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Anorectal physiology

Liliana G Bordeianou, Joseph C Carmichael, Ian M Paquette, Steven Wexner, Tracy L Hull, Mitchell Bernstein, Deborah S Keller, Massarat Zutshi, Madhulika G Varma, Brooke H Gurland, Scott R Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Simona Arena, Andrea Scaloni
Hen egg is a raw material widely used for preparation of food, pharmaceutical and cosmetoceutical products. Dedicated proteomic studies on egg fractions identified most abundant proteins. No similar studies have been performed at the peptidomic level so far. This study fills this gap and provides a comprehensive picture of the peptides present in the yolk plasma of different hen egg types after 24 and 264 h of laying, using a two-step fractionation followed by combined MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS and nanoLC-ESI-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
PURPOSE: Abdominal pain is not used to characterize constipated patients. This study aimed to compare clinical, psychological, and physiological features in patients with IBS-constipation (IBS-C) with those in patients with functional constipation (FC) according to the intensity of abdominal pain. METHODS: All patients filled a standard Rome III questionnaire. In addition, they indicated the intensity of constipation, diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale, and their stool form with the Bristol Stool Form Scale...
February 28, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Harald S Hansen, Vasiliki Vana
This review focuses on recent findings of the physiological and pharmacological role of non-endocannabinoid NAEs and 2-MAGs in the intestine and their involvement in the gut-brain signaling. Dietary fat suppress food intake and much research concerns the known gut peptides e.g. GLP-1, and CCK. NAEs and 2-MAGs represent another class of local gut signals most probably involved in the regulation of food intake. We discuss the putative biosynthetic pathways and targets of NAEs in the intestine as well as their anorectic role and changes in intestinal levels depending on the nutritional status...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Susanne Haas, Pia Faaborg, Donghua Liao, Søren Laurberg, Hans Gregersen, Lilly Lundby, Peter Christensen, Klaus Krogh
BACKGROUND: Sphincter-sparing radiotherapy or chemoradiation are standard treatments for patients with anal cancer. The ultimate treatment goal is full recovery from anal cancer with preserved anorectal function. Unfortunately, long-term survivors often suffer from severe anorectal symptoms. The aim of the present study was to characterize changes in anorectal physiology after radiotherapy for anal cancer. METHOD: We included 13 patients (10 women, age 63.4 ± 1...
February 15, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Shahana Fedele, Myrtha Arnold, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Bernd Wolfstädter, Urs Meyer, Wolfgang Langhans, Abdelhak Mansouri
The endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) agonist Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) inhibits eating in rodents, mainly by delaying the onset of meals. The underlying mechanisms of OEA-induced anorexia, however, remain unclear. Animals treated with high OEA doses were shown to display signs of discomfort and impaired locomotion. Therefore, we first examined whether the impaired locomotion may contribute to OEA's anorectic effect. Second, it is controversial whether abdominal vagal afferents are necessary for OEA's anorectic effect...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Lisa Ramage, Paul Mclean, Constantinos Simillis, Shengyang Qiu, Christos Kontovounisios, Emile Tan, Paris Tekkis
Adequate oncological outcomes have been demonstrated with rectal resection and handsewn coloanal anastomosis (CAA) in tumours in close proximity to the internal anal sphincter. Our aim was to assess functional differences between handsewn CAA and ultralow stapled anastomosis. Participants were identified from a single-surgeon series. Included participants underwent anorectal physiology testing of anal sphincter function, in addition to completion of several questionnaires: Wexner Incontinence Score (WIS); Birmingham Bowel, Bladder and Urinary Symptom Questionnaire (BBUSQ); Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) Score; SF36...
January 8, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The peptide neurotensin (Nts) was discovered within the brain over 40 years ago and is implicated in regulating analgesia, body temperature, blood pressure, locomotor activity and feeding. Recent evidence suggests, however, that these disparate processes may be controlled via specific populations of Nts neurons and receptors. The neuronal mediators of Nts anorectic action are now beginning to be understood, and, as such, modulating specific Nts pathways might be useful in treating feeding and body weight disorders...
December 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
R Rosen, J M Garza, N Tipnis, S Nurko
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in children are common and motility disorders are considered in the differential diagnosis. High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) has revolutionized the study of esophageal physiology, and the addition of impedance has provided new insights into esophageal function. Antroduodenal motility has provided insight into gastric and small bowel function. PURPOSE: This review highlights some of the recent advances in pediatric esophageal and antroduodenal motility testing including indications, preparation, performance, and interpretation of the tests...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ihsan Al-Bayati, Mohammed Saadi, Sherif Elhanafi, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence is a problem that imposes considerable socioeconomic consequences. Despite many medical therapies, unmet needs remain. A new treatment option is a biocompatible bulking agent (Solesta) administered by submucosal injection in the distal rectum. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) To evaluate the efficacy and safety of this bulking agent in decreasing the severity of fecal incontinence (FI) and improving quality of life. (2) To obtain objective evidence of changes in anorectal physiology by high-resolution anorectal manometry pretreatment and posttreatment...
November 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Jessica Valestin, Amanda Schmeltz, Konrad Schulze, Satish S C Rao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biofeedback therapy is effective for dyssynergic defecation (DD), but it is not widely available or reimbursed, and is labor intensive. It is therefore important to select the appropriate patients for this treatment. We investigated symptoms and demographic, manometric, and other factors associated with outcomes of biofeedback therapy in patients with DD. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective studies of biofeedback therapy in 127 adult outpatients (18-75 years old, 120 female) with chronic constipation who failed to respond to treatment with dietary fiber or laxatives (>1 year) and were diagnosed with DD based on standard criteria...
October 27, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Leila Neshatian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the advances in diagnostic modalities and management options for defecatory dysfunction and highlight the areas in need of further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnostic utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry (ARM), which has emerged as a promising tool for the diagnosis of defecatory dysfunction, appears to be questionable in differentiating disease from normal physiology. There also seems to be discrepancy between results of various tests of anorectal function in the diagnosis of defecatory dysfunction...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Christopher J Young, Assad Zahid, Cherry E Koh, Jane M Young, Christopher M Byrne, Michael J Solomon, Jenny Rex, Janet Candido
AIM: Biofeedback is an established, effective and non-invasive treatment for faecal incontinence (FI). The aim was to compare the effectiveness of four different biofeedback treatment regimes. METHOD: Randomised control trial of patients with FI, stratified into two groups (metropolitan and rural) and then randomised into two subgroups (groups 1 and 2 within metropolitan, groups 3 and 4 within rural) with varying face-to-face and telephone biofeedback components...
October 20, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Satish S C Rao
Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions...
October 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
Kristy L Townsend, Christopher J Madden, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Lindsay McDougall, Domenico Tupone, Matthew D Lynes, Yuji Mishina, Paul Yu, Shaun F Morrison, Yu-Hua Tseng
The regulation of energy balance involves complex processes in the brain, including coordination by hypothalamic neurons that contain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously demonstrated that central bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7 reduced appetite. Now we show that a type 1 BMP receptor, BMPR1A, is colocalized with POMC neurons and that POMC-BMPR1A-knockout (KO) mice are hyperphagic, revealing physiological involvement of BMP signaling in anorectic POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite. Surprisingly, the hyperphagic POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice exhibited a lack of obesity, even on a 45% high-fat diet...
December 1, 2017: Endocrinology
L Ramage, C Yen, S Qiu, C Simillis, C Kontovounisios, E Tan, P Tekkis
Introduction This study aimed to ascertain whether missed obstetric anal sphincter injury at delivery had worse functional and quality of life outcomes than primary repair immediately following delivery. Materials and methods Two to one propensity matching was undertaken of patients presenting to a tertiary pelvic floor unit with ultrasound evidence of missed obstetric anal sphincter injury within 24 months of delivery with patients who underwent primary repair at the time of delivery by parity, grade of injury and time to assessment...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Ting Yu, Xiaoxue Shen, Miaomiao Li, Meifeng Wang, Lin Lin
AIM: To evaluate the short-term efficacy of biofeedback therapy (BFT) for dyssynergic defecation (DD) and to explore the predictors of the efficacy of BFT. METHODS: Clinical symptoms, psychological state, and quality of life of patients before and after BFT were investigated. All patients underwent lifestyle survey and anorectal physiology tests before BFT. Improvement in symptom scores was considered proof of clinical efficacy of BFT. Thirty-eight factors that could influence the efficacy of BFT were studied...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Charlène Brochard, Alain Ropert, Benoît Peyronnet, Hélène Ménard, Andréa Manunta, Michel Neunlist, Guillaume Bouguen, Laurent Siproudhis
AIMS: The prevalence rate of severe fecal incontinence (FI) in adults with spina bifida (SB) is high. The physiological basis of FI in SB has not been clearly established, which contributes to inadequate care. The aim was to better characterize a large cohort of adults with special consideration of anorectal physiology. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team from a French referral centre for SB prospectively collected data on patients who had an anorectal manometry. Factors associated with severe FI (Cleveland clinical incontinence score ≥ 9) were assessed in a multivariate analysis model...
September 26, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Naoki Nishizawa, Yoko Kanematsu-Yamaki, Masaaki Funata, Hiroaki Nagai, Ayako Shimizu, Hisashi Fujita, Junichi Sakamoto, Shiro Takekawa, Taiji Asami
Neuromedin U (NMU) mediates various physiological functions via NMUR1 and NMUR2 receptors. NMUR2 has been considered a promising treatment option for diabetes and obesity. Although NMU-8, a shorter peptide, has potent agonist activity for both receptors, it is metabolically unstable. Therefore, NMU-8 analogs modified with long-chain alkyl moieties via a linker were synthesized. An octadecanoyl analog (17) with amino acid substitutions [αMePhe19 , Nle21 , and Arg(Me)24 ] and a linker [Tra-γGlu-PEG(2)] dramatically increased NMUR2 selectivity, with retention of high agonist activity...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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