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Gastrointestinal medullary carcinomas

Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Lik Hang Lee, Rhonda K Yantiss, Eran Sadot, Bing Ren, Marcela Santos Calvacanti, Jaclyn F Hechtman, Sinisa Ivelja, Be Huynh, Yue Xue, Tatiana Shitilbans, Hamza Guend, Zsofia K Stadler, Martin R Weiser, Efsevia Vakiani, Mithat Gonen, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia
Colorectal medullary carcinoma, recognized by the World-Health-Organization as a distinct histologic subtype, is commonly regarded as a specific entity with an improved prognosis and unique molecular pathogenesis. A fundamental but as-yet unaddressed question, however, is whether it can be diagnosed reproducibly. In this study, by analyzing 80 colorectal adenocarcinomas whose dominant growth pattern was solid (thus encompassing medullary carcinoma and its mimics), we provided a detailed description of the morphological spectrum from "classic medullary histology" to non-medullary poorly-differentiated histologies and demonstrated significant overlapping between categories...
December 26, 2016: Human Pathology
David Altree-Tacha, Jillian Tyrrell, Faqian Li
CONTEXT: -High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoids can arise in different sites such as lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and skin. Classic neuroendocrine markers such as CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin cannot distinguish carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Recently, mouse monoclonal mASH1 has been shown to help discriminate carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas in various neoplastic sites. To date, there have been no comprehensive immunohistochemistry studies with mASH1 on nonneuroendocrine neoplasms...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jennifer Wang, Juliana Andrici, Loretta Sioson, Adele Clarkson, Amy Sheen, Mahtab Farzin, Christopher W Toon, John Turchini, Anthony J Gill
SMARCB1 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes for the protein INI1. SMARCB1 is commonly inactivated and INI1 correspondingly shows loss of expression in a range of malignant neoplasms including rhabdoid tumors, renal medullary carcinomas, and epithelioid sarcomas. Loss of INI1 expression has recently been reported in occasional gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. We sought to investigate the incidence and clinicopathological significance of INI1 loss in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Immunohistochemistry for INI1 was performed in tissue microarray (TMA) format on a well-characterized and unselected cohort of CRCs undergoing surgical resection...
September 2016: Human Pathology
Joseph R Grajo, Raj Mohan Paspulati, Dushyant V Sahani, Avinash Kambadakone
MEN1, MEN2, and MEN4 comprise a series of familial disorders involving the simultaneous occurrence of tumors in more than one endocrine organ, collectively known as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Patients with this family of disorders develop tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland, along with miscellaneous neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although some patients undergo early prophylactic surgical management, particularly in the setting of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, many develop tumors later in life...
May 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Jose Luis Muñoz de Nova, Agnieszka Dworzynska, Leyre Lorente-Poch, Juan Jose Sancho, Antonio Sitges-Serra
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes and to the lungs, liver and bones. Only one case of recurrence of MTC involving the upper gastrointestinal tract has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with MTC, who developed an upper esophageal submucosal recurrence after two previous local recurrences treated surgically and one ethanol injection. After resection of the right lateral esophageal wall, calcitonin dropped by 60% and showed a doubling time >1 year...
December 2015: Gland Surgery
Angelos Kyriacou, John McLaughlin, Akheel A Syed
Thyroid disorders commonly impact on the gastrointestinal system and may even present with gastrointestinal symptoms in isolation; for example, metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma typically presents with diarrhoea. Delays in identifying and treating the underlying thyroid dysfunction may lead to unnecessary investigations and treatment, with ongoing morbidity, and can potentially be life-threatening. Similarly, gastrointestinal diseases can impact on thyroid function tests, and an awareness of the concept and management of non-thyroidal illness is necessary to avoid giving unnecessary thyroid therapies that could potentially exacerbate the underlying gastrointestinal disease...
October 2015: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Oluwaranti F Akiyode, Adebola A Adesoye
The increasing number of newer type 2 diabetes therapies has allowed providers an increased armamentarium for the optimal management of patients with diabetes. In fact, these newer agents have unique benefits in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, they are also associated with certain adverse effects. This review article aims to describe the notable adverse effects of these newer antidiabetic therapies including the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors...
July 12, 2015: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Andrea M Isidori, Emilia Sbardella, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Mara Boschetti, Giovanni Vitale, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello
CONTEXT: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18Ffluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga- DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT)...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ugo Politti, Roberto Spisni, Gabriele Materazzi, Enke Baldini, Salvatore Ulisse, Paolo Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi
Sorafenib has been evaluated in several Phase II and III studies in patients with locally advanced/metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs), reporting partial responses, stabilization of the disease and improvement of progression-free survival. Best responses were observed in lung metastases and minimal responses in bone lesions. On the basis of these studies, sorafenib was approved for the treatment of metastatic DTC in November 2013. Few studies suggested that reduction of thyroglobulin levels, or of average standardized uptake value at the fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, could be helpful for the identification of responding patients; but further studies are needed to confirm these results...
2015: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Karijn J Pijnenburg-Kleizen, Hanneke M van Santen, David A Koolen, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN2B) is a rare syndrome characterised by the occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma at a young age in all patients, and phaeochromocytoma at a later age in half of the patients. Once a medullary thyroid carcinoma causes symptoms, it has usually already metastasised to the lymph nodes and curative treatment is seldom possible at that stage. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present two patients who had phenotypical characteristics of the MEN2B syndrome from a young age: mucosal neuromas, ptosis, a marfanoid habitus, gastrointestinal problems and crying without tears...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Arnold J Felsenfeld, Barton S Levine
Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland. Calcitonin has been preserved during the transition from ocean-based life to land dwellers and is phylogenetically older than parathyroid hormone. Calcitonin secretion is stimulated by increases in the serum calcium concentration and calcitonin protects against the development of hypercalcemia. Calcitonin is also stimulated by gastrointestinal hormones such as gastrin. This has led to the unproven hypothesis that postprandial calcitonin stimulation could play a role in the deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone after feeding...
April 2015: Clinical Kidney Journal
Jolanta Krajewska, Barbara Jarzab
INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic options for both differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have opened up during the past few years, as the key role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma has been proved. Recently, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting VEGFR vandetanib (Caprelsa) and cabozantinib (Cometriq) have been approved for advanced MTC, whereas, sorafenib (Nexavar) has been accepted to treat late-stage of DTC. Their efficacy was demonstrated in Phase III studies, compared to placebo; each of them significantly prolonged the progression-free survival...
December 2014: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sarah E Kerr, Catherine A Schnabel, Peggy S Sullivan, Yi Zhang, Vivian J Huang, Mark G Erlander, Elena F Brachtel, Sarah M Dry
A diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma is often morphologically straight-forward; however, the tumor site of origin may remain elusive in a metastatic presentation. Neuroendocrine tumor subtyping has important implications for staging and patient management. In this study, the novel use and performance of a 92-gene molecular cancer classifier for determination of the site of tumor origin are described in a series of 75 neuroendocrine tumors (44 metastatic, 31 primary; gastrointestinal (n=12), pulmonary (n=22), Merkel cell (n=10), pancreatic (n=10), pheochromocytoma (n=10), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (n=11))...
January 2014: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Emre Demirci, Meltem Ocak, Levent Kabasakal, Ahmet Araman, Yildiz Ozsoy, Bedii Kanmaz
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have suggested that PET imaging with Ga-68-labelled DOTA-somatostatin analogues such as octreotide and octreotate is useful in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and has superior value over both computed tomography and planar and SPECT somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Ga-68 DOTA-lanreotide (Ga-68-DOTA-LAN) in patients with somatostatin receptor (sst)-expressing tumours and to compare the results of Ga-68 DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotate (Ga-68-DOTA-TATE) in the same patient population...
August 2013: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Karthik Balachandran, Sadishkumar Kamalanathan, S Gopalakrishnan, K Murugananadham
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) refers to the synchronous or metachronous development of tumours in two or more endocrine organs. MEN 2B is associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma along with classic morphological features such as marfanoid habitus and mucosal neuromas. Dominantly inherited germline mutations involving the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene are responsible. Affected patients usually present in childhood with thyroid mass or gastrointestinal symptoms...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Krzysztof Labuzek, Michał Kozłowski, Dawid Szkudłapski, Patrycja Sikorska, Monika Kozłowska, Bogusław Okopień
A lot of contradictory data regarding the serious side effects of incretin-based therapies are currently available, with more being prepared or published every month. Considering the widespread use of these drugs it should be considered a priority to establish both short- and long-term risks connected with incretin treatment. We performed an extensive literature search of the PubMed database looking for articles dealing with connections between incretin-based therapies and pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer and other neoplasms...
April 2013: European Journal of Internal Medicine
G Bano, V Siedel, N Beharry, P Wilson, T Cranston, S Hodgson
We describe a case of recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism, manifested as 3 metachronous parathyroid adenomata, in a 50 year-old woman who also had Hashimoto hypothyroidism, gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), cysts in liver and kidneys, 5 intestinal polyps (one of these a villous adenoma), diverticulitis and telangiectasia of lips. She did not have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Genetic analysis of the CDC73 gene [for Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT)], MEN1 for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type1, CDKN1B for MEN4, SDHB and SDHD for Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma susceptibility, VHL for von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome, BMPR1A and SMAD4 for Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) (sequencing and MLPA), karyotype and array CGH (44 K) were all normal...
September 2013: Familial Cancer
Libero Santarpia, Giulia Bottai
The REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene and its activated signalling pathways have been shown to play an important role in cancer. RET genetic alterations including germline, somatic mutations and gene rearrangements have been demonstrated in several solid tumours, and numerous clinical trials using multikinase inhibitors containing RET as a target have shown significant activity against RET. Sorafenib and sunitinib have been approved for the treatment of renal, hepatocellular, gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuoendocrine carcinomas...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Aneta L Zygulska, Krzysztof Krzemieniecki, Anna Sowa-Staszczak
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively new targeted therapy drugs used for the treatment of metastatic clear cell kidney carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumours, thyroid carcinoma and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours during the progression of the disease. Hypothyroidism or thyroid dysfunction is often a side effect of this treatment. Therefore, monitoring of thyroid hormone levels before the beginning and during the treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a necessity. Hypothyroidism correlates with objective response to the treatment...
2012: Endokrynologia Polska
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