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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#1
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643273/chronic-constipation-in-rome-iv-era-the-indian-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
Chronic constipation (CC) is a common problem in the community and in gastroenterology practice all over the world including India. After release of Rome IV guidelines in April 2016, there is increasing interest among gastroenterologists and physicians in India to look into special issues on CC in the Indian perspective. There are important differences in the bowel habit, definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology including dietary factors and management of CC in India as compared to the West. As severity and frequency of abdominal pain, a symptom essential to diagnose constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) rather than functional constipation (FC), is less common among Indian patients, FC is commoner than IBS-C in India...
June 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#3
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638805/increased-zinc-availability-enhances-initial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#4
Lindsey R Brown, Rachel C Caulkins, Tyler E Schartel, Jason W Rosch, Erin S Honsa, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Sean Cherry, Justin A Thornton
Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634532/cellularizing-hydrogel-based-scaffolds-to-repair-bone-tissue-how-to-create-a-physiologically-relevant-micro-environment
#5
Mathieu Maisani, Daniele Pezzoli, Olivier Chassande, Diego Mantovani
Tissue engineering is a promising alternative to autografts or allografts for the regeneration of large bone defects. Cell-free biomaterials with different degrees of sophistication can be used for several therapeutic indications, to stimulate bone repair by the host tissue. However, when osteoprogenitors are not available in the damaged tissue, exogenous cells with an osteoblast differentiation potential must be provided. These cells should have the capacity to colonize the defect and to participate in the building of new bone tissue...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631733/plastid-thylakoid-architecture-optimizes-photosynthesis-in-diatoms
#6
Serena Flori, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Benjamin Bailleul, Benoit Gallet, Leandro F Estrozi, Christine Moriscot, Olivier Bastien, Simona Eicke, Alexander Schober, Carolina Río Bártulos, Eric Maréchal, Peter G Kroth, Dimitris Petroutsos, Samuel Zeeman, Cécile Breyton, Guy Schoehn, Denis Falconet, Giovanni Finazzi
Photosynthesis is a unique process that allows independent colonization of the land by plants and of the oceans by phytoplankton. Although the photosynthesis process is well understood in plants, we are still unlocking the mechanisms evolved by phytoplankton to achieve extremely efficient photosynthesis. Here, we combine biochemical, structural and in vivo physiological studies to unravel the structure of the plastid in diatoms, prominent marine eukaryotes. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses reveal segregation of photosynthetic complexes in the loosely stacked thylakoid membranes typical of diatoms...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624682/effect-of-the-fungus-piriformospora-indica-on-physiological-characteristics-and-root-morphology-of-wheat-under-combined-drought-and-mechanical-stresses
#7
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter
This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Qp, of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623952/spontaneous-cecal-perforation-in-a-40-year-old-pregnant-woman-treated-by-primary-repair-and-omental-patch-a-case-report
#8
Cyrille Kouam, Ouasso Passang, Marc-Leroy Guifo, Nkolaka Atem
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous colonic perforations are scarce, and cecal perforations even more so. Preoperative diagnosis of the latter in a pregnant woman is particularly difficult because of physiologic changes and restrictions on some diagnostic imaging techniques, such as X-rays. Furthermore, management of these patients is a big challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a spontaneous cecal perforation in a 40-year-old pregnant black woman in the Regional Hospital of Bafoussam in Cameroon...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623901/biomarker-correlation-network-in-colorectal-carcinoma-by-tumor-anatomic-location
#9
Reiko Nishihara, Kimberly Glass, Kosuke Mima, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Peter Kraft, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Andrew T Chan, John Quackenbush, Shuji Ogino, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma evolves through a multitude of molecular events including somatic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant protein expression, influenced by host immune reactions. One way to interrogate the complex carcinogenic process and interactions between aberrant events is to model a biomarker correlation network. Such a network analysis integrates multidimensional tumor biomarker data to identify key molecular events and pathways that are central to an underlying biological process...
June 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622646/enhanced-degradation-of-chlorpyrifos-in-rice-oryzasativa-l-by-five-strains-of-endophytic-bacteria-and-their-plant-growth-promotional-ability
#10
Fayun Feng, Jing Ge, Yisong Li, Shuang He, Jianfeng Zhong, Xianjing Liu, Xiangyang Yu
Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny...
June 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#11
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617678/single-variant-bottleneck-in-the-early-dynamics-of-h-influenzae-bacteremia-in-neonatal-rats-questions-the-theory-of-independent-action
#12
Xinxian Shao, Bruce Levin, Ilya Nemenman
There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm (S) and Sm (R) ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm (S) or Sm (R) ...
June 15, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611813/insights-into-host-cell-modulation-and-induction-of-new-cells-by-the-corn-smut-ustilago-maydis
#13
REVIEW
Amey Redkar, Alexandra Matei, Gunther Doehlemann
Many filamentous fungal pathogens induce drastic modulation of host cells causing abnormal infectious structures such as galls, or tumors that arise as a result of re-programming in the original developmental cell fate of a colonized host cell. Developmental consequences occur predominantly with biotrophic phytopathogens. This suggests that these host structures result as an outcome of efficient defense suppression and intimate fungal-host interaction to suit the pathogen's needs for completion of its infection cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611742/analysis-of-the-genome-and-mobilome-of-a-dissimilatory-arsenate-reducing-aeromonas-sp-o23a-reveals-multiple-mechanisms-for-heavy-metal-resistance-and-metabolism
#14
Witold Uhrynowski, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Lukasz Dziewit, Monika Radlinska, Pawel S Krawczyk, Leszek Lipinski, Dorota Adamska, Lukasz Drewniak
Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603419/in-situ-preparation-of-water-soluble-ginsenoside-rh2-entrapped-bovine-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-in-vitro-cytocompatibility-studies
#15
Priyanka Singh, Yeon Ju Kim, Hina Singh, Sungeun Ahn, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Deok Chun Yang
The present study investigates a simple and convenient one-step procedure for the preparation of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Rh2 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. In this work, ginsenoside Rh2 was entrapped within the BSA protein to form BSA-Rh2 NPs to enhance the aqueous solubility, stability, and therapeutic efficacy of Rh2. The physiochemical characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared BSA-Rh2 NPs were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in aqueous systems...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598830/tetrahydrobiopterin-improves-microcirculation-in-experimental-sepsis
#16
Tristan Dumbarton
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an endogenous nucleic acid derivative, acts as an important cofactor for several enzymes found within the vascular endothelium, which is deranged in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that BH4 would improve capillary density and decrease inflammation within the intestinal microcirculation of septic rats. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial using two previously validated models of sepsis in rats: 1) A fecal peritonitis model using a stent perforating the ascending colon, and 2) An endotoxemia model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxin from E...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596390/draft-genome-of-halomonas-lionensis-rhs90-t-a-stress-tolerant-gammaproteobacterium-isolated-from-mediterranean-sea-sediments
#17
Frédéric Gaboyer, Loïs Maignien, Mohamed Jebbar, Karine Alain
Members of the genus Halomonas are physiologically versatile and harbor ecological adaptations enabling the colonization of contrasted environments. We present here the draft genome of Halomonas lionensis RHS90(T), isolated from Mediterranean Sea sediments. Numerous genes related to stress tolerance, DNA repair, or external signal-sensing systems were predicted, which could represent selective advantages of this marine bacterium.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595901/purification-process-for-mufa-and-pufa-based-monoacylglycerols-from-edible-oils
#18
M J González-Fernández, R P Ramos-Bueno, I Rodríguez-García, J L Guil-Guerrero
Important health benefits have been attributed to monoacylglycerols (MAGs) due to their various physiological functions, owing to which they become candidates for use as functional foods in order to prevent the onset of certain diseases such as colon cancer. In this work, six edible oils, namely: olive, linseed, sunflower, evening primrose, DHASCO(®) and ARASCO(®) have been processed to obtain different MUFA- and PUFA- based MAGs. First, the oils were hydrolyzed by means of an enzymatic process using porcine pancreatic lipase and then the reaction products were fractionated by using a liquid chromatography column containing silica gel as stationary phase in order to purify the MAGs-enriched fraction...
June 5, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592996/immune-responses-upon-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-of-secondary-abiotic-mice-lacking-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2
#19
Stefan Bereswill, Ursula Grundmann, Marie E Alutis, André Fischer, Anja A Kühl, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni infections are of rising importance worldwide. Given that innate immune receptors including nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) are essentially involved in combating enteropathogenic infections, we here surveyed the impact of Nod2 in murine campylobacteriosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to overcome physiological colonization resistance preventing from C. jejuni infection, we generated secondary abiotic Nod2(-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592943/identification-and-characterization-of-pathogenic-and-endophytic-fungal-species-associated-with-pokkah-boeng-disease-of-sugarcane
#20
Angelyn Hilton, Huanming Zhang, Wenying Yu, Won-Bo Shim
Pokkah Boeng is a serious disease of sugarcane, which can lead to devastating yield losses in crop-producing regions, including southern China. However, there is still uncertainty about the causal agent of the disease. Our aim was to isolate and characterize the pathogen through morphological, physiological, and molecular analyses. We isolated sugarcane-colonizing fungi in Fujian, China. Isolated fungi were first assessed for their cell wall degrading enzyme capabilities, and five isolates were identified for further analysis...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
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