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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546341/intra-generational-protein-malnutrition-impairs-temporal-astrogenesis-in-rat-brain
#1
Aijaz Ahmad Naik, Nisha Patro, Pankaj Seth, Ishan K Patro
The scanty information on astrogenesis following stressor effect, albeit imperative roles of astroglia in normal physiology and pathophysiology, incited us to assess temporal astrogenesis and astrocyte density in an intra-generational protein malnutrition (PMN) rat model. Standard immunohistochemical procedures for glial lineage markers and their intensity measurements and qRT-PCR studies were performed to reveal the spatio-temporal origin and density of astrocytes. Reduced A2B5+ glia restricted precursor population in ventricles and poor dissemination to cortex at embryonic days (E)11-14, low BLBP+ secondary radial glia in SVZ of E16 LP brains reflect compromised progenitor pooling...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540541/morphological-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-two-australian-biotypes-of-parthenium-hysterophorus-to-different-soil-moisture-regimes
#2
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, Steve Adkins
Parthenium weed is a problematic invasive species in several countries around the world. Although it is considered to be a highly invasive species within Australia, not all biotypes of parthenium weed exhibit the same ability in regard to aggressive colonization and distribution. Differences among biotypes, particularly in regard to environmental ranges as a possible basis for this variation, have not always been elucidated. To determine whether drought tolerance could be a factor in biotype demographics, we quantified the biological responses of two Australian parthenium weed biotypes known to differ in invasive ability Clermont ("high") and Toogoolawah ("low") to 100, 75 and 50% of soil water holding capacity (WHC)...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539916/endophytic-fungi-piriformospora-indica-mediated-protection-of-host-from-arsenic-toxicity
#3
Shayan Mohd, Jagriti Shukla, Aparna S Kushwaha, Kapil Mandrah, Jai Shankar, Nidhi Arjaria, Prem N Saxena, Ram Narayan, Somendu K Roy, Manoj Kumar
Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539646/colonic-infusions-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-promote-energy-metabolism-in-overweight-obese-men-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#4
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Johan W E Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Jens J Holst, Steven W M Olde Damink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ellen E Blaak
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200 mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529168/opioids-in-gastroenterology-treating-adverse-effects-and-creating-therapeutic-benefits
#5
Michael Camilleri, Anthony Lembo, David A Katzka
The use of opioid medications on both an acute and chronic basis is ubiquitous in the U.S. As opioid receptors densely populate the gastrointestinal tract, symptoms and side effects can be expected in these patients. In the esophagus, dysmotility may result manifesting with dysphagia and a syndrome indistinguishable from primary achalasia. In the stomach, a marked delay in gastric emptying may ensue with postprandial nausea and early satiety. Postoperatively, particularly with abdominal surgery, opioid induced ileus may ensue...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527578/tr2-and-tr4-orphan-nuclear-receptors-an-overview
#6
Shin-Jen Lin, Dong-Rong Yang, Guosheng Yang, Chang-Yi Lin, Hong-Chiang Chang, Gonghui Li, Chawnshang Chang
Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), also known as NR1C3 nuclear receptor...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#7
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#8
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522417/physiological-responses-of-insects-to-microbial-fermentation-products-insights-from-the-interactions-between-drosophila-and-acetic-acid
#9
Geonho Kim, Jia Hsin Huang, John G McMullen, Peter D Newell, Angela E Douglas
Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#10
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514886/physiological-effects-of-prebiotics-and-its-role-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates
#11
Bhawan Deep Garg, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Nandkishor S Kabra
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious gastrointestinal emergencies in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, affecting 7% to 14% of these neonates. Due to seriousness of disease, prevention of NEC is the most important goal. Current evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis revealed probiotics are the most promising intervention in reduction of the incidence of NEC in VLBW neonates. As per the evidence, prebiotics modulate the composition of human intestine microflora to the benefit of the host by suppression of colonization of harmful microorganism and/or the stimulation of bifidobacterial growth, decreased stool viscosity, reduced gastrointestinal transit time and better feed tolerance...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512783/effect-of-silver-loaded-pmma-on-streptococcus-mutans-in-a-drip-flow-reactor
#12
Dustin L Williams, R Tyler Epperson, Jeffery P DeGrauw, Mattias B Nielsen, Nicholas B Taylor, Ryan D Jolley
Orthodontic retention has been proposed as a life-long commitment for patients who desire to maintain straight teeth. However, the presence of foreign material increases risk of bacterial colonization and caries formation, of which Streptococcus mutans is a key contributor. Multiple studies have assessed the ability of silver to be added to base plate material and resist attachment of S. mutans. However, it does not appear that long term washout in connection with biofilm growth under physiologically relevant conditions has been taken into consideration...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509401/transitions-between-marine-and-freshwater-environments-provide-new-clues-about-the-origins-of-multicellular-plants-and-algae
#13
REVIEW
Simon M Dittami, Svenja Heesch, Jeanine L Olsen, Jonas Collén
Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized fresh water on a maximum of six known occasions, and angiosperms have made the transition to marine environments only two or three times...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507667/photoacoustic-probes-for-real-time-tracking-of-endogenous-h2s-in-living-mice
#14
Ben Shi, Xianfeng Gu, Qiang Fei, Chunchang Zhao
H2S is a key chemical mediator that exerts a vital role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. However, in vivo tracking of endogenous H2S generation still remains difficult due to the lack of reliable analytical methods. Herein, we present the first example of activatable photoacoustic probes for real-time imaging of H2S in living mice through the full utilization of the superiority of photoacoustic imaging modality at fine spatial resolution during deep tissue penetration. The designed probe can generate high NIR absorption at 780 nm in the presence of H2S, thus producing a strong photoacoustic signal output in the NIR region...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503170/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-high-throughput-model-for-host-microbiota-interactions
#15
Mark Trinder, Brendan A Daisley, Josh S Dube, Gregor Reid
Microbiota research often assumes that differences in abundance and identity of microorganisms have unique influences on host physiology. To test this concept mechanistically, germ-free mice are colonized with microbial communities to assess causation. Due to the cost, infrastructure challenges, and time-consuming nature of germ-free mouse models, an alternative approach is needed to investigate host-microbial interactions. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) can be used as a high throughput in vivo screening model of host-microbiome interactions as they are affordable, convenient, and replicable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500733/bordetella-effector-bopn-is-translocated-into-host-cells-via-its-n-terminal-residues
#16
Akio Abe, Ryutaro Nishimura, Asaomi Kuwae
Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a wide variety of mammals, and the type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in the long-term colonization of Bordetella in the trachea and lung. The T3SS translocates virulence factors (commonly referred to as effectors) into host cells, leading to alteration of the host physiological function. The Bordetella effectors BopN and BteA are known to have roles in the up-regulation of IL-10 and the cytotoxicity, respectively. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which BopN is translocated into host cells has not been examined in sufficient detail...
May 13, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494967/visualizing-calcium-flux-in-freely-moving-nematode-embryos
#17
Evan L Ardiel, Abhishek Kumar, Joseph Marbach, Ryan Christensen, Rishi Gupta, William Duncan, Jonathan S Daniels, Nico Stuurman, Daniel Colón-Ramos, Hari Shroff
The lack of physiological recordings from Caenorhabditis elegans embryos stands in stark contrast to the comprehensive anatomical and gene expression datasets already available. Using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy to address the challenges associated with functional imaging at this developmental stage, we recorded calcium dynamics in muscles and neurons and developed analysis strategies to relate activity and movement. In muscles, we found that the initiation of twitching was associated with a spreading calcium wave in a dorsal muscle bundle...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493057/absorptance-determinations-on-multicellular-tissues
#18
Román Manuel Vásquez-Elizondo, Lyz Legaria-Moreno, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Castro, Wiebke E Krämer, Tim Scheufen, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Susana Enríquez
The analysis of the variation of the capacity and efficiency of photosynthetic tissues to collect solar energy is fundamental to understand the differences among species in their ability to transform this energy into organic molecules. This analysis may also help to understand natural changes in species distribution and/or abundance, and differences in species ability to colonize contrasting light environments or respond to environmental changes. Unfortunately, the challenge that optical determinations on highly dispersive samples represent has strongly limited the progression of this analysis on multicellular tissues, limiting our knowledge of the role that optical properties of photosynthetic tissues may play in the optimization of photosynthesis and growth of benthonic primary producers...
May 10, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491076/a-proteomic-approach-suggests-unbalanced-proteasome-functioning-induced-by-the-growth-promoting-bacterium-kosakonia-radicincitans-in-arabidopsis
#19
Katja Witzel, Suayib Üstün, Monika Schreiner, Rita Grosch, Frederik Börnke, Silke Ruppel
Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria have significant impact on the plant physiology and understanding this interaction at the molecular level is of particular interest to support crop productivity and sustainable production systems. We used a proteomics approach to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion in the interaction of Kosakonia radicincitans DSM 16656 with Arabidopsis thaliana. Four weeks after the inoculation, the proteome of roots from inoculated and control plants was compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially abundant protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#20
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
May 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
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