wang, Zhiqiang Liu
Anesthetics represent an uncommon cause of taste and smell disorders. We describe a case of anosmia and hypogeusia for 6 weeks after recovery from a uterine curettage operation in a 32-year-old woman. The case is unusual because propofol was the only anesthetic used during surgery and anesthesia. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no abnormality. This case may highly suggest that propofol could induce smell and taste disorders.
April 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
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