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Anorectal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547814/electrical-stimulation-structurally-affects-the-tissues-of-the-rectum-and-anus-of-nulliparous-rats
#1
Hugo Alves de Sousa, Maria da Glória da Silva, Keyla de Paula Barbosa, Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna, Yolanda Galindo Pacheco, José Roberto Pimenta de Godoy, Selma Aparecida Souza Kuckelhaus
Considering that the muscles of the anus perform a critical role in maintaining continence, losses in their structure can negatively affect the physiological control of the intestinal contents. Anorectal electro-stimulation (ARES) has been reported to have a positive effect on the functionality of treated patients, but how ARES affects the structural tissues of the anorectal segment remains unknown. Because the study of how ARES structurally affects human tissues is not possible, this study aimed to clarify these effects in a murine model, which has a similar anorectal segment (structure and physiology) to humans...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484364/energy-homeostasis-in-monotremes
#2
REVIEW
Stewart C Nicol
In 1803, the French anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire decided that the newly described echidna and platypus should be placed in a separate order, the monotremes, intermediate between reptiles and mammals. The first physiological observations showed monotremes had low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and the consensus was that they were at a stage of physiological development intermediate between "higher mammals" and "lower vertebrates." Subsequent studies demonstrated that platypuses and echidnas are capable of close thermoregulation in the cold although less so under hot conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391449/percutaneous-tibial-nerve-stimulation-ptns-success-rate-and-the-role-of-rectal-capacity
#3
Lukas Marti, Christian Galata, Ulrich Beutner, Franc Hetzer, Nicoletta Pipitone, Katja Wolff, Jan Borovicka, Walter Brunner, Michael Christian Sulz, Christine Maurus
PURPOSE: Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (pTNS) was originally developed to treat urinary incontinence. Recently, some case series have also documented its success in the treatment of fecal incontinence. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown but may be related to changes in rectal capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the success of pTNS for the treatment of fecal urge incontinence and assess the influence of rectal capacity on treatment efficacy...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261913/a-physiological-study-of-the-anorectal-reflex-in-patients-with-functional-anorectal-and-defecation-disorders
#4
Kumaran Thiruppathy, John Mason, Khalid Akbari, Amanda Raeburn, Anton Emmanuel
OBJECTIVE: The symptoms of fecal incontinence and constipation can arise from a variety of alterations of anorectal function. The aim of this study was to investigate components of the anorecal reflex in patients with these symptoms, to determine the functional significance of the various physiological parameters. METHODS: 21 healthy volunteers (controls), 78 incontinent and 74 constipated patients were recruited and symptom burden determined using the Wexner incontinence and constipation questionnaires...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213843/effect-of-biofeedback-therapy-on-anorectal-physiological-parameters-among-patients-with-fecal-evacuation-disorder
#5
Abhai Verma, Asha Misra, Uday C Ghoshal
BACKGROUND: Though biofeedback therapy is often effective in patients with fecal evacuation disorder (FED), a common cause of chronic constipation (CC) in tertiary practice, data on anorectal physiological parameters following it are scanty. METHODS: Consecutive patients with FED with CC diagnosed by abnormalities in at least two of the three tests (anorectal manometry, defecography, and balloon expulsion test [BET]) undergoing biofeedback (two sessions per day, 30 min each, for 2 weeks) during a 3-year period were analyzed...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137426/scientific-familial-lessons-in-ingestive-behavior-research-2016-alan-n-epstein-research-award
#6
REVIEW
Matthew R Hayes
While energy balance is under the control of the central nervous system (CNS), a major source of neural regulation for the behavioral, physiological and endocrine processes governing energy balance originates in the periphery. Indeed, the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, supporting organs of the peritoneal cavity and adipose tissue are the source of numerous neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine signals released from non-neuronal peripheral tissue that signal in a paracrine and endocrine fashion to regulate the physiological and behavioral processes that affect energy balance...
January 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101937/methods-of-anorectal-manometry-vary-widely-in-clinical-practice-results-from-an-international-survey
#7
E V Carrington, H Heinrich, C H Knowles, S S Rao, M Fox, S M Scott
BACKGROUND: Ano-rectal manometry (ARM) is the most commonly performed investigation for assessment of anorectal dysfunction. Its use is supported by expert consensus documents and international guidelines. Variation in technology, data acquisition, and analysis affect results and clinical interpretation. This study examined variation in ARM between institutions to establish the status of current practice. METHODS: A 50-item web-based questionnaire assessing analysis and interpretation of ARM was distributed by the International Anorectal Physiology Working Group via societies representing practitioners that perform ARM...
January 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000186/-value-of-anorectal-manometry-in-defecation-disorders-and-its-clinical-interpretation
#8
Shuqing Ding
Bowel dysfunction affected by functional factors, mechanical factors or surgical damage may lead to constipation, fecal incontinence and other overlapped symptoms, which is only the tip of the iceberg. Anorectal manometry can provide combined dysfunction information of four subtypes, including sphincter dysfunction, dyssynergic defecation, sensory disability and insufficient rectal expel force, which are underlying pathophysiology of defecation dysfunction. Anorectal manometry can be helpful in optimizing protocol or predicting success in pelvic floor dyssynergic syndrome of defecation, fecal incontinence or anorectal pain, stoma closure and pediatric intractable constipation...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987017/life-in-the-fat-lane-seasonal-regulation-of-insulin-sensitivity-food-intake-and-adipose-biology-in-brown-bears
#9
K S Rigano, J L Gehring, B D Evans Hutzenbiler, A V Chen, O L Nelson, C A Vella, C T Robbins, H T Jansen
Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931246/increased-alternate-splicing-of-htr2c-in-a-mouse-model-for-prader-willi-syndrome-leads-disruption-of-5ht2c-receptor-mediated-appetite
#10
Alastair S Garfield, Jennifer R Davies, Luke K Burke, Hannah V Furby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Lora K Heisler, Anthony R Isles
Alternate splicing of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) pre-RNA is negatively regulated by the small nucleolar RNA, Snord115, loss of which is observed in nearly all individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a multigenic disorder characterised by hyperphagia and obesity. Given the role of the 5-HT2CR in the regulation of ingestive behaviour we investigated the pathophysiological implications of Snord115 deficiency on 5-HT2CR regulated appetite in a genotypically relevant PWS mouse model (PWS-IC)...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910245/anorectal-manometry-should-it-be-performed-in-a-seated-position
#11
G-J Wu, F Xu, L Lin, P J Pasricha, J D Z Chen
BACKGROUND: Anorectal manometry (ARM) is typically preformed in a lateral position. This non-physiological testing position has produced an unexpected negative rectoanal pressure gradient (RAPG, i.e. difference between rectal and anal pressure) with normal defecation. This study was designed (i) to study differences in ARM parameters between water-perfused and solid-state sensors and between lateral and seated positions and (ii) to investigate the roles of ARM parameters in predicting balloon expulsion...
May 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891696/gender-differences-in-chronic-constipation-on-anorectal-motility
#12
M Zakari, J Nee, W Hirsch, B Kuo, A Lembo, K Staller
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of chronic constipation (CC) skews toward female predominance, yet men make up an important component of those suffering from CC. We sought to determine whether there are sex-specific differences in symptoms and physiologic parameters on anorectal manometry (ARM). METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis of sequential men and age-matched women (2:1 ratio) presenting for ARM as part of the evaluation of CC. We collected physiologic parameters derived from 3D high-resolution ARM in addition to the ROME III constipation module and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory 20 (PFDI-20) questionnaires...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881404/novel-insights-into-fecal-incontinence-in-men
#13
Yoav Mazor, Michael Jones, Alison Andrews, John E Kellow, Allison Malcolm
Fecal incontinence (FI) in men is common, yet data on sex differences in clinical features, physiology, and treatment are scarce. Our aim was to provide insights into FI in males compared with females. Prospectively collected data from 73 men and 596 women with FI in a tertiary referral center were analyzed. Anorectal physiology, clinical characteristics, and outcome of instrumented biofeedback (BF) were recorded. Thirty-one men with FI proceeded to BF and were matched with 62 age-matched women with FI who underwent BF...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847787/anismus-physiology-radiology-is-it-time-for-some-pragmatism-a-comparative-study-of-radiological-and-anorectal-physiology-findings-in-patients-with-anismus
#14
Umberto Pisano, Lesley Irvine, Justina Szczachor, Ahsin Jawad, Andrew MacLeod, Michael Lim
PURPOSE: Anismus is a functional disorder featuring obstructive symptoms and paradoxical contractions of the pelvic floor. This study aims to establish diagnosis agreement between physiology and radiology, associate anismus with morphological outlet obstruction, and explore the role of sphincteric pressure and rectal volumes in the radiological diagnosis of anismus. METHODS: Consecutive patients were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging proctography/fluoroscopic defecography and anorectal physiology...
October 2016: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824643/clinical-psychological-and-physiological-correlates-of-patients-who-defecate-after-meal
#15
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Gheorges Airinei, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food is the most important synchronizer of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Many patients with functional bowel or anorectal disorders complain of fecal urge and stool output after eating. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 408 consecutive outpatients with functional bowel and/or anorectal disorders (74% female, 50.2±15.6 years, 24.8±5.0 kg/m²) filled Rome III questionnaires. Depression and anxiety scores, a physiological evaluation (total and segmental colonic transit time, colonic transit response to eating using a standard 1000 kcal test meal, and anorectal manometry), were measured...
February 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738888/visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-express-and-secrete-functional-alpha2hsglycoprotein-fetuin-a-especially-in-obesity
#16
Diego Pérez-Sotelo, Arturo Roca-Rivada, María Larrosa-García, Cecilia Castelao, Iván Baamonde, Javier Baltar, Ana Belen Crujeiras, Luisa María Seoane, Felipe F Casanueva, María Pardo
The secretion of the hepatokine alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/Fetuin A, implicated in pathological processes including systemic insulin resistance, by adipose tissue has been recently described. Thus, we have recently identified its presence in white adipose tissue secretomes by mass spectrometry. However, the secretion pattern and function of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and secretion of total and active phosphorylated alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein by adipose tissue from visceral and subcutaneous localizations in animals at different physiological and nutritional status including anorexia and obesity...
February 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686130/efficacy-of-anorectal-biofeedback-in-scleroderma-patients-with-fecal-incontinence-a-case-control-study
#17
Josephine Collins, Yoav Mazor, Michael Jones, John Kellow, Allison Malcolm
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether anorectal biofeedback therapy can improve the symptoms of fecal incontinence (FI) in patients with scleroderma when compared to patients with functional FI, and also whether there is any effect on anorectal physiology or quality of life (QOL). FI in patients with scleroderma is highly prevalent and is associated with significant loss of QOL. Biofeedback has been proven to be an effective treatment for functional FI, but there are no data to support its use in scleroderma...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672293/transanal-surgery-for-obstructed-defecation-syndrome-literature-review-and-a-single-center-experience
#18
REVIEW
Wei-Cheng Liu, Song-Lin Wan, S M Yaseen, Xiang-Hai Ren, Cui-Ping Tian, Zhao Ding, Ken-Yan Zheng, Yun-Hua Wu, Cong-Qing Jiang, Qun Qian
Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is a functional disorder commonly encountered by colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists, and greatly affects the quality of life of patients from both societal and psychological aspects. The underlying anatomical and pathophysiological changes of ODS are complex. However, intra-rectal intussusception and rectocele are frequently found in patients with ODS and both are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ODS. With the development of evaluation methods in anorectal physiology laboratories and radiology studies, a great variety of new operative procedures, especially transanal procedures, have been invented to treat ODS...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651788/influence-of-rectal-decompression-on-abdominal-symptoms-and-anorectal-physiology-following-colonoscopy-in-healthy-adults
#19
Chih-Hsun Yi, Tso-Tsai Liu, Wei-Yi Lei, Jui-Sheng Hung, Chien-Lin Chen
Background. Postcolonoscopy abdominal discomfort and bloating are common. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rectal decompression improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms and influenced anorectal physiology. Methods. In 15 healthy subjects, rectal distension was achieved by direct air inflation into the rectum by colonoscopy. Placement of rectal and sham tube was then performed in each subject on a separate occasion. The anorectal parameters and distension-induced abdominal symptoms were recorded...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649004/study-of-intestinal-function-in-anorectal-malformations-the-role-of-bowel-management-in-quality-of-life
#20
Laura Lombardi, Elena Garrisi, Matteo Ricco', Federico Marchesi, Emilio Casolari, Claudia Gatti, Carmine G Del Rossi
PURPOSE: We aimed at investigating bowel function in children and adolescents with anorectal malformations (ARMs) and assess their quality of life (QoL), in order to define a personal program of bowel management improving both clinical condition and self-confidence. METHODS: A total of 55 patients treated for ARM by Posterior Sagittal Ano-Recto-Plasty (PSARP) from 2000 to 2014 were included into the study. The parents of 41 patients answered two telephone questionnaires about the parents' self-efficacy and about QoL (GIQLI)...
September 13, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
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