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Colon physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441105/transcriptomic-dissection-of-the-horizontally-acquired-response-regulator-esrb-reveals-its-global-regulatory-roles-in-the-physiological-adaptation-and-activation-of-t3ss-and-the-cognate-effector-repertoire-in-edwardsiella-piscicida-during-infection-towards
#1
Yang Liu, Luyao Zhao, Minjun Yang, Kaiyu Yin, Xiaohui Zhou, Ka Yin Leung, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The two-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E...
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431920/the-microbiome-in-anti-cancer-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Eran Elinav
The commensal microbiome constitutes an important modulator of host physiology and risk of disease, including cancer development and progression. Lately, the microbiome has been suggested to modulate the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. Examples include chemotherapy and total body irradiation-induced barrier function disruption, leading to microbial efflux that drives activation of anti-tumorigenic T cells; Microbiome-driven release of reactive oxygen species contributing to the efficacy of platinum salts; and microbiome-induced immune priming promoting the anti-tumor effects of alkylating chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 18, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426719/transcriptome-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-reveals-unique-and-selective-gene-signatures
#3
Moon Young Lee, Se Eun Ha, Chanjae Park, Paul J Park, Robert Fuchs, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Doug Redelman, Sean M Ward, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425937/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-increases-the-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-decreases-ph-values-in-mouse-colon
#4
Min Xie, Hai-Hong Chen, Shao-Ping Nie, Jun-Yi Yin, Ming-Yong Xie
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) could regulate physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of GABA on colon health in mice. The female Kunming mice were given GABA at doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/d for 14 days. Afterwards, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations, pH values, colon index, colon length and weight of colonic and cecal contents were determined to evaluate the effects of GABA on colon health. The results showed that intake of GABA could increase the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate and total SCFAs in colonic and cecal contents, as well as the weight of colonic and cecal contents...
April 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424720/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizophagus-irregularis-increased-potassium-content-and-expression-of-genes-encoding-potassium-channels-in-lycium-barbarum
#5
Haoqiang Zhang, Suzhen Wei, Wentao Hu, Longmin Xiao, Ming Tang
Potassium in plants accounts for up to 10% dry weight, and participates in different physiological processes. Under drought stress, plant requires more potassium but potassium availability in soil solutes is lowered by decreased soil water content. Forming symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi not only enlarges exploration range of plant for mineral nutrients and water in soil, but also improves plant drought tolerance. However, the regulation of AM fungi on plant root potassium uptake and translocation from root to shoot was less reported...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419527/the-rectosigmoid-brake-review-of-an-emerging-neuromodulation-target-for-colorectal-functional-disorders
#6
Anthony Y Lin, Phil G Dinning, Tony Milne, Ian P Bissett, Gregory O'Grady
The regulation of gastrointestinal motility encompasses several overlapping mechanisms including highly regulated and coordinated neurohormonal circuits. Various feedback mechanisms or 'brakes' have been proposed. While duodenal, jejunal, and ileal brakes are well described, a putative distal colonic brake is less well defined. Despite the high prevalence of colonic motility disorders, there is little knowledge of colonic motility owing to difficulties with organ access and technical difficulties in recording detailed motor patterns along its entire length...
April 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416688/knockout-of-the-lrrc26-subunit-reveals-a-primary-role-of-lrrc26-containing-bk-channels-in-secretory-epithelial-cells
#7
Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Taro Mukaibo, James E Melvin, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 26 (LRRC26) is the regulatory γ1 subunit of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent BK-type K(+) channels. BK channels that contain LRRC26 subunits are active near normal resting potentials even without Ca(2+), suggesting they play unique physiological roles, likely limited to very specific cell types and cellular functions. By using Lrrc26 KO mice with a β-gal reporter, Lrrc26 promoter activity is found in secretory epithelial cells, especially acinar epithelial cells in lacrimal and salivary glands, and also goblet and Paneth cells in intestine and colon, although absent from neurons...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415220/multistage-modeling-of-protein-dynamics-with-monomeric-myc-oncoprotein-as-an-example
#8
Jiaojiao Liu, Jin Dai, Jianfeng He, Antti J Niemi, Nevena Ilieva
We propose to combine a mean-field approach with all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) into a multistage algorithm that can model protein folding and dynamics over very long time periods yet with atomic-level precision. As an example, we investigate an isolated monomeric Myc oncoprotein that has been implicated in carcinomas including those in colon, breast, and lungs. Under physiological conditions a monomeric Myc is presumed to be an example of intrinsically disordered proteins that pose a serious challenge to existing modeling techniques...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411221/an-extracellular-cell-attached-pullulanase-confers-branched-%C3%AE-glucan-utilization-in-human-gut-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#9
Marie S Møller, Yong Jun Goh, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Wojciech Cypryk, Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Todd R Klaenhammer, Birte Svensson, Maher Abou Hachem
Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM that is widely used as a probiotic...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410994/the-role-of-oxysterols-in-human-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Alzbeta Kloudova, F Peter Guengerich, Pavel Soucek
Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol formed in the human body or ingested in the diet. By modulating the activity of many proteins [e.g., liver X receptors (LXRs), oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs), some ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters], oxysterols can affect many cellular functions and influence various physiological processes (e.g., cholesterol metabolism, membrane fluidity regulation, intracellular signaling pathways). Therefore, the role of oxysterols is also important in pathological conditions (e...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410367/nitric-oxide-charged-catheters-as-a-potential-strategy-for-prevention-of-hospital-acquired-infections
#11
David Margel, Mark Mizrahi, Gili Regev-Shoshani, Mary Ko, Maya Moshe, Rachel Ozalvo, Liat Shavit-Grievink, Jack Baniel, Daniel Kedar, Ofer Yossepowitch, David Lifshitz, Andrei Nadu, David Greenberg, Yossef Av-Gay
BACKGROUND: Catheter-Associated Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI's) are caused by biofilm-forming bacteria. Using a novel approach, we generated anti-infective barrier on catheters by charging them with Nitric Oxide (NO), a naturally-produced gas molecule. NO is slowly released from the catheter upon contact with physiological fluids, and prevents bacterial colonization and biofilm formation onto catheter surfaces. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to assess the anti-infective properties of NO-charged catheters exposed to low concentration (up to 103 CFU/ml) of microbial cells in-vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409884/altered-protein-expression-pattern-in-colon-tissue-of-mice-upon-supplementation-with-distinct-selenium-compounds
#12
Jette Rahn, Claudia Lennicke, Anna P Kipp, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Barbara Seliger
The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is controversially discussed concerning its role in health and disease. Its various physiological functions are largely mediated by Se incorporation in the catalytic center of selenoproteins. To gain insights into the impact of Se deficiency and of supplementation with different Se compounds (selenite, selenate, selenomethionine) at defined concentrations (recommended, 150 μg/ kg diet; excessive, 750 μg/ kg diet) in murine colon tissues a twenty week feeding experiment was performed followed by analysis of the protein expression pattern of colon tissue specimens by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS...
April 14, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403171/bacterial-biofilm-under-flow-first-a-physical-struggle-to-stay-then-a-matter-of-breathing
#13
Philippe Thomen, Jérôme Robert, Amaury Monmeyran, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Carine Douarche, Nelly Henry
Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400119/bile-acids-and-colon-cancer-is-fxr-the-solution-of-the-conundrum
#14
REVIEW
Raffaella Maria Gadaleta, Oihane Garcia-Irigoyen, Antonio Moschetta
Diet and lifestyle habits have a profound impact on the pathophysiology of many diseases. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and its etiology is strongly influenced by nutrition and high fat/high carbohydrate Western-style diet. Human epidemiological and animal studies have shown that colonic cancer risk is also related to faecal bile acid concentration. Abnormally high levels of bile acids (BA) trigger the colonic mucosa with a plethora of detrimental effects such as DNA oxidative damage, inflammation and hyperproliferation that highly promote CRC progression in post-initiation phase...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395187/surface-imaging-of-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-simplicissimum-growing-in-a-solid-state-fermentation-system
#15
Fernando Pereira de Almeida, Denise Maria Guimarães Freire, Ulysses Lins, Melissa Limoeiro Estrada Gutarra
A comparative study on the lipase-producing fungus Penicillium simplissicimum, grown on a tray type solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactor, was performed using stereoscopy, focus Z-stacking stereoscopic images, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to better characterize the morphology of filamentous fungi in SSF and their distribution over the solid matrix. The imaging of live fungal samples using a stereomicroscope with focus Z-stacking showed differences in colonization between a static SSF and an intermittent agitated SSF...
April 5, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#16
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390936/evidence-of-campylobacter-jejuni-reduction-in-broilers-with-early-synbiotic-administration
#17
Loredana Baffoni, Francesca Gaggìa, Giuliano Garofolo, Gabriella Di Serafino, Enrico Buglione, Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Diana Di Gioia
C. jejuni is considered a food safety concern to both public health authorities and consumers since it is the leading bacterial cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. A high incidence of C. jejuni in broiler flocks is often correlated to pathogen recovery in retail poultry meat, which is the main source of human infection. In this work broiler chickens were fed with a synbiotic product mixed with conventional feed using two different administration strategies. The synbiotic was formulated with the microencapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium longum PCB133 and a xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS)...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385711/microbiota-regulate-intestinal-epithelial-gene-expression-by-suppressing-the-transcription-factor-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4-alpha
#18
James M Davison, Colin R Lickwar, Lingyun Song, Ghislain Breton, Gregory E Crawford, John F Rawls
Microbiota influence diverse aspects of intestinal physiology and disease in part by controlling tissue-specific transcription of host genes. However, host genomic mechanisms mediating microbial control of intestinal gene expression are poorly understood. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) is the most ancient family of nuclear receptor transcription factors with important roles in human metabolic and inflammatory bowel diseases, but a role in host response to microbes is unknown. Using an unbiased screening strategy, we found that zebrafish Hnf4a specifically binds and activates a microbiota-suppressed intestinal epithelial transcriptional enhancer...
April 6, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385693/expression-and-localization-of-vpac1-the-major-receptor-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-along-the-length-of-the-intestine
#19
Dulari Jayawardena, Grace Guzman, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Hayat Onyuksel, Pradeep K Dudeja
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an endogenous neuropeptide with a broad array of physiological functions in many organs including the intestine. Its actions are mediated via G- protein coupled receptors and VPAC1 is the key receptor responsible for majority of VIP's biological activity. The distribution of VPAC1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract and its sub cellular localization in intestinal epithelial cells has not been fully characterized. The current studies were undertaken to determine VPAC1 distribution and localization so that VIP based therapies can be targeted to specific regions of the intestine...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384425/ionoregulatory-characteristics-of-non-rio-negro-characiforms-and-cichlids
#20
R J Gonzalez, S L Jones, T V Nguyen
We examined ionoregulatory characteristics of two species of characiform fish and two species of cichlids that are not native to the Rio Negro, an extremely ion-poor, acidic tributary of the Amazon River, in order to gain insight into the origin of the specializations possessed by Rio Negro fish. The two characiform species examined, Congo tetras (Phenacogrammus interruptus) and black neon tetras (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi), had high-affinity/high-capacity transporters that produce high rates of uptake in dilute water...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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