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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088125/computational-methods-for-analyzing-conformational-variability-of-macromolecular-complexes-from-cryo-electron-microscopy-images
#1
REVIEW
Slavica Jonić
Thanks to latest technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), structures of macromolecular complexes (viruses, ribosomes, etc.) are now often obtained at near-atomic resolution. Also, studies of conformational changes of complexes, in connection with their function, are gaining ground. Conformational variability analysis is usually done by classifying images in a number of discrete classes supposedly representing all conformational states present in the specimen. However, discrete classes cannot be meaningfully defined when the conformational change is continuous (the specimen contains a continuum of states instead of a few discrete states)...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088112/a-current-perspective-on-the-oncopreventive-and-oncolytic-properties-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#2
REVIEW
Daniel P Radin, Parth Patel
Current cancer research strongly focuses on identifying novel pathways that can be selectively exploited in the clinic and identifying drugs capable of exploiting cancer vulnerabilities. Occasionally, drugs identified to exploit a cancer-specific vulnerability are on the market for clinical indications in another disease area. Rebranding them as anti-cancer drugs is a process commonly referred to as drug repurposing and is typically a faster method than bringing a novel drug to market. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are primarily used for treating several types of depression, but over the past two decades mounting evidence suggests that drugs in this class have oncolytic properties and reduce the risk of certain cancers...
January 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088101/sequenced-defined-biomolecules-for-nanomaterial-synthesis-functionalization-and-assembly
#3
REVIEW
Joseph M Slocik, Rajesh R Naik
Biomolecules represent an invaluable resource to nanotechnology by providing a large diversity of highly functional biomolecular templates. As a result, these have been extensively used for controlling the synthesis, functionalization, and assembly of nanomaterials, while also creating materials with new properties and structures. In the following, we focus on the use of peptides to achieve these goals and describe their general utility, sequence programmability, and use as templates. Also, we highlight several recent advances in the identification and selection of high affinity nanomaterial-binding peptides, provide a few examples of peptide functionalized surfaces and peptide templated materials, and describe how simple modifications to well characterized nanomaterial-binding peptides can be used to manipulate interactions and physiochemical properties...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088100/exploiting-molecular-motors-as-nanomachines-the-mechanisms-of-de-novo-and-re-engineered-cytoskeletal-motors
#4
REVIEW
Nicole V DelRosso, Nathan D Derr
Cytoskeletal molecular motors provide exciting proof that nanoscale transporters can be highly efficient, moving for microns along filamentous tracks by hydrolyzing ATP to fuel nanometer-size steps. For nanotechnology, such conversion of chemical energy into productive work serves as an enticing platform for re-purposing and re-engineering. It also provides a roadmap for successful molecular mechanisms that can be mimicked to create de novo molecular motors for nanotechnology applications. Here we focus specifically on how the mechanisms of molecular motors are being re-engineered for greater control over their transport parameters...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088099/protein-templated-synthesis-of-metal-based-nanomaterials
#5
REVIEW
Arnout Rd Voet, Jeremy Rh Tame
There is currently intense interest in using protein scaffolds to prepare uniform nanometre-sized clusters of metals or other inorganic material for use as sensors, imaging agents, drugs, magnetic materials or catalysts. Non-templated chemical synthesis of such clusters often results in a product of variable size and quality, but protein molecules have proved adept at nucleating and stabilizing precise nanoclusters of various kinds. Although much research has focused on natural proteins, such as the iron-storage protein ferritin, recent developments in protein design have allowed entirely novel, symmetrical proteins to be used as templates for the first time...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088088/prevalence-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-northeast-asia-from-2007-to-2015
#6
Junhui Lee, Songhee Yang, Yujin Kang, Eunyoung Han, Ling-Yi Feng, Jih-Heng Li, Heesun Chung
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been a global trend in drug abuse and its regulation has been a worldwide concern. There is no doubt that it is necessary to share information related to these emerging substances between countries and continents for the effective regulation of NPS. With efforts for the efficient regulation of NPS, many studies and information have been published for the prevalence of NPS in the United States and other countries in Europe and Oceania. However, there is lack of information available for the prevalence of NPS in Asian and African countries...
October 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088066/activity-dependent-development-of-visual-receptive-fields
#7
REVIEW
Andrew Thompson, Alexandra Gribizis, Chinfei Chen, Michael C Crair
It is widely appreciated that neuronal activity contributes to the development of brain representations of the external world. In the visual system, in particular, it is well known that activity cooperates with molecular cues to establish the topographic organization of visual maps on a macroscopic scale [1,2] (Huberman et al., 2008; Cang and Feldheim, 2013), mapping axons in a retinotopic and eye-specific manner. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of activity in driving the finer-scale circuit refinement that shapes the receptive fields of individual cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088047/sliding-doors-did-drama-based-inter-professional-education-improve-the-tensions-round-person-centred-nursing-and-social-care-delivery-for-people-with-dementia-a-mixed-method-exploratory-study
#8
Lindsay Dingwall, Jane Fenton, Timothy B Kelly, John Lee
This educational intervention takes place when the population of older people with dementia is increasing. Health and Social care professionals must work jointly in increasingly complex contexts. Negative attitudes towards older people are cited as a contributor to poor care delivery, including the use of dismissive and/or patronising language, failing to meet fundamental needs and afford choice. 'Sliding Doors to Personal Futures' is a joint, drama-based, educational initiative between NHS Education Scotland and the Scottish Social Services Council, delivered using interprofessional education (IPE) towards encouraging person-centred health and social care...
December 21, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088042/strategies-for-metabolite-profiling-based-on-liquid-chromatography
#9
REVIEW
Javier Saurina, Sonia Sentellas
This paper aims at covering the principal strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) for metabolite profiling in the field of drug discovery and development. The identification of metabolites generated in the organism is an important task during the early stages of preclinical research to define the most proper strategy for optimizing, adjusting metabolic clearance and minimizing bioactivation. An early assessment of the metabolite profile may be critical since metabolites can contribute to pharmacological and/or toxicological effects...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087986/barriers-to-access-to-opioid-medicines-for-patients-with-opioid-dependence-a-review-of-legislation-and-regulations-in-eleven-central-and-eastern-european-countries
#10
Marjolein J M Vranken, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse, Saskia Jünger, Lukas Radbruch, Willem Scholten, John A Lisman, Marija Subataite, Marie-Hélène D B Schutjens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 Central and Eastern European countries. METHODS: This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project...
January 14, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087957/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-between-urban-and-rural-population-in-malaysia
#11
I Noor Hassim, M R Norazman, M Diana, Y Khairul Hazdi, I Rosnah
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. METHODS: This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#12
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087941/interplay-between-myeloid-cells-and-humoral-innate-immunity
#13
Sébastien Jaillon, Eduardo Bonavita, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against pathogens and comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity and are expressed by a variety of cells, including myeloid, epithelial, and endothelial cells, mainly in response to infectious and inflammatory conditions. Soluble PRMs share basic multifunctional properties including activation and regulation of the complement cascade, opsonization of pathogens and apoptotic cells, regulation of leukocyte extravasation, and fine-tuning of inflammation...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087939/dendritic-cells-in-the-immune-system-history-lineages-tissues-tolerance-and-immunity
#14
Jonathan M Austyn
The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the "History" section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The "Lineages" section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of "classical" DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087932/the-complexity-of-fungal-vision
#15
Reinhard Fischer, Jesus Aguirre, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis M Corrochano
Life, as we know it, would not be possible without light. Light is not only a primary source of energy, but also an important source of information for many organisms. To sense light, only a few photoreceptor systems have developed during evolution. They are all based on an organic molecule with conjugated double bonds that allows energy transfer from visible (or UV) light to its cognate protein to translate the primary physical photoresponse to cell-biological actions. The three main classes of receptors are flavin-based blue-light, retinal-based green-light (such as rhodopsin), and linear tetrapyrrole-based red-light sensors...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087923/enhanced-aerobic-sludge-granulation-by-seeding-concentrated-activated-sludge-with-ca-alginate-gel
#16
Can Sun
The present study focuses on the effect of Ca-alginate gel on aerobic sludge granulation. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) seeded with different mixtures of Ca-alginate gel and activated sludge with the fraction (weight/weight of dry biomass) of 0%, 5.5% and 15.5% respectively. The granulation time of 14 days was obtained with 5.5% additive, whilst 32 days were needed to adapt aerobic granules developed with 0% Ca-alginate gel. Full granulation was achieved in the trial with 15.5% additive from the 20th day...
December 9, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087922/urogenital-tuberculosis
#17
André A Figueiredo, Antônio M Lucon, Miguel Srougi
Urogenital tuberculosis is the second most frequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Starting with a pulmonary focus, 2 to 20% of patients develop urogenital tuberculosis through hematogenous spread to the kidneys, prostate, and epididymis; through the descending collecting system to the ureters, bladder, and urethra; and through the ejaculatory ducts to the genital organs. Urogenital tuberculosis occurs at all age ranges, but it is predominant in males in their fourth and fifth decades. It is a serious, insidious disease, generally developing symptoms only at a late stage, which leads to a diagnostic delay with consequent urogenital organ destruction; there are reports of patients with renal failure as their initial clinical presentation...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087918/-research-progress-on-the-role-of-tank-binding-kinase-1-in-anti-virus-innate-immune-response
#18
Xue Wang, Yuchuan Zhang, Wei Chen
The innate immune response against viral infection is mainly relies on type I interferon, the production of which is mediated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). It is revealed that the downstream TBK1 is activated by viral nucleic acid sensors RIG-I, cGAS and TLR3. The activity of TBK1 is complexly and precisely regulated by different type of protein modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and Sumolylation. This article focuses on the role of TBK1 in anti-viral innate immunity and the regulatory mechanism for the TBK1 activation...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087895/crohn-disease-risk-prediction-best-practices-and-pitfalls-with-exome-data
#19
Manuel Giollo, David T Jones, Marco Carraro, Emanuela Leonardi, Carlo Ferrari, Silvio C E Tosatto
The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) experiment is the first attempt to evaluate the state-of-the-art in genetic data interpretation. Among the proposed challenges, Crohn disease (CD) risk prediction has become the most classic problem spanning three editions. The scientific question is very hard: can anybody assess the risk to develop CD given the exome data alone? This is one of the ultimate goals of genetic analysis, which motivated most CAGI participants to look for powerful new methods...
January 13, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#20
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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