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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776014/association-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-with-brain-structure-uk-biobank-study
#1
Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776012/evolving-self-view-and-body-image-concerns-in-female-post-operative-bariatric-surgery-patients
#2
Tamara O Perdue, Ann Schreier, Melvin Swanson, Janice Neil, Robert Carels
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research study explores the experience of post-operative bariatric surgery patients as they adjust to diminished weight and differentiates that adjustment from the more general concept of body image. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective way to reduce weight and co-morbidities associated with obesity. Complete success requires that patients must adjust psychologically as they lose weight. If this does not occur, bariatric patients may experience a 'mind-body lag' in which the patient's internal body image lags behind the external changes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776004/knowledge-and-health-beliefs-about-gestational-diabetes-and-healthy-pregnancy-s-breastfeeding-intention
#3
Seungmi Park, Jung Lim Lee, Jang In Sun, Youngji Kim
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: If the knowledge and health beliefs relating to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy are associated with behaviours during pregnancy and lactation, this suggests potential educational interventions. BACKGROUNDS: Women with GDM are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and babies with GDM incur increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia and childhood obesity. Breastfeeding is an effective way to improve maternal and lipid metabolism of gestational diabetes mothers, and to lower the risk of T2DM after birth, to prevent conception...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775994/a-broader-understanding-of-care-managers-attitudes-of-advance-care-planning-a-concurrent-nested-design
#4
Julie Aultman, Kristin R Baughman, Ruth Ludwick
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine barriers of advance care planning (ACP) experienced by care managers (CMs) through a mixed methods approach. A concurrent nested design was used to acquire a deeper understanding of ACP, and to identify nuances between quantitative and qualitative data. BACKGROUND: Past quantitative studies on providers have identified barriers related to time, culture, knowledge, responsibility, and availability of legal documents. These barriers, and accompanying attitudes and feelings, have been taken at face value without rich qualitative data to identify under what conditions and to what extent a barrier impacts care...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775978/-initiating-a-robotic-program-for-abdominal-surgery-experiences-from-a-centre-in-germany
#5
Maximilian Brunner, Klaus Matzel, Archil Aladashvili, Christian Krautz, Robert Grützmann, Roland Croner
PURPOSE: Robotic systems are becoming increasingly important in abdominal surgery. We describe the implementation of a robotic program at a German centre for abdominal surgery, with focus on feasibility, safety, patient selection, learning curves, financial aspects and the lessons learned. METHODS: This retrospective analysis covered data on patient demographics, intra- and postoperative parameters, oncological results and costs of all robotic-assisted abdominal operations performed at our institution between August 2012 to December 2016...
May 18, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775964/time-matters-for-intersex-bodies-between-socio-medical-time-and-somatic-time
#6
Limor Meoded Danon
This article focuses on the dynamic relationships between time and intersex bodies that exist, on the one hand, in medical policy on intersex bodies and, on the other, in intersex people's subjective experiences. Time, from a sociological perspective, is a biosocial agent that establishes diagnostic practices, regulations, and treatment policy regarding intersex bodies. The systematic construction of timeframes by biomedical professionals aims to rapidly diagnose and treat intersex patients and is deeply rooted in the "dimorphic soma-gender order" (DMSGO), the imagined unified relationship of female bodies to femininity and male bodies to masculinity...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775871/associations-between-abuse-neglect-and-adhd-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood-a-prospective-nationally-representative-twin-study
#7
Adi Stern, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Louise Arseneault
Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2232 British twins, to investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also aimed to test longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775821/vermiremediation-of-metal-loid-s-via-eichornia-crassipes-phytomass-extraction-a-sustainable-technique-for-plant-amelioration
#8
Arnab Majumdar, Anil Barla, Munish Kumar Upadhyay, Dibyarpita Ghosh, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Sudhakar Srivastava, Sutapa Bose
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), imparts deficiency of soluble arsenic and other toxic metal (loid)s through rhizofiltration and phytoaccumulation. Without proper management strategy, this phytoremediation of metal (loid)s might fail and get reverted back to the environment, contaminating the nearby water bodies. This study, focused on bio-conversion of phytoremediating hyacinths, spiked with 100 times and greater arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations than the average water contamination, ranging in 58...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775801/narrative-review-on-the-effect-of-shockwave-treatment-for-management-of-upper-and-lower-extremity-musculoskeletal-conditions
#9
REVIEW
Julia M Reilly, Eric Bluman, Adam S Tenforde
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a technology that was first introduced into clinical practice in 1982 for urological conditions. Subsequent clinical applications in musculoskeletal conditions have been described in treatment of plantar fasciopathy, both upper and lower extremity tendinopathies, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, management of non-union fractures, and joint disease including avascular necrosis (AVN). The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of treatment of musculoskeletal conditions with ESWT, accounting for differences in treatment protocol and energy levels...
May 15, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775754/effects-of-micrornas-on-skeletal-muscle-development
#10
REVIEW
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775736/surgical-consent-practice-in-the-uk-following-the-montgomery-ruling-a-national-cross-sectional-questionnaire-study
#11
Chris McKinnon, Dafydd Loughran, Roísín Finn, Madeline Coxwell-Matthewman, Deva Sanjeeva Jeyaretna, Adam P Williams
BACKGROUND: The Supreme Court case of Montgomery vs Lanarkshire Health Board in 2015 was a landmark case for consent practice in the UK which shifted focus from a traditional paternalistic model of consent towards a more patient-centered approach. Widely recognised as the most significant legal judgment on informed consent in the last 30 years, the case was predicted to have a major impact on the everyday practice of surgeons working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Two years after the legal definition of informed consent was redefined, we carried out an audit of surgical consent practice across the UK to establish the impact of the Montgomery ruling on clinical practice...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775694/advance-care-planning-in-a-multi-cultural-family-centric-community-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-professionals-patients-and-caregivers-perspectives
#12
Sumytra Menon, Marijke Kars, Chetna Malhotra, Alastair V Campbell, J J M van Delden
CONTEXT: Advance care planning has been shown to improve end-of-life care but it was developed in the USA and most research has been conducted in western communities. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the attitudes and perceptions of patients with life-limiting illnesses, informal caregivers, doctors, nurses and medical social workers regarding advance care planning in a multi-cultural family-centric community. METHODS: We conducted an explorative qualitative study, using focus groups and individual in-depth interviews...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775685/phenotypic-and-genetic-resistance-traits-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-infecting-cystic-fibrosis-patients-a-french-cohort-study
#13
Nathalie Courtois, Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for chronic respiratory tract colonisation and acute exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This Gram-negative bacterium often develops multidrug resistance, which represents a therapeutic challenge. Our objective was to characterize the phenotypic and genetic β-lactam resistance traits of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from CF patients followed at Grenoble Alpes university hospital. The susceptibility to β-lactam compounds of 123 P. aeruginosa strains collected from the lower respiratory tract of 45 CF patients, between 2010 and 2014, was evaluated...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775660/the-role-of-the-egfr-signaling-pathway-in-stem-cell-differentiation-during-planarian-regeneration-and-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Sara Barberán, Francesc Cebrià
Cell signaling is essential for cells to adequately respond to their environment. One of the most evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways is that of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Transmembrane receptors with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity are activated by the binding of their corresponding ligands. This in turn activates a wide variety of intracellular cascades and induces the up- or downregulation of target genes, leading to a specific cellular response. Freshwater planarians are an excellent model in which to study the role of cell signaling in the context of stem-cell based regeneration...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775625/reduction-sensitive-polymeric-nanomedicines-an-emerging-multifunctional-platform-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#15
Huanli Sun, Yifan Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhong
The development of smart delivery systems that are robust in circulation and quickly release drugs following selective internalization into target cancer cells is a key to precision cancer therapy. Interestingly, reduction-sensitive polymeric nanomedicines showing high plasma stability and triggered cytoplasmic drug release behavior have recently emerged as one of the most exciting platforms for targeted delivery of various anticancer drugs including small chemical drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids. In vivo studies in varying tumor models reveal that these reduction-sensitive multifunctional nanomedicines outperform the currently used clinical formulations and reduction-insensitive counterparts, bringing about not only significantly enhanced tumor selectivity, accumulation and inhibition efficacy but also markedly reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic index...
May 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775603/genetic-and-extracardiac-anomalies-are-associated-with-inferior-single-ventricle-palliation-outcomes
#16
Bahaaldin Alsoufi, Courtney McCracken, Matthew Oster, Subhadra Shashidharan, Kirk Kanter
BACKGROUND: We aim to examine the effect of genetic syndromes and extracardiac anomalies (GS/EC) on single ventricle (SV) palliation with focus on hospital death, interstage mortality, and progression towards subsequent palliation stages. METHODS: 530 neonates with SV underwent first-stage palliation: Norwood (n=284,53%), shunt (n=173,33%), band (n=73,14%). Outcomes were compared between those with GS/EC (n=121,23%) and without GS/EC (n=409,77%). Regression analyses were adjusted for other risk factors (age, gender, prematurity, weight, SV anomaly, first-stage palliation surgery)...
May 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775567/characterization-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-system-in-the-neotropical-teleost-steindachneridion-parahybae-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-in-captivity
#17
Renato Massaaki Honji, Danilo Caneppele, Matias Pandolfi, Fabiana Laura Lo Nostro, Renata Guimarães Moreira
This study evaluated by immunohistochemical and western blot methods, the distribution of two distinct gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), corresponding to catfish GnRH (cfGnRH or GnRH1) and chicken-II GnRH (cGnRH-II or GnRH2), in Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, focusing these analyses on the reproductive cycle by semi-quantification of optical density (OD). Further, we found that the GnRH neuronal systems co-localized with their respective GnRH-associated peptides (GAPs). A group of neurons immunoreactive (ir) to GnRH1 were identified along the ventral region of the olfactory bulb (vOB) in the telencephalon (vTel) and in the main areas of the diencephalon (especially the medial basal hypothalamus, HBM), including fibers extending into the pituitary gland...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775542/exercise-and-circulating-bdnf-mechanisms-of-release-and-implications-for-the-design-of-exercise-interventions
#18
Jeremy James Walsh, Michael E Tschakovsky
Engagement in regular bouts of exercise confers numerous positive effects on brain health across the lifespan. Acute bouts of exercise transiently improve cognitive function, while long-term exercise training stimulates brain plasticity, improves brain function, and helps to stave off neurological disease. The action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate mechanism underlying these exercise-induced benefits and is the subject of considerable attention in the exercise-brain health literature...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775513/conflicting-priorities-observation-of-medicines-administration
#19
Johanne Alteren, Marit Hermstad, Jo White, Susan Jordan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify sources of interruptions and distractions to medicine administration rounds in hospitals. BACKGROUND: Nurses are frequently interrupted during medicine administration. There is no systematic description of nurses' behaviours and interruptions during administration of medicines to patients. DESIGN: Exploratory non-participant observational study. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-one episodes of medicines administration with 32 nurses from three hospitals in Norway were observed using paper-based observation grids between December 2013 and March 2014...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775501/educational-interventions-for-improving-primary-caregiver-complementary-feeding-practices-for-children-aged-24-months-and-under
#20
REVIEW
Dachi Arikpo, Ededet Sewanu Edet, Moriam T Chibuzor, Friday Odey, Deborah M Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Although complementary feeding is a universal practice, the methods and manner in which it is practiced vary between cultures, individuals and socioeconomic classes. The period of complementary feeding is a critical time of transition in the life of an infant, and inappropriate complementary feeding practices, with their associated adverse health consequences, remain a significant global public health problem. Educational interventions are widely acknowledged as effective in promoting public health strategy, and those aimed at improving complementary feeding practices provide information about proper complementary feeding practices to caregivers of infants/children...
May 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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