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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756684/a-prospective-bottom-up-study-of-the-costs-of-faecal-incontinence-in-ambulatory-patients
#1
Vicki Patton, Katrina Parkin, Kate H Moore
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The few studies that have examined direct costs of faecal incontinence are limited in that they employed retrospective databases, postal surveys, and focused upon institutionalised patients or post partum women. The aim of the current study was to identify the direct pre-treatment costs of faecal incontinence expended by a range of home dwelling patients and identify relationships between costs and severity of incontinence. METHODS: Consecutive patients attending an outpatient clinic for treatment of faecal incontinence were interviewed using a questionnaire, modeled on the Dowel Bryant Incontinence Cost Index...
May 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600403/effect-of-subsequent-vaginal-delivery-on-bowel-symptoms-and-anorectal-function-in-women-who-sustained-a-previous-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury
#2
Polly A Jordan, Madhu Naidu, Ranee Thakar, Abdul H Sultan
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Our primary objective was to prospectively evaluate anorectal symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) in women who followed the recommended mode of subsequent delivery following index obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) using our unit's standardised protocol. Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the role of internal anal sphincter defects and also to compare outcomes in a subgroup of symptomatic women with normal anorectal physiology...
March 29, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575432/efficacy-of-percutaneous-posterior-tibial-nerve-stimulation-for-the-management-of-fecal-incontinence-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-pilot-study
#3
Santosh Sanagapalli, Laura Neilan, Jack Yu Tung Lo, Lavanya Anandan, Jorge Liwanag, Amanda Raeburn, Eleni Athanasakos, Natalia Zarate-Lopez, Anton Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence is a debilitating and highly prevalent problem among multiple sclerosis patients. Conservative therapies often fail to provide benefit. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive neuromodulatory therapy with proven efficacy for fecal incontinence in non-neurological settings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of posterior tibial nerve stimulation in treating multiple sclerosis-related fecal incontinence. METHODS: Consecutive multiple sclerosis patients with fecal incontinence that had failed conservative therapy received posterior tibial nerve stimulation between 2012 and 2015...
March 25, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560770/correlation-between-pelvic-floor-strength-and-physical-activity-level-in-healthy-men
#4
Luiz Eduardo Sousa, Andre Avarese Figueiredo, José Murillo Bastos Netto
The male pelvic floor muscles comprise a pair of compound muscle layers referred to as the levator ani. Studies have shown that pelvic floor muscle strength is affected by physical activity. This study aimed to assess male pelvic floor muscle strength through manometry of the external anal sphincter and evaluation of its association with physical activity level, BMI, and rectal pressure in healthy men. To assess physical activity level over the previous week, we used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 8 (IPAQ)...
March 21, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521821/consensus-statement-of-definitions-for-anorectal-physiology-testing-and-pelvic-floor-terminology-revised
#5
Liliana G Bordeianou, Joseph C Carmichael, Ian M Paquette, Steven Wexner, Tracy L Hull, Mitchell Bernstein, Deborah S Keller, Massarat Zutshi, Madhulika G Varma, Brooke H Gurland, Scott R Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513530/an-extensive-description-of-the-peptidomic-repertoire-of-the-hen-egg-yolk-plasma
#6
Simona Arena, Andrea Scaloni
Hen egg is a raw material widely used for the preparation of food,  pharmaceutical and cosmetoceutical products. Dedicated proteomic studies were accomplished on eggshell membrane, egg white, and yolk, identifying the most abundant proteins. No similar peptidomic studies have been performed so far. Only preliminary investigations on bioactive peptides in egg fractions and digestates were accomplished through functional screening assays, characterizing antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antihypertensive preparations and isolated components...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492744/painful-or-mild-pain-constipation-a-clinically-useful-alternative-to-classification-as-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation-versus-functional-constipation
#7
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
PURPOSE: Abdominal pain is not used to characterize constipated patients. This study aimed to compare clinical, psychological, and physiological features in patients with IBS-constipation (IBS-C) with those in patients with functional constipation (FC) according to the intensity of abdominal pain. METHODS: All patients filled a standard Rome III questionnaire. In addition, they indicated the intensity of constipation, diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale, and their stool form with the Bristol Stool Form Scale...
February 28, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473944/non-endocannabinoid-n-acylethanolamines-and-2-monoacylglycerols-in-the-intestine
#8
REVIEW
Harald S Hansen, Vasiliki Vana
This review focuses on recent findings of the physiological and pharmacological role of non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) in the intestine and their involvement in the gut-brain signalling. Dietary fat suppresses food intake, and much research concerns the known gut peptides, for example, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK). NAEs and 2-MAGs represent another class of local gut signals most probably involved in the regulation of food intake...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447025/anal-sphincter-dysfunction-in-patients-treated-with-primary-radiotherapy-for-anal-cancer-a-study-with-the-functional-lumen-imaging-probe
#9
Susanne Haas, Pia Faaborg, Donghua Liao, Søren Laurberg, Hans Gregersen, Lilly Lundby, Peter Christensen, Klaus Krogh
BACKGROUND: Sphincter-sparing radiotherapy or chemoradiation are standard treatments for patients with anal cancer. The ultimate treatment goal is full recovery from anal cancer with preserved anorectal function. Unfortunately, long-term survivors often suffer from severe anorectal symptoms. The aim of the present study was to characterize changes in anorectal physiology after radiotherapy for anal cancer. METHOD: We included 13 patients (10 women, age 63.4 ± 1...
April 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388342/oleoylethanolamide-induced-anorexia-in-rats-is-associated-with-locomotor-impairment
#10
Shahana Fedele, Myrtha Arnold, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Bernd Wolfstädter, Urs Meyer, Wolfgang Langhans, Abdelhak Mansouri
The endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) agonist Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) inhibits eating in rodents, mainly by delaying the onset of meals. The underlying mechanisms of OEA-induced anorexia, however, remain unclear. Animals treated with high OEA doses were shown to display signs of discomfort and impaired locomotion. Therefore, we first examined whether the impaired locomotion may contribute to OEA's anorectic effect. Second, it is controversial whether abdominal vagal afferents are necessary for OEA's anorectic effect...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313248/functional-outcomes-with-handsewn-versus-stapled-anastomoses-in-the-treatment-of-ultralow-rectal-cancer
#11
Lisa Ramage, Paul Mclean, Constantinos Simillis, Shengyang Qiu, Christos Kontovounisios, Emile Tan, Paris Tekkis
Adequate oncological outcomes have been demonstrated with rectal resection and handsewn coloanal anastomosis (CAA) in tumours in close proximity to the internal anal sphincter. Our aim was to assess functional differences between handsewn CAA and ultralow stapled anastomosis. Participants were identified from a single-surgeon series. Included participants underwent anorectal physiology testing of anal sphincter function, in addition to completion of several questionnaires: Wexner Incontinence Score (WIS); Birmingham Bowel, Bladder and Urinary Symptom Questionnaire (BBUSQ); Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) Score; SF36...
March 2018: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288794/role-of-central-neurotensin-in-regulating-feeding-implications-for-the-development-and-treatment-of-body-weight-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The peptide neurotensin (Nts) was discovered within the brain over 40years ago and is implicated in regulating analgesia, body temperature, blood pressure, locomotor activity and feeding. Recent evidence suggests, however, that these disparate processes may be controlled via specific populations of Nts neurons and receptors. The neuronal mediators of Nts anorectic action are now beginning to be understood, and, as such, modulating specific Nts pathways might be useful in treating feeding and body weight disorders...
March 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178261/an-anms-naspghan-consensus-document-on-esophageal-and-antroduodenal-manometry-in-children
#13
REVIEW
R Rosen, J M Garza, N Tipnis, S Nurko
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in children are common and motility disorders are considered in the differential diagnosis. High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) has revolutionized the study of esophageal physiology, and the addition of impedance has provided new insights into esophageal function. Antroduodenal motility has provided insight into gastric and small bowel function. PURPOSE: This review highlights some of the recent advances in pediatric esophageal and antroduodenal motility testing including indications, preparation, performance, and interpretation of the tests...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173359/effectiveness-of-bulking-agent-solesta-therapy-in-fecal-incontinence-in-patients-refractory-to-conventional-therapies
#14
Ihsan Al-Bayati, Mohammed Saadi, Sherif Elhanafi, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence is a problem that imposes considerable socioeconomic consequences. Despite many medical therapies, unmet needs remain. A new treatment option is a biocompatible bulking agent (Solesta) administered by submucosal injection in the distal rectum. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) To evaluate the efficacy and safety of this bulking agent in decreasing the severity of fecal incontinence (FI) and improving quality of life. (2) To obtain objective evidence of changes in anorectal physiology by high-resolution anorectal manometry pretreatment and posttreatment...
November 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124885/oleoylethanolamide-the-role-of-a-bioactive-lipid-amide-in-modulating-eating-behaviour
#15
REVIEW
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
February 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111136/factors-associated-with-response-to-biofeedback-therapy-for-dyssynergic-defecation
#16
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Jessica Valestin, Amanda Schmeltz, Konrad Schulze, Satish S C Rao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biofeedback therapy is effective for dyssynergic defecation (DD), but it is not widely available or reimbursed, and is labor intensive. It is therefore important to select the appropriate patients for this treatment. We investigated symptoms and demographic, manometric, and other factors associated with outcomes of biofeedback therapy in patients with DD. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective studies of biofeedback therapy in 127 adult outpatients (18-75 years old, 120 female) with chronic constipation who failed to respond to treatment with dietary fiber or laxatives (>1 year) and were diagnosed with DD based on standard criteria...
May 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064840/the-assessment-and-management-of-defecatory-dysfunction-a-critical-appraisal
#17
Leila Neshatian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the advances in diagnostic modalities and management options for defecatory dysfunction and highlight the areas in need of further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnostic utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry (ARM), which has emerged as a promising tool for the diagnosis of defecatory dysfunction, appears to be questionable in differentiating disease from normal physiology. There also seems to be discrepancy between results of various tests of anorectal function in the diagnosis of defecatory dysfunction...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053230/a-randomised-control-trial-of-four-different-regimes-of-biofeedback-program-in-the-treatment-of-faecal-incontinence
#18
Christopher J Young, Assad Zahid, Cherry E Koh, Jane M Young, Christopher M Byrne, Michael J Solomon, Jenny Rex, Janet Candido
AIM: Biofeedback is an established, effective and non-invasive treatment for faecal incontinence (FI). The aim was to compare the effectiveness of four different biofeedback treatment regimes. METHOD: Randomised control trial of patients with FI, stratified into two groups (metropolitan and rural) and then randomised into two subgroups (groups 1 and 2 within metropolitan, groups 3 and 4 within rural) with varying face-to-face and telephone biofeedback components...
October 20, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050194/update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-anorectal-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Satish S C Rao
Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions...
October 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040444/reestablishment-of-energy-balance-in-a-male-mouse-model-with-pomc-neuron-deletion-of-bmpr1a
#20
Kristy L Townsend, Christopher J Madden, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Lindsay McDougall, Domenico Tupone, Matthew D Lynes, Yuji Mishina, Paul Yu, Shaun F Morrison, Yu-Hua Tseng
The regulation of energy balance involves complex processes in the brain, including coordination by hypothalamic neurons that contain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously demonstrated that central bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7 reduced appetite. Now we show that a type 1 BMP receptor, BMPR1A, is colocalized with POMC neurons and that POMC-BMPR1A-knockout (KO) mice are hyperphagic, revealing physiological involvement of BMP signaling in anorectic POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite. Surprisingly, the hyperphagic POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice exhibited a lack of obesity, even on a 45% high-fat diet...
December 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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