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Colon physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352262/microbial-regulation-of-the-l-cell-transcriptome
#1
Tulika Arora, Rozita Akrami, Ramona Pais, Linda Bergqvist, Bengt R Johansson, Thue W Schwartz, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Fredrik Bäckhed
L cells are an important class of enteroendocrine cells secreting hormones such as glucagon like peptide-1 and peptide YY that have several metabolic and physiological effects. The gut is home to trillions of bacteria affecting host physiology, but there has been limited understanding about how the microbiota affects gene expression in L cells. Thus, we rederived the reporter mouse strain, GLU-Venus expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of the proglucagon gene, as germ-free (GF). Lpos cells from ileum and colon of GF and conventionally raised (CONV-R) GLU-Venus mice were isolated and subjected to transcriptomic profiling...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351742/herv-w-group-evolutionary-history-in-non-human-primates-characterization-of-erv-w-orthologs-in-catarrhini-and-related-erv-groups-in-platyrrhini
#2
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg, Jens Mayer, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348457/ltbp3-promotes-early-metastatic-events-during-cancer-cell-dissemination
#3
Elena I Deryugina, Ewa Zajac, Lior Zilberberg, Tomoki Muramatsu, Grishma Joshi, Branka Dabovic, Daniel Rifkin, James P Quigley
Latent transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-binding proteins (LTBPs) are important for the secretion, activation, and function of mature TGFβ, especially so in cancer cell physiology. However, specific roles of the LTBPs remain understudied in the context of the primary tumor microenvironment. Herein, we investigated the role of LTBP3 in the distinct processes involved in cancer metastasis. By using three human tumor cell lines of different tissue origin (epidermoid HEp-3 and prostate PC-3 carcinomas and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma) and several metastasis models conducted in both mammalian and avian settings, we show that LTBP3 is involved in the early dissemination of primary cancer cells, namely in the intravasation step of the metastatic cascade...
January 19, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348167/thiosulfate-sulfurtransferase-like-domain-containing-1-protein-interacts-with-thioredoxin
#4
Marouane Libiad, Nicole Motl, David L Akey, Naoya Sakamoto, Eric R Fearon, Janet L Smith, Ruma Banerjee
Rhodanese domains are structural modules present in the sulfurtransferase superfamily. These domains can exist as single units, in tandem repeats or fused to domains with other activities. Despite their prevalence across species, the specific physiological roles of most sulfurtransferases are not known. Mammalian rhodanese and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase are perhaps the best-studied members of this protein superfamily and are involved in hydrogen sulfide metabolism. The relatively unstudied human thiosulfate sulfurtransferase like domain-containing 1 (TSTD1) protein, a single-domain cytoplasmic sulfurtransferase, was also postulated to play a role in the sulfide oxidation pathway using thiosulfate to form glutathione persulfide, for subsequent processing in the mitochondrial matrix...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#5
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344269/early-and-partial-reduction-in-cd4-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-during-colitis-associated-colon-cancer-induces-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-activation-inhibiting-tumorigenesis
#6
Jonadab E Olguín, Itzel Medina-Andrade, Emmanuel Molina, Armando Vázquez, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Rafael Saavedra, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Luis E Arias-Romero, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Sonia A León-Cabrera, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341151/gut-microbiome-influences-on-anastomotic-leak-and-recurrence-rates-following-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#7
REVIEW
S Gaines, C Shao, N Hyman, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer recurrence after a curative resection remains poorly understood. A yet-to-be accounted for variable is the composition and function of the microbiome adjacent to the tumour and its influence on the margins of resection following surgery. METHODS: PubMed was searched for historical as well as current manuscripts dated between 1970 and 2017 using the following keywords: 'colorectal cancer recurrence', 'microbiome', 'anastomotic leak', 'anastomotic failure' and 'mechanical bowel preparation'...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#8
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325106/transcriptomic-profiling-of-interacting-nasal-staphylococci-species-reveals-global-changes-in-gene-and-non-coding-rna-expression
#9
Grith M M Hermansen, Pavelas Sazinas, Ditte Kofod, Andrew Millard, Paal Skytt Andersen, Lars Jelsbak
Interspecies interactions between bacterial pathogens and the commensal microbiota can influence disease outcome. In the nasal cavities, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to be a determining factor for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation. However, the interaction between S. epidermidis and S. aureus has mainly been described by phenotypic analysis, and little is known about how this interaction modulates gene expression.This study aimed to determine the interactome of nasal S. aureus and S...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324792/critical-evaluation-of-colon-submucosal-microdialysis-in-awake-mobile-rats
#10
Norbert Cibicek, Jiri Ehrmann, Jitka Proskova, Rostislav Vecera
Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324691/physiological-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-arthrobacter-sp-srs-w-1-2016-provides-insights-on-niche-adaptation-for-survival-in-uraniferous-soils
#11
Ashvini Chauhan, Ashish Pathak, Rajneesh Jaswal, Bobby Edwards Iii, Demario Chappell, Christopher Ball, Reyna Garcia-Sillas, Paul Stothard, John Seaman
Arthrobacter sp. strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated on high concentrations of uranium (U) from the Savannah River Site (SRS) that remains co-contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics. SRS is located on the northeast bank of the Savannah River (South Carolina, USA), which is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed ecosystem left historically contaminated from decades of nuclear weapons production activities. Predominant contaminants within the impacted SRS environment include U and Nickel (Ni), both of which can be transformed microbially into less toxic forms via metal complexation mechanisms...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321086/microrna-511-inhibits-cellular-proliferation-and-invasion-in-colorectal-cancer-by-directly-targeting-hepatoma-derived-growth-factor
#12
Saifei He, Guangdong Wang, Jing Ni, Juhua Zhuang, Suiliang Zhuang, Guoyu Wang, Ying Ye, Wei Xia
Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) expression is involved in the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC) through the regulation of various important physiological events. Hence, miRNAs may be used as effective targets for CRC treatment; however, this hypothesis warrants further investigation. MiRNA-511 (miR511) plays vital roles in the progression of different tumour types. However, the expression, exact role and the mechanisms underlying the regulation of colorectal carcinogenesis and progression by miR-511 remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321057/influenza-a-virus-infection-impacts-systemic-microbiota-dynamics-and-causes-quantitative-enteric-dysbiosis
#13
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317512/streptococcus-pneumoniae-modulates-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-dispersion-and-the-transition-from-colonization-to-invasive-disease
#14
Ryan M Reddinger, Nicole R Luke-Marshall, Shauna L Sauberan, Anders P Hakansson, Anthony A Campagnari
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309986/the-ubiquitin-ligase-itch-coordinates-small-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis-by-modulating-cell-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration
#15
Heather L Mentrup, Amanda Hartman, Elizabeth L Thames, Wassim A Basheer, Lydia E Matesic
Maintenance of the intestinal mucosa is driven by local signals that coordinate epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in order to separate antigenic luminal contents from the host's immune system. Breaches in this barrier promote gastrointestinal pathologies ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to cancer. The ubiquitin ligase ITCH is known to regulate immune responses, and loss of function of ITCH has been associated with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, particularly in the colon...
December 15, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306394/brevetoxin-pbtx-2-influences-the-redox-status-and-npq-of-karenia-brevis-by-way-of-thioredoxin-reductase
#16
Wei Chen, Ricardo Colon, J William Louda, Freddy Rodriguez Del Rey, Michaella Durham, Kathleen S Rein
The Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, is the major harmful algal bloom dinoflagellate of the Gulf of Mexico and plays a destructive role in the region. Blooms of K. brevis can produce brevetoxins: ladder-shaped polyether (LSP) compounds, which can lead to adverse human health effects, such as reduced respiratory function through inhalation exposure, or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning through consumption of contaminated shellfish. The endogenous role of the brevetoxins remains uncertain. Recent work has shown that some forms of NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) are inhibited by brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2)...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306323/mechanism-of-recipient-cell-dependent-differences-in-exosome-uptake
#17
Sayo Horibe, Toshihito Tanahashi, Shoji Kawauchi, Yoshiki Murakami, Yoshiyuki Rikitake
BACKGROUND: Exosomes, small-membrane vesicles, are secreted by cells and include several types of proteins and nucleic acids. Exosomes transfer cellular information derived from donor cells and are involved in various physiological and pathological events, such as organ-specific metastasis. Elucidating the exosome uptake mechanisms is important for understanding the progression processes of organ-specific metastasis. However, whether the exosomes secreted by the donor cells are selectively or non-selectively incorporated into the recipient cells is unknown...
January 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305650/a-look-at-the-smelly-side-of-physiology-transport-of-short-chain-fatty-acids
#18
REVIEW
Friederike Stumpff
Fermentative organs such as the caecum, the colon, and the rumen have evolved to produce and absorb energy rich short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from otherwise indigestible substrates. Classical models postulate diffusional uptake of the undissociated acid (HSCFA). However, in net terms, a major part of SCFA absorption occurs with uptake of Na+ and resembles classical, coupled electroneutral NaCl transport. Considerable evidence suggests that the anion transporting proteins expressed by epithelia of fermentative organs are poorly selective and that their main function may be to transport acetate-, propionate-, butyrate- and HCO3- as the physiologically relevant anions...
January 6, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299689/segmental-differences-in-the-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-rat-caecum
#19
Sandra Bader, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter but is also produced by several non-neuronal cell types with barrier or defence function. One of the non-neuronal tissues with expression of the key enzyme for production of acetylcholine, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), is the colonic surface epithelium, which releases acetylcholine after contact with the short-chain fatty acid propionate produced physiologically in the colonic lumen during the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates. Despite the fact that the caecum is the largest fermentation chamber in non-ruminant mammals, nothing is known about the expression and function of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in this part of the large intestine, which was addressed in the present study...
January 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295502/physiological-translocation-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-pregnancy-contributes-to-the-composition-of-the-milk-microbiota-in-mice
#20
Javier de Andrés, Esther Jiménez, Isabel Chico-Calero, Manuel Fresno, Leónides Fernández, Juan Miguel Rodríguez
The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk...
December 23, 2017: Nutrients
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