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Colon physiology

Yves Claude Guillaume, Lydie Lethier, Claire André
TRAIL is a member of the TNF family of cytokines which induces apoptosis of cancer cells via its binding to its cognate receptors, DR5 a high affinity site and DR4 a site of low affinity. Our working group has recently demonstrated that nanovectorization of TRAIL with single wall carbon nanotubes (abbreviated NPT) enhanced TRAIL affinity to the high affinity site DR5 and increased pro apoptotic potential in different human tumor cell lines. In this paper, the DR4 low affinity site was immobilized on a chromatographic support and the effect of temperature on a wide temperature range 1°C-50°C was studied to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of the binding of TRAIL and NPT to DR4 and DR5 receptors...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Y-B Yu, D-Y Zhao, Q-Q Qi, X Long, X Li, F-X Chen, X-L Zuo
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a vital role in the homeostatic regulation of intestinal barrier integrity. We aimed to investigate the physiological role of BDNF in maintaining the intestinal epithelial barrier using postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) mice and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms using intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: Postinflammatory-IBS mice were induced by intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and allowed to recover for 28 days...
October 17, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small and large bowel contents following oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period crossover study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/week) and reported bloating...
October 13, 2016: Gastroenterology
Mohamed Mousslim, Alessandra Pagano, Nicolas Andreotti, Françoise Garrouste, Sylvie Thuault, Vincent Peyrot, Fabrice Parat, José Luis, Marcel Culcasi, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Sylvia Pietri, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Hervé Kovacic
The NADPH oxidase proteins catalyse the formation of superoxide anion which act as signalling molecules in physiological and pathological processes. Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase is expressed in heart, lung, colon, blood vessels and brain. Different strategies involving Nox1 inhibition based on diphenylene iodonium derivatives are currently tested for colorectal cancer therapy. Here, after peptides screening on Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase assay in HT-29 cells, we identify a peptide (referred to as NF02), cell-active, that potently block Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Hang Yang, Yongli Bi, Xiaoran Shang, Mengyue Wang, Sara B Linden, Yunpeng Li, Yuhong Li, Daniel C Nelson, Hongping Wei
Streptococcus mutans often survives as a biofilm on the tooth surface and contributes to the development of dental caries. We investigated the efficacy of ClyR, an engineered chimeolysin, against S. mutans biofilms in physiological and cariogenic conditions. Susceptibility tests showed that ClyR was active against all clinical S. mutans isolates tested as well as S. mutans biofilms that displayed resistance to penicillin. S. mutans biofilms formed on hydroxyapatite discs in physiological sugar conditions and cariogenic conditions were reduced ∼2 logs and 3 logs after treatment with 100 μg/ml ClyR, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Elita Montanari, Arianna Gennari, Maria Pelliccia, Charlotte Gourmel, Enrique Lallana, Pietro Matricardi, Andrew J McBain, Nicola Tirelli
Nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid (HA) are designed to deliver tannic acid (TA) as an antimicrobial agent. The presence of HA makes these particles potentially useful to target bacteria that colonize cells presenting HA membrane receptors (e.g. CD44), such as macrophages. HA bearing 3-aminophenyl boronic acid groups (HA-APBA) is reacted with TA, yielding nanoparticles with a size that decreases with decreasing HA molecular weight (e.g. 200 nm for 44 kDa, 400 nm for 737 kDa). The boronate esters make the nanoparticles stable at physiological pH, but their hydrolysis in an acidic environment (pH = 5) leads to swelling/solubilization, therefore potentially allowing TA release in endosomal compartments...
October 13, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Serena Ammendola, Ylenia D'Amico, Barbara Chirullo, Rosanna Drumo, Domenico Civardelli, Paolo Pasquali, Andrea Battistoni
Zinc is known to play a central role in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. Here, we report that the accumulation of FliC, the structural subunit of Salmonella phase 1 flagella, is sharply reduced in a znuABC Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium strain grown in zinc-poor media. Consequently, this mutant strain lacks motility, unless it grows in zinc-replete environments. This phenotype is the consequence of a general downregulation of all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of flagella, suggesting that zinc is the cofactor of proteins involved in the initiation of the transcriptional regulatory cascade leading to flagella assembly...
October 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Diego De Miguel, Ana Gallego Lleyda, José María Ayuso, Dolores Pejenaute-Ochoa, Vidal Jarauta, Isabel Marzo, Luis J Fernández, Ignacio Ochoa, Blanca Conde, Alberto Anel, Luis Martinez-Lostao
During the last years, a great effort has been invested into developing new TRAIL formulations with increased bioactivity, trying to overcome the resistance to conventional soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) exhibited by many primary tumours. In our group, we have generated artificial lipid nanoparticles decorated with sTRAIL (LUV-TRAIL), emulating the physiological TRAIL-containing exosomes by which T-cells release TRAIL upon activation. We already demonstrated that LUV-TRAIL has greater cytotoxicity against both chemoresistant haematologic tumour cells and epithelial carcinoma cells compared to a form of sTRAIL similar to that used in clinical trials...
October 8, 2016: Cancer Letters
Robert R Brubaker
This chapter outlines the physiology of Yersinia pestis with emphasis on identifying unique functions required for tissue invasion and acute disease. These activities are opposed to often incompatible processes expressed by very closely related Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes localized gastrointestinal infection. Gain of new information in Y. pestis entailed lateral transfer of plasminogen activator and anti-phagocytic capsular antigen via the plasmids pPCP and pMT, respectively, and derepression of the pigmentation locus facilitating colonization of the flea vector...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alexander Klotz, Jens Georg, Lenka Bučinská, Satoru Watanabe, Viktoria Reimann, Witold Januszewski, Roman Sobotka, Dieter Jendrossek, Wolfgang R Hess, Karl Forchhammer
The molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in the transition of microbial cells from a resting state to the active vegetative state are critically relevant for solving problems in fields ranging from microbial ecology to infection microbiology. Cyanobacteria that cannot fix nitrogen are able to survive prolonged periods of nitrogen starvation as chlorotic cells in a dormant state. When provided with a usable nitrogen source, these cells re-green within 48 hr and return to vegetative growth. Here we investigated the resuscitation of chlorotic Synechocystis sp...
October 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Janette Vardy, Prunella Blinman, Erin B Moth
Colon cancer is common and can be considered a disease of older adults with more than half of cases diagnosed in patients aged over 70 years. Decision-making about treatment with chemotherapy for older adults may be complicated by age-related physiological changes, impaired functional status, limited social supports, concerns regarding the occurrence of and ability to tolerate treatment toxicity, and the presence of comorbidities. This is compounded by a lack of high quality evidence guiding cancer treatment decisions for older adults...
October 10, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Thi Phuong Nam Bui, Sudarshan Shetty, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Jarmo Ritari, Bhawani Chamlagain, Francois Douillard, Lars Paulin, Vieno Piironen, Thomas Clavel, Caroline M Plugge, Willem M de Vos
Intestinimonas is a newly described bacterial genus with representative strains present in the intestinal tract of human and other animals. Despite unique metabolic features including the production of butyrate from both sugars and amino acids, there is to date no data on their diversity, ecology, and physiology. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic approach, Intestinimomas was found to include at least 3 species that colonize primarily the human and mouse intestine. We focused on the most common and cultivable species of the genus, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and performed detailed genomic and physiological comparison of strains SRB521(T) and AF211, isolated from the mouse and human gut, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Mercedes Berlanga, Ricardo Guerrero
In nature, bacteria alternate between two modes of growth: a unicellular life phase, in which the cells are free-swimming (planktonic), and a multicellular life phase, in which the cells are sessile and live in a biofilm, that can be defined as surface-associated microbial heterogeneous structures comprising different populations of microorganisms surrounded by a self-produced matrix that allows their attachment to inert or organic surfaces. While a unicellular life phase allows for bacterial dispersion and the colonization of new environments, biofilms allow sessile cells to live in a coordinated, more permanent manner that favors their proliferation...
October 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Karolina Stefanowicz, Nausicaä Lannoo, Yafei Zhao, Lore Eggermont, Jonas Van Hove, Bassam Al Atalah, Els J M Van Damme
BACKGROUND: A small group of F-box proteins consisting of a conserved F-box domain linked to a domain homologous to the glycan-binding protein has been identified within the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, the so-called F-box-Nictaba protein, encoded by the gene At2g02360, was shown to be a functional lectin which binds N-acetyllactosamine structures. Here, we present a detailed qRT-PCR expression analysis of F-box-Nictaba in Arabidopsis plants upon different stresses and hormone treatments...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Evelien P J G Neis, S Sabrkhany, I Hundscheid, D Schellekens, K Lenaerts, S W Olde Damink, E E Blaak, C H C Dejong, Sander S Rensen
Plasma levels of several amino acids are correlated with metabolic dysregulation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. To increase our understanding of human amino-acid metabolism, we aimed to determine splanchnic interorgan amino-acid handling. Twenty patients planned to undergo a pylorus preserving pancreatico-duodenectomy were included in this study. Blood was sampled from the portal vein, hepatic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, renal vein, and the radial artery during surgery...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Jian Jiao, Yaner Ma, Sha Chen, Chonghuai Liu, Yuyang Song, Yi Qin, Chunlong Yuan, Yanlin Liu
Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Łukasz Michalak, Magdalena Bulska, Katarzyna Kudłacz, Piotr Szcześniak
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, known also as 24p3 lipocalin, lipocalin-2 or uterocalin (in mouse), is a small secretory protein binding small molecular weight ligands which takes part in numerous processes including apoptosis induction in leukocytes, iron transport, smell, and prostaglandins and retinol transport [19]. It was discovered in activated neutrophils as a covalent peptide associated with human gelatinase neutrophils [7]. Neutrophil lipocalin is secreted physiologically in the digestive system, respiratory tract, renal tubular cells, liver or immunity system...
January 4, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Omer H Yilmaz, Semir Beyaz
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor delta (PPAR-δ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates gene expression during development and disease states such as cancer. However, the precise role of PPAR-δ during tumorigenesis is not well understood. Recent data suggest that PPAR-δ may have context specific oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles depending on the tissue, cell-type, or diet-induced physiology in question. For example in the intestine, pro-obesity diets, like a high fat diet (HFD), are associated with increased colorectal cancer incidence...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Thomas G Blanchard, Steven J Czinn
Establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection as an etiologic agent of peptic ulcer disease and other gastric pathologies marked a revolution in gastroenterology which spurred an enormous interest in gastric physiology and immunology research. The association was soon also demonstrated in children as well. Application of antimicrobial therapies have proven remarkably efficacious in eradicating H. pylori and curing pediatric patients of duodenal ulcers as well as gastritis, negating a lifetime of ineffective therapy and life-threatening disease...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
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