keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Colon physiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777439/fecal-and-mucosa-associated-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#1
Nitsan Maharshak, Yehuda Ringel, David Katibian, Ashley Lundqvist, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Only a few studies have explored differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls (HC). AIMS: To characterize and compare the microbiota in mucosal and fecal samples from carefully selected patients with IBS-D and HC. METHODS: The cohort was composed of 23 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 24 HC...
May 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777136/functional-proteomic-profiling-of-secreted-serine-proteases-in-health-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Chrystelle Bonnart, Núria Solà Tapias, Marlène Marcellin, Brendan Gilmore, Laurent Alric, Delphine Bonnet, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Morley D Hollenberg, Nathalie Vergnolle, Céline Deraison
While proteases are essential in gastrointestinal physiology, accumulating evidence indicates that dysregulated proteolysis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nonetheless, the identity of overactive proteases released by human colonic mucosa remains largely unknown. Studies of protease abundance have primarily investigated expression profiles, not taking into account their enzymatic activity. Herein we have used serine protease-targeted activity-based probes (ABPs) coupled with mass spectral analysis to identify active forms of proteases secreted by the colonic mucosa of healthy controls and IBD patients...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774159/toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-modulate-intestinal-il-10-differently-in-ileum-and-colon
#3
Eva Latorre, Elena Layunta, Laura Grasa, Julián Pardo, Santiago García, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are consequence of an intestinal homeostasis breakdown in which innate immune dysregulation is implicated. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are immune recognition receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelium, the first physical-physiological barrier for microorganisms, to inform the host of the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to maintenance of intestinal homeostasis...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774025/co-stimulation-impaired-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-prevent-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice
#4
Carl Engman, Yesica Garciafigueroa, Brett Eugene Phillips, Massimo Trucco, Nick Giannoukakis
Dendritic cells (DC) are important in the onset and severity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Tolerogenic DC induce T-cells to become therapeutic Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We therefore asked if experimental IBD could be prevented by administration of bone marrow-derived DC generated under conventional GM-CSF/IL-4 conditions but in the presence of a mixture of antisense DNA oligonucleotides targeting the primary transcripts of CD40, CD80, and CD86. These cell products (which we call AS-ODN BM-DC) have demonstrated tolerogenic activity in preventing type 1 diabetes and preserving beta cell mass in new-onset type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse strain, in earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#5
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768197/induction-of-nitric-oxide-metabolism-in-enterocytes-alleviates-colitis-and-inflammation-associated-colon-cancer
#6
Noa Stettner, Chava Rosen, Biana Bernshtein, Shiri Gur-Cohen, Julia Frug, Alon Silberman, Alona Sarver, Narin N Carmel-Neiderman, Raya Eilam, Inbal Biton, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Niv Zmora, Alexander Brandis, Keren Bahar Halpern, Ram Mazkereth, Diego di Bernardo, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Muralidhar H Premkumar, Gillian Dank, Sandesh C S Nagamani, Steffen Jung, Alon Harmelin, Ayelet Erez
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an established role in numerous physiological and pathological processes, but the specific cellular sources of NO in disease pathogenesis remain unclear, preventing the implementation of NO-related therapy. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is the only enzyme able to produce arginine, the substrate for NO generation by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. Here, we generated cell-specific conditional ASL knockout mice in combination with genetic and chemical colitis models. We demonstrate that NO derived from enterocytes alleviates colitis by decreasing macrophage infiltration and tissue damage, whereas immune cell-derived NO is associated with macrophage activation, resulting in increased severity of inflammation...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767753/benzaldehyde-synergizes-the-response-of-female-xyleborinus-saxesenii-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae-to-ethanol
#7
Chang Yeol Yang, Junheon Kim, Hyeong-Hwan Kim
The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infests physiologically stressed apple and peach trees in Korea. Dispersing females utilize the degradation product ethanol and host-related volatiles to locate and colonize new host trees. We examined the extent to which 12 chemicals emitted from fruit trees act synergistically with ethanol to attract X. saxesenii. The addition of benzaldehyde to ethanol significantly increased beetle attraction, although benzaldehyde was not attractive by itself...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764950/cagy-dependent-regulation-of-type-iv-secretion-in-helicobacter-pylori-is-associated-with-alterations-in-integrin-binding
#8
Emma C Skoog, Vasilios A Morikis, Miriam E Martin, Greg A Foster, Lucy P Cai, Lori M Hansen, Beibei Li, Jennifer A Gaddy, Scott I Simon, Jay V Solnick
Strains of Helicobacter pylori that cause ulcer or gastric cancer typically express a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island ( cag PAI). CagY is an ortholog of VirB10 that, unlike other VirB10 orthologs, has a large middle repeat region (MRR) with extensive repetitive sequence motifs, which undergo CD4+ T cell-dependent recombination during infection of mice. Recombination in the CagY MRR reduces T4SS function, diminishes the host inflammatory response, and enables the bacteria to colonize at a higher density...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762383/starch-tolerance-and-the-short-bowel
#9
Jan de Laffolie, Hassan Y Naim, Silvia Rudloff, Klaus-Peter Zimmer
Short bowel syndrome with intestinal failure is a rare disease with a massive impairment in quality of life, requiring a multidisciplinary team approach to medical, surgical, and nutritional therapy. Current pharmacological and surgical therapeutic options are limited; an important cornerstone is enteral and parenteral nutrition. The changed physiology of carbohydrate digestion plays a major role in the adaptation process and can be a target for specific enteral nutrition interventions. An important prognostic factor is the preservation of at least portions of the colon in continuity with small bowel...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#10
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756108/thoracoscopic-vagal-sparing-esophagectomy-and-colonic-interposition-for-caustic-stricture
#11
Deniz Tihan, Tuğba Matlım, Taylan Çelik, Fatih Altıntoprak, Oktar Asoğlu
Minimally invasive esophagectomy is an increasing trend in surgery. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is applicable and an alternative procedure to conventional esophagectomy in patients especially with end-stage benign diseases like caustic stricture. A 33-year-old female patient was admitted to the department of general surgery with dysphagia. The patient was suffering from caustic stricture due to ingestion of hydrochloric acid. A totally thoracoscopic and laparoscopic vagal-sparing esophagectomy and colonic interposition was performed...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755214/ecophysiological-and-morphological-comparison-of-two-populations-of-chlainomonas-sp-chlorophyta-causing-red-snow-on-ice-covered-lakes-in-the-high-tatras-and-austrian-alps
#12
Lenka Procházková, Daniel Remias, Andreas Holzinger, Tomáš Řezanka, Linda Nedbalová
Based on analyses of multiple molecular markers (18S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2 rDNA, rbc L), an alga that causes red snow on the melting ice cover of a high-alpine lake in the High Tatras (Slovakia) was shown to be identical with Chlainomonas sp. growing in a similar habitat in the Tyrolean Alps (Austria). Both populations consisted mostly of smooth-walled quadriflagellates. They occurred in slush, and shared similar photosynthetic performances (photoinhibition above 1300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 ), very high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 64% and 74% respectively) and abundant astaxanthin accumulation, comparable to the red spores of Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille...
2018: European Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753416/acute-exposure-to-space-flight-results-in-evidence-of-reduced-lymph-transport-tissue-fluid-shifts-and-immune-alterations-in-the-rat-gastrointestinal-system
#13
W E Cromer, D C Zawieja
Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749481/baicalein-induces-the-apoptosis-of-hct116-human-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-upregulation-of-depp-gadd45a-and-activation-of-mapks
#14
Meng-Qi Su, Yi-Ran Zhou, Xuan Rao, Hong Yang, Xin-Hao Zhuang, Xue-Jia Ke, Guang-Yong Peng, Chang-Lin Zhou, Bai-Yong Shen, Jie Dou
Baicalein has efficient antitumor properties and has been reported to promote the apoptosis of several human cancer cell lines. Decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP), a transcriptional target of Forkhead Box O, was originally identified from the human endometrial stromal cell cDNA library. However, the expression and physiological functions of DEPP in human colon cancer cells remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, it was reported that baicalein stimulated apoptosis and morphological changes of HCT116, A549 and Panc‑1 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748990/annual-temperature-variation-as-a-time-machine-to-understand-the-effects-of-long-term-climate-change-on-a-poleward-range-shift
#15
Sam Crickenberger, David S Wethey
Range shifts due to annual variation in temperature are more tractable than range shifts linked to decadal to century long temperature changes due to climate change, providing natural experiments to determine the mechanisms responsible for driving long-term distributional shifts. In this study we couple physiologically grounded mechanistic models with biogeographic surveys in two years with high levels of annual temperature variation to disentangle the drivers of a historical range shift driven by climate change...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748957/circadian-alignment-in-a-foster-mother-improves-the-offspring-s-pathological-phenotype
#16
Lucie Olejníková, Lenka Polidarová, Michal Behuliak, Martin Sládek, Alena Sumová
KEY POINTS: In mammals, the mother-offspring interaction is essential for health later in adulthood. The impact of altered timing and quality of maternal care on the offspring's circadian system was assessed using a cross-strain fostering approach. Better maternal care facilitated the development of amplitudes of Bmal1 clock gene expression in the central clock, as well as the clock-driven activity/rest rhythm, and also its entrainment to the external light/dark cycle. Worse maternal care impaired entrainment of the central clock parameters in the Wistar rat during the early developmental stages...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747589/additional-oxidative-stress-reroutes-the-global-response-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-to-iron-depletion
#17
Vivien Kurucz, Thomas Krüger, Károly Antal, Anna-Maria Dietl, Hubertus Haas, István Pócsi, Olaf Kniemeyer, Tamás Emri
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus has to cope with a combination of several stress types while colonizing the human body. A functional interplay between these different stress responses can increase the chances of survival for this opportunistic human pathogen during the invasion of its host. In this study, we shed light on how the H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress response depends on the iron available to this filamentous fungus, using transcriptomic analysis, proteomic profiles, and growth assays...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746643/interactions-between-metabolically-active-bacteria-and-host-gene-expression-at-the-cecal-mucosa-in-pigs-of-diverging-feed-efficiency
#18
Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Elizabeth Magowan, Qendrim Zebeli
Little is known about the role of the gut mucosal microbiota and microbe-host signaling in the variation of pig's feed efficiency (FE). This study therefore aimed to investigate the FE-related differences in the metabolically active mucosal bacterial microbiota and expression of genes for innate immune response, barrier function, nutrient uptake, and incretins in the cecum of finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 72) were ranked for their residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) between days 42 and 91 postweaning and were stratified within litter and sex into high (HRFI; n = 8) and low RFI (LRFI; n = 8)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745350/resistant-starch-reduces-large-intestinal-ph-and-promotes-fecal-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-in-pigs
#19
B U Metzler-Zebeli, N Canibe, L Montagne, J Freire, P Bosi, J A M Prates, S Tanghe, P Trevisi
Dietary resistant starch (RS) may have prebiotic properties but its effects on fermentation and the microbial population are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the relationship between RS type 2 (RS2) and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH as well as certain key bacterial taxa for intestinal health in pigs. From the 24 included articles with sufficient information about the animal, and dietary and physiological measurements published between 2000 and 2017, individual sub-data sets for fermentation metabolites, pH, bacterial abundances and apparent total tract digestibility were built and used to parameterize prediction models on the effect of RS2, accounting for inter- and intra-study variability...
May 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743592/a-novel-three-dimensional-high-throughput-screening-approach-identifies-inducers-of-a-mutant-kras-selective-lethal-phenotype
#20
Smitha Kota, Shurong Hou, William Guerrant, Franck Madoux, Scott Troutman, Virneliz Fernandez-Vega, Nina Alekseeva, Neeharika Madala, Louis Scampavia, Joseph Kissil, Timothy P Spicer
The RAS proteins are the most frequently mutated oncogenes in cancer, with highest frequency found in pancreatic, lung, and colon tumors. Moreover, the activity of RAS is required for the proliferation and/or survival of these tumor cells and thus represents a high-value target for therapeutic development. Direct targeting of RAS has proven challenging for multiple reasons stemming from the biology of the protein, the complexity of downstream effector pathways and upstream regulatory networks. Thus, significant efforts have been directed at identifying downstream targets on which RAS is dependent...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
keyword
keyword
21054
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"