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Colon physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155014/resveratrol-dimer-trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-prevents-rotaviral-diarrhea-in-mice-by-inhibition-of-the-intestinal-calcium-activated-chloride-channel
#1
Bo Yu, Yu Jiang, Bo Zhang, Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
We previously identified, by a natural-product screen, resveratrol oligomers as inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. Here, we report the resveratrol dimer trans-ε-viniferin (TV) and tetramer r-2-viniferin (RV) as inhibitors of the intestinal calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and demonstrate their antisecretory efficacy in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral diarrhea. Short-circuit measurements show inhibition of CaCC current in the human colonic cell line HT-29 by TV and RV with IC50∼1 and 20μM, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153987/development-and-characterization-of-a-human-and-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayer-platform
#2
Kenji Kozuka, Ying He, Samantha Koo-McCoy, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Baoming Nie, Karen Shaw, Priscilla Chan, Michael Leadbetter, Limin He, Jason G Lewis, Ziyang Zhong, Dominique Charmot, Marwan Balaa, Andrew J King, Jeremy S Caldwell, Matthew Siegel
We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152088/aspirin-exerts-high-anti-cancer-activity-in-pik3ca-mutant-colon-cancer-cells
#3
Mancang Gu, Reiko Nishihara, Yang Chen, Wanwan Li, Yan Shi, Yohei Masugi, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Li Liu, Annacarolina da Silva, Jonathan A Nowak, Tyler Twombly, Chunxia Du, Hideo Koh, Wenbin Li, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Brian M Wolpin, Marios Giannakis, Andrew J Aguirre, Adam J Bass, David A Drew, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Zhi Rong Qian, Shuji Ogino
Evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) may improve patient survival in PIK3CA-mutant colorectal carcinoma, but not in PIK3CA-wild-type carcinoma. However, whether aspirin directly influences the viability of PIK3CA-mutant colon cancer cells is poorly understood. We conducted in vitro experiments to test our hypothesis that the anti-proliferative activity of aspirin might be stronger for PIK3CA-mutant colon cancer cells than for PIK3CA-wild-type colon cancer cells...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152022/proteomic-approach-for-extracting-cytoplasmic-proteins-from-streptococcus-sanguinis-using-mass-spectrometry
#4
Fadi El-Rami, Kristina Nelson, Ping Xu
Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal and early colonizer of oral cavity as well as an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. Extracting the soluble proteome of this bacterium provides deep insights about the physiological dynamic changes under different growth and stress conditions, thus defining "proteomic signatures" as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this protocol, we describe an experimentally verified approach to extract maximal cytoplasmic proteins from Streptococcus sanguinis SK36 strain...
2017: J Mol Biol Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151923/p300-knockout-promotes-butyrate-resistance
#5
Darina L Lazarova, Michael Bordonaro
Dietary fiber is linked to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and this protective activity is likely due to its fermentation product, butyrate. Dependent upon the hyperactivation of Wnt signaling, butyrate represses CRC cell growth and induces apoptosis. However, resistance to butyrate activity may allow for CRC development even in the context of relatively high fiber intake. We have previously determined that CRC cells resistant to butyrate are deficient in p300 expression. The histone acetylase p300 influences colonic cell signaling and physiology through effects on Wnt signaling...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151649/role-of-the-toxr-gene-from-fish-pathogen-vibiro-alginolyticus-in-the-physiology-and-virulence
#6
Shuanghu Cai, Haiyan Cheng, Huanying Pang, Yishan Lu, Jichan Jian
A mutant strain of Vibiro alginolyticus with an in-frame deletion of the toxR gene was constructed to reveal the role of ToxR in the physiology and virulence of V. alginolyticus. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the growth ability, swarming motility, activity of extracellular protease and the virulence by injection (the value of LD50) between the wild-type and the toxR mutant. However, the deletion of toxR could decrease the level of biofilm formation. The comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated the deletion mutation of toxR could up-regulate the expression of glutamine synthetase and levansucrase, and down-regulate the expression of 10 proteins such as OmpU, DnaK, etc...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150498/identification-of-a-chez-like-gene-in-azorhizobium-caulinodans-a-key-gene-in-the-control-of-chemotaxis-and-colonization-of-the-host-plant
#7
Xiaolin Liu, Wei Liu, Yu Sun, Chunlei Xia, Claudine Elmerich, Zhihong Xie
Chemotaxis can provide bacteria with competitive advantages for survival in complex environments. The CheZ chemotaxis protein is a phosphatase, affecting the flagellar motor in Escherichia coli, by dephosphorylating the response regulator CheY-P protein responsible for clockwise rotation. A cheZ gene has been found in Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, in contrast to other rhizobial species studied so far. The CheZ protein in ORS571 has a conserved motif similar to that corresponding to the phosphatase active site in E...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146257/klebsiella-sp-confers-enhanced-tolerance-to-salinity-and-plant-growth-promotion-in-oat-seedlings-avena-sativa
#8
Swapnil Sapre, Iti Gontia-Mishra, Sharad Tiwari
Plant growth and yield is adversely affected by soil salinity. Salt tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain IG 3 was isolated from rhizosphere of wheat plants. The isolate IG 3 was able to grow in presence of NaCl ranging from 0 to 20% in Luria Bertani medium. The present study was planned to evaluate the role of inoculation of PGPR strain IG 3 and its efficacy in augmenting salt tolerance in oat (Avena sativa) under NaCl stress (100mM). The physiological parameter such as shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and relative water content (RWC) were remarkably higher in IG 3 inoculated plants in comparison to un-inoculated plants under NaCl stress...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145645/waddlia-chondrophila-a-chlamydia-related-bacterium-has-a-negative-impact-on-human-spermatozoa
#9
D Baud, N Vulliemoz, A Ammerdorffer, J Gyger, G Greub, V Castella, M Stojanov
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of Waddlia chondrophila, an emerging Chlamydia-related bacterium associated with miscarriage, on human spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: W. chondrophila had a negative impact on human spermatozoa (decrease in viability and mitochondrial membrane potential) and was not entirely removed from infected samples by density gradient centrifugation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Bacterial infection or colonization might have a deleterious effect on male fertility...
November 14, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144205/lessons-in-effector-and-nlr-biology-of-plant-microbe-systems
#10
Aleksandra Białas, Erin K Zess, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Marina Franceschetti, Helen G Pennington, Kentaro Yoshida, Jessica L Upson, Emilie Chanclud, Chih-Hang Wu, Thorsten Langner, Abbas Maqbool, Freya A Varden, Lida Derevnina, Khaoula Belhaj, Koki Fujisaki, Hiromasa Saitoh, Ryohei Terauchi, Mark J Banfield, Sophien Kamoun
A diversity of plant-associated organisms secrete effectors-proteins and metabolites that modulate plant physiology to favor host infection and colonization. However, effectors can also activate plant immune receptors, notably nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat region (NLR)-containing proteins, enabling plants to fight off invading organisms. This interplay between effectors, their host targets, and the matching immune receptors is shaped by intricate molecular mechanisms and exceptionally dynamic coevolution...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139377/laboratory-colonization-and-mass-rearing-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae
#11
Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Phillip Lawyer, Mireille Killick-Kendrick, Tobin Rowland, Edgar Rowton, Petr Volf
Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138097/gastric-microbiota-an-emerging-player-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-gastric-malignancies
#12
J Luis Espinoza, Ayumi Matsumoto, Hirokazu Tanaka, Itaru Matsumura
The complex diversity of nonpathogenic microbes that colonize the human body, known as microbiota, exert considerable effects on physiological homeostasis, and immune regulation. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that frequently colonizes human stomach and is a major pathogenic agent for peptic ulcer diseases, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Due to its acidic pH and peristaltic movements, the stomach has been considered a hostile environment for most microorganisms, however various commensal microorganisms are capable of colonizing the stomach to form a stomach niche...
November 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128770/ivermectin-residues-disrupt-dung-beetle-diversity-soil-properties-and-ecosystem-functioning-an-interdisciplinary-field-study
#13
José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo, Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Belén Gallego, Catherine Numa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Vieyle Cortez, Antonio J Ortiz, Mattia Tonelli, Juan P García-Teba, Ana Rey, Alexandra Rodríguez, Jorge Durán
Ivermectin is the most common endectocide used to control parasites affecting livestock. Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of ivermectin on dung beetles may have long-term consequences for beetle populations and ecosystem functioning. Long-term effects of the use of ivermectin can be estimated by comparing dung assemblages and ecosystem functions in areas with conventional ivermectin-treated livestock and environmentally similar areas in which livestock are not treated with veterinary medical products (organic farming)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127064/multifunctional-ph-sensitive-3d-scaffolds-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-bone-infection
#14
Mónica Cicuéndez, Juan C Doadrio, Ana Hernández, M Teresa Portolés, Isabel Izquierdo-Barba, María Vallet-Regí
Multifunctional-therapeutic three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have been prepared. These biomaterials are able to destroy the S. aureus bacterial biofilm and to allow bone regeneration at the same time. The present study is focused on the design of pH sensitive 3D hierarchical meso-macroporous 3D scaffolds based on MGHA nanocomposite formed by a mesostructured glassy network with embedded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, whose mesopores have been loaded with levofloxacin (Levo) as antibacterial agent. These 3D platforms exhibit controlled and pH-dependent Levo release, sustained over time at physiological pH (7...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126853/absorption-metabolism-distribution-and-excretion-of-epicatechin-a-review-of-recent-findings
#15
REVIEW
Gina Borges, Javier I Ottaviani, Justin J J van der Hooft, Hagen Schroeter, Alan Crozier
This paper reviews pioneering human studies, their limitations and recent investigations on the absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (aka bioavailability) of (-)-epicatechin. Progress has been made possible by improvements in mass spectrometric detection when coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and through the increasing availability of authentic reference compounds of in vivo metabolites of (-)-epicatechin. Studies have shown that [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin is absorbed in the small intestine with the 12 structural-related (-)-epicatechin metabolites (SREMs), mainly in the form of (-)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide, 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-5-sulfate and (-)-epicatechin-3'-sulfate, attaining sub-μmol/L peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) ∼1 h after ingestion...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124854/thermoacclimation-and-genome-adaptation-of-the-membrane-lipidome-in-marine-synechococcus
#16
Justine Pittera, Juliette Jouhet, Solène Breton, Laurence Garczarek, Frédéric Partensky, Éric Maréchal, Ngoc An Nguyen, Hugo Doré, Morgane Ratin, Frances D Pitt, David J Scanlan, Christophe Six
The marine cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus are important primary producers, displaying a wide latitudinal distribution that is underpinned by diversification into temperature ecotypes. The physiological basis underlying these ecotypes is poorly known. In many organisms, regulation of membrane fluidity is crucial for acclimating to variations in temperature. Here, we reveal the detailed composition of the membrane lipidome of the model strain Synechococcus sp. WH7803 and its response to temperature variation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124326/impact-of-two-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-arundo-donax-l-response-to-salt-stress
#17
Susanna Pollastri, Andreas Savvides, Massimo Pesando, Erica Lumini, Maria Grazia Volpe, Elif Aylin Ozudogru, Antonella Faccio, Fausta De Cunzo, Marco Michelozzi, Maurizio Lambardi, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Francesco Loreto, Mauro Centritto, Raffaella Balestrini
AM symbiosis did not strongly affect Arundo donax performances under salt stress, although differences in the plants inoculated with two different fungi were recorded. The mechanisms at the basis of the improved tolerance to abiotic stresses by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been investigated mainly focusing on food crops. In this work, the potential impact of AM symbiosis on the performance of a bioenergy crop, Arundo donax, under saline conditions was considered. Specifically, we tried to understand whether AM symbiosis helps this fast-growing plant, often widespread in marginal soils, withstand salt...
November 9, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#18
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113026/how-gut-transcriptional-function-of-drosophila-melanogaster-varies-with-the-presence-and-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota
#19
Alyssa Bost, Soeren Franzenburg, Karen L Adair, Vincent G Martinson, Greg Loeb, Angela E Douglas
Despite evidence from laboratory experiments that perturbation of the gut microbiota affects many traits of the animal host, our understanding of the effect of variation in microbiota composition on animals in natural populations is very limited. The core purpose of this study on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was to identify the impact of natural variation in the taxonomic composition of gut bacterial communities on host traits, with the gut transcriptome as a molecular index of microbiota-responsive host traits...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112296/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-induces-greater-tlr2-and-tlr2-6-activation-than-the-dead-bacterium-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-system
#20
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Eric Altermann, Nicole C Roy
Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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