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Colon physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931045/effect-of-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factors-on-autoaggregation-hemagglutination-and-cell-surface-properties-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#1
Kazutaka Fujise, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses. Microbial gene expression is regulated by transcription factors such as those in two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. ECF sigma factors are involved in the regulation of environmental stress response genes; however, the roles of individual ECF sigma factors are largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930570/gut-microbiota-architects-of-small-intestinal-capillaries
#2
Avinash Khandagale, Christoph Reinhardt
The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930188/cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-activities-of-prunus-spinosa-trigno-ecotype-extract-on-human-cancer-cells
#3
Stefania Meschini, Evelin Pellegrini, Maria Condello, Giovanni Occhionero, Sebastiano Delfine, Giancarlo Condello, Franco Mastrodonato
The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT) drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC) made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC)(®) has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480...
September 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929959/-in-vitro-effect-of-vancomycin-and-daptomycin-on-biofilm-formation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-strains
#4
Duygu Nilüfer Öcal, İştar Dolapçı, Zeynep Gençtürk, Alper Tekeli
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are one of the primer agents of blood stream infections (BSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) which are associated mostly with the usage of central venous catheters and, important causes of morbidity and mortality despite the usage of antibacterial and supportive treatment. It is important to determine the properties of these causative microorganisms in order to make appropriate treatment of such infections. The aims of our study were to evaluate the biofilm formation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) which were causative agents of bloodstream (BSI) and catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic forms and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of sessile forms for vancomycin and daptomycin and to evaluate the efficacy of these antibiotics in infections with biofilm-forming isolates in vitro...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929461/the-isolation-culture-and-propagation-of-murine-intestinal-enteroids-for-the-study-of-dietary-lipid-metabolism
#5
Diana Li, Hongli Dong, Alison B Kohan
Since the initial report in 2009 by Sato and Clevers, primary enteroids have been of major interest in the fields of stem cell biology and gastrointestinal (GI) tract biology. More recently, we and others have made major inroads into the physiological relevance of these enteroid models and have shown that enteroids derived from the stomach, intestine, or colon recapitulate major functions of these tissues, namely, gastric acid secretion, lipid absorption and lipoprotein secretion, and ion transport. Here, we detail the isolation of stem cells from the small intestine and the culture and propagation of those stem cells into mature three-dimensional enteroids...
September 20, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923355/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-new-gold-iii-porphyrin-complexes-in-colon-cancer-cells
#6
Fatima Dandash, David Yannick Léger, Chloë Fidanzi-Dugas, Soumaya Nasri, Frédérique Brégier, Robert Granet, Walid Karam, Mona Diab-Assaf, Vincent Sol, Bertrand Liagre
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed worldwide. The limitations of cisplatin-based chemotherapy have prompted intense interest among scientists to search for alternative metal-based anticancer medicines. Gold(III) complexes have been among the most widely investigated since they showed higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin and promising in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities in CRC but their clinical usefulness has been limited by their poor stability under physiological conditions...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922650/constitutive-modeling-of-the-passive-inflation-extension-behavior-of-the-swine-colon
#7
Bhavesh Patel, Huan Chen, Aashish Ahuja, Joshua F Krieger, Jillian Noblet, Sean Chambers, Ghassan S Kassab
In the present work, we propose the first structural constitutive model of the passive mechanical behavior of the swine colon that is validated against physiological inflation-extension tests, and accounts for residual strains. Sections from the spiral colon and the descending colon were considered to investigate potential regional variability. We found that the proposed constitutive model accurately captures the passive inflation-extension behavior of both regions of the swine colon (coefficient of determination R(2)=0...
August 31, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918265/amorphous-liquid-metal-electrodes-enabled-conformable-electrochemical-therapy-of-tumors
#8
Xuyang Sun, Bo Yuan, Wei Rao, Jing Liu
Electrochemical treatment of tumors (EChT) has recently been identified as a very effective way for local tumor therapy. However, hindered by the limited effective area of a single rigid electrode, multiple electrodes are often recruited when tackling large tumors, where too many electrodes not only complicate the clinical procedures but also aggravate patients' pain. Here we present a new conceptual electric stimulation tumor therapy through introducing the injectable liquid metal electrodes, which can adapt to complex tumor shapes so as to achieve desired therapeutic performance...
September 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904640/short-term-dietary-methionine-supplementation-affects-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mouse-gut-and-leads-to-altered-microbiome-profiles-barrier-function-gene-expression-and-histomorphology
#9
Isabelle R Miousse, Rupak Pathak, Sarita Garg, Charles M Skinner, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Howard Hendrickson, Reid D Landes, Annie Lumen, Alan J Tackett, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
BACKGROUND: Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901907/isolates-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-l-reuteri-display-greater-antiproliferative-and-antipathogenic-activity-than-other-lactobacillus-isolates
#10
Meysam Hasannejad Bibalan, Morteza Eshaghi, Mahdi Rohani, Maryam Esghaei, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad R Pourshafie, Malihe Talebi
PURPOSE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been associated with many beneficial effects in human digestive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate such effect, including attachment, antiproliferation and anti-pathogenic/antibacterial/antimicrobial properties of LAB isolated from healthy humans. METHODOLOGY: Thirteen isolates, obtained from fecal samples of healthy individuals, were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 and the cell proliferation kit II (XTT) assay were used for examination of the Lactobacillus adherence and antiproliferative activity, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900256/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-toluene-degrading-black-yeast-cladophialophora-immunda
#11
Barbara Blasi, Hakim Tafer, Christina Kustor, Caroline Poyntner, Ksenija Lopandic, Katja Sterflinger
Cladophialophora immunda is an ascomycotal species belonging to the group of the black yeasts. These fungi have a thick and melanized cell wall and other physiological adaptations that allows them to cope with several extreme physical and chemical conditions. Member of the group can colonize some of the most extremophilic environments on Earth. Cladophialophora immunda together with a few other species of the order Chaetothyriales show a special association with hydrocarbon polluted environments. The finding that the fungus is able to completely mineralize toluene makes it an interesting candidate for bioremediation purposes...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895896/does-the-host-contribute-to-modulation-of-mycotoxin-production-by-fruit-pathogens
#12
REVIEW
Dilip Kumar, Shiri Barad, Edward Sionov, Nancy P Keller, Dov B Prusky
Storage of freshly harvested fruit is a key factor in modulating their supply for several months after harvest; however, their quality can be reduced by pathogen attack. Fruit pathogens may infect their host through damaged surfaces, such as mechanical injuries occurring during growing, harvesting, and packing, leading to increased colonization as the fruit ripens. Of particular concern are fungal pathogens that not only macerate the host tissue but also secrete significant amounts of mycotoxins. Many studies have described the importance of physiological factors, including stage of fruit development, biochemical factors (ripening, C and N content), and environmental factors (humidity, temperature, water deficit) on the occurrence of mycotoxins...
September 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894566/methyl-jasmonate-induction-of-cotton-a-field-test-of-the-attract-and-reward-strategy-of-conservation-biological-control
#13
Livy Williams, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Sandra C Castle Del Conte
Natural or synthetic elicitors can affect plant physiology by stimulating direct and indirect defence responses to herbivores. For example, increased production of plant secondary metabolites, a direct response, can negatively affect herbivore survival, development and fecundity. Indirect responses include increased emission of plant volatiles that influence herbivore and natural enemy behaviour, and production of extrafloral nectar that serves as a food source for natural enemies after their arrival on induced plants...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893942/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-pathogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mariggiò, Sandra Koch, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), taxonomical name human gammaherpesvirus 8, is a phylogenetically old human virus that co-evolved with human populations, but is now only common (seroprevalence greater than 10%) in sub-Saharan Africa, around the Mediterranean Sea, parts of South America and in a few ethnic communities. KSHV causes three human malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and many cases of the plasmablastic form of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) as well as occasional cases of plasmablastic lymphoma arising from MCD; it has also been linked to rare cases of bone marrow failure and hepatitis...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893374/cell-differentiation-defines-acute-and-chronic-infection-cell-types-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Juan-Carlos García-Betancur, Angel Goñi-Moreno, Thomas Horger, Melanie Schott, Malvika Sharan, Julian Eikmeier, Barbara Wohlmuth, Alma Zernecke, Knut Ohlsen, Christina Kuttler, Daniel Lopez
A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880927/scf-kit-signaling-induces-endothelin-3-synthesis-and-secretion-thereby-activates-and-regulates-endothelin-b-receptor-for-generating-temporally-and-spatially-precise-nitric-oxide-to-modulate-scf-and-or-kit-expressing-cell-functions
#16
Lei L Chen, Jing Zhu, Jonathan Schumacher, Chongjuan Wei, Latha Ramdas, Victor G Prieto, Arnie Jimenez, Marco A Velasco, Sheryl R Tripp, Robert H I Andtbacka, Launce Gouw, George M Rodgers, Liansheng Zhang, Benjamin K Chan, Pamela B Cassidy, Robert S Benjamin, Sancy A Leachman, Marsha L Frazier
We demonstrate that SCF-KIT signaling induces synthesis and secretion of endothelin-3 (ET3) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and melanoma cells in vitro, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, human sun-exposed skin, and myenteric plexus of human colon post-fasting in vivo. This is the first report of a physiological mechanism of ET3 induction. Integrating our finding with supporting data from literature leads us to discover a previously unreported pathway of nitric oxide (NO) generation derived from physiological endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) activation (referred to as the KIT-ET3-NO pathway)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879525/colonic-spirochetes-what-has-genomics-taught-us
#17
David John Hampson, Penghao Wang
The 'colonic' spirochetes assigned to the genus Brachyspira are slow-growing anaerobic bacteria. The genus includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, and these variously colonise the large intestines of different species of birds and animals, including humans. Scientific understanding of the physiology and molecular biology of Brachyspira spp. remains very limited compared with that of other pathogenic spirochetes, and there are few descriptions of successful genetic manipulations undertaken to investigate gene function...
September 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875556/melatonin-alleviates-weanling-stress-in-mice-involvement-of-intestinal-microbiota
#18
Wenkai Ren, Peng Wang, Jiameng Yan, Gang Liu, Benhua Zeng, Tarique Hussain, Can Peng, Jie Yin, Bie Tan, Tiejun Li, Hong Wei, Guoqiang Zhu, Russel J Reiter, Yulong Yin
Melatonin influences intestinal microbiota, and the pathogenesis of various diseases. This study was conducted to explore whether melatonin alleviates weanling stress through intestinal microbiota in a weanling mouse model. Melatonin supplementation in weanling mice (provided in the drinking water at a dosage of 0.2mg/ml for 2 weeks) significantly improved body weight gain (1.4±0.03 g/day in melatonin group vs. 1.2±0.06 g/day in control group) and intestinal morphology [i.e., villus length (258.1±12.2 um in melatonin group vs...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875496/g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr55-promotes-colorectal-cancer-and-has-opposing-effects-to-cannabinoid-receptor-1
#19
Carina Hasenoehrl, David Feuersinger, Eva M Sturm, Thomas Bärnthaler, Ellen Heitzer, Ricarda Graf, Magdalena Grill, Martin Pichler, Stephan Beck, Lee Butcher, Dominique Thomas, Nerea Ferreirós, Rufina Schuligoi, Caroline Schweiger, Johannes Haybaeck, Rudolf Schicho
The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 has been shown to play a tumor-promoting role in various cancers, and is involved in many physiological and pathological processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) has been reported to suppress intestinal tumor growth, the role of GPR55 in the development of GI cancers is unclear. We, therefore, aimed at elucidating the role of GPR55 in colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. Using azoxymethane (AOM)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-driven CRC mouse models, we found that GPR55 plays a tumor-promoting role that involves alterations of leukocyte populations, i...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872123/ileectomy-induced-bile-overaccumulation-in-mouse-intestine
#20
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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