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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792873/effect-of-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-and-protective-factors-on-cognitive-trajectories-in-subjective-memory-complainers
#1
Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Simone Lista, Marie-Odile Habert, Marie-Claude Potier, Michel J Grothe, Stephane Epelbaum, Luisa Sambati, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Nicola Toschi, Michael Greicius, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive change in people at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) such as subjective memory complainers is highly variable across individuals. METHODS: We used latent class growth modeling to identify distinct classes of nonlinear trajectories of cognitive change over 2 years follow-up from 265 subjective memory complainers individuals (age 70 years and older) of the INSIGHT-preAD cohort. We determined the effect of cortical amyloid load, hippocampus and basal forebrain volumes, and education on the cognitive trajectory classes...
May 21, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787797/developing-neurites-from-mouse-basal-forebrain-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-use-sonic-hedgehog-to-modulate-their-growth
#2
C L Tan, P W Sheard, C L Jasoni
Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are required for fertility in all mammalian species studied to date. GnRH neuron cell bodies reside in the basal forebrain, and most extend long neurites in the caudal direction to terminate at the median eminence (ME), the site of hormone secretion. Using in vitro neurite growth assays, histological methods, and genetic deletion strategies in mice we have analysed the role of the morphogen and neurite growth and guidance molecule, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), in the growth of GnRH neurites to their target...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782918/bdnf-haploinsufficiency-exerts-a-transient-and-regionally-different-influence-upon-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells-during-postnatal-development
#3
Madeline Nicholson, Rhiannon J Wood, Jessica L Fletcher, Maarten van den Buuse, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) plays important roles in promoting myelination in the developing central nervous system (CNS), however the influence it exerts on oligodendrocyte development in vivo remain unclear. As BDNF knockout mice die in the perinatal period, we undertook a systematic developmental analysis of oligodendroglial lineage cells within multiple CNS regions of BDNF heterozygous (HET) mice. Our data identify that BDNF heterozygosity results in transient reductions in oligodendroglial lineage cell density and progression that are largely restricted to the optic nerve, whereas the corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, basal forebrain and spinal cord white matter tracts are unaffected...
May 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778944/activation-and-blockade-of-basolateral-amygdala-5-ht-6-receptor-produce-anxiolytic-like-behaviors-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Yi-Na Sun, Lu Yao, Li-Bo Li, Yong Wang, Cheng-Xue Du, Yuan Guo, Jian Liu
Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and serotonin6 (5-HT6 ) receptor are involved in modulation of anxiety, their roles in Parkinson' disease (PD)-related anxiety are still unknown. Thus we perform this study to examine the involvement of BLA 5-HT6 receptor on anxiety in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PD rats. The lesion of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) induced anxiety-like behaviors, and decreased the basal firing rate of BLA glutamate neurons and dopamine (DA) levels in tissues of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala and ventral part of hippocampus (vHip) in rats...
May 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769626/the-cholinergic-contribution-to-the-resting-state-functional-network-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Yoonju Lee, Jee Hyun Ham, Jungho Cha, Yeong-Hun Park, Jae Jung Lee, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jin Yong Hong, Young H Sohn, Jong-Min Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
The cholinergic system arising from the basal forebrain plays an important role in cognitive performance in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed cholinergic status-dependent cortical and subcortical resting-state functional connectivity in PD. A total of 61 drug-naïve PD patients were divided into tertiles based on normalized substantia innominata (SI) volumes. We compared the resting-state network from seed region of interest in the caudate, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and SI between the lowest (PD-L) and highest tertile (PD-H) groups...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761601/postnatal-development-of-cholinergic-input-to-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#6
Guela Sokhadze, Peter Whitney Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761120/an-image-based-model-of-brain-volume-biomarker-changes-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Peter A Wijeratne, Alexandra L Young, Neil P Oxtoby, Razvan V Marinescu, Nicholas C Firth, Eileanoir B Johnson, Amrita Mohan, Cristina Sampaio, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Daniel C Alexander
Objective: Determining the sequence in which Huntington's disease biomarkers become abnormal can provide important insights into the disease progression and a quantitative tool for patient stratification. Here, we construct and present a uniquely fine-grained model of temporal progression of Huntington's disease from premanifest through to manifest stages. Methods: We employ a probabilistic event-based model to determine the sequence of appearance of atrophy in brain volumes, learned from structural MRI in the Track-HD study, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in the ordering...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739869/synaptic-release-of-acetylcholine-rapidly-suppresses-cortical-activity-by-recruiting-muscarinic-receptors-in-layer-4
#8
Rajan Dasgupta, Frederik Seibt, Michael Beierlein
Cholinergic afferents from the basal forebrain (BF) can influence cortical activity on rapid time scales, enabling sensory information processing and exploratory behavior. However, our understanding of how synaptically released acetylcholine (ACh) influences cellular targets in distinct cortical layers remains incomplete. Previous studies have shown that rapid changes in cortical dynamics induced by phasic BF activity can be mediated by the activation of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) expressed in distinct types of GABAergic interneurons...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736736/the-medial-septum-is-insulin-resistant-in-the-ad-presymptomatic-phase-rescue-by-nerve-growth-factor-driven-irs-1-activation
#9
Valentina Sposato, Nadia Canu, Elena Fico, Salvatore Fusco, Giulia Bolasco, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Matteo Spinelli, Delio Mercanti, Claudio Grassi, Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are key modulators of learning and memory and are high energy-demanding neurons. Impaired neuronal metabolism and reduced insulin signaling, known as insulin resistance, has been reported in the early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested to be "Type 3 Diabetes." We hypothesized that BFCN may develop insulin resistance and their consequent failure represents one of the earliest event in AD. We found that a condition reminiscent of insulin resistance occurs in the medial septum of 3 months old 3×Tg-AD mice, reported to develop typical AD histopathology and cognitive deficits in adulthood...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735555/genetic-activation-inactivation-and-deletion-reveal-a-limited-and-nuanced-role-for-somatostatin-containing-basal-forebrain-neurons-in-behavioral-state-control
#10
Christelle Anaclet, Roberto De Luca, Anne Venner, Olga Malyshevskaya, Michael Lazarus, Elda Arrigoni, Patrick M Fuller
Recent studies have identified an especially important role for basal forebrain GABAergic (BFVGAT ) neurons in the regulation of behavioral waking and fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. However, BFVGAT neurons comprise several neurochemically and anatomically distinct sub-populations, including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-containing BFVGAT neurons (BFParv and BFSOM ), and it was recently reported that optogenetic activation of BFSOM neurons increases the probability of a wakefulness to non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep transition when stimulated during the animal's rest period...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722152/modulation-of-forebrain-function-by-nucleus-incertus-and-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Francisco E Olucha-Bordonau, Héctor Albert-Gascó, Francisco Ros-Bernal, Valeria Rytova, Emma K E Ong-Pålsson, Sherie Ma, Ana M Sánchez-Pérez, Andrew L Gundlach
The nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum sends ascending projections to the midbrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, basal forebrain, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, and has a postulated role in modulating several forebrain functions. A substantial population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the neuropeptide, relaxin-3, which acts via the Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, present throughout the forebrain target regions. Broad and specific manipulations of these systems by activation or inhibition of the NI or modulating RXFP3 signaling have revealed key insights into the likely influence of the NI/relaxin-3/RXFP3 system on modalities including arousal, feeding, stress responses, anxiety and addiction, and attention and memory...
May 2, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708553/an-alternative-approach-to-study-primary-events-in-neurodegeneration-using-ex-vivo-rat-brain-slices
#12
Emanuele Brai, Antonella Cogoni, Susan A Greenfield
Despite numerous studies that attempt to develop reliable animal models which reflecting the primary processes underlying neurodegeneration, very few have been widely accepted. Here, we propose a new procedure adapted from the well-known ex vivo brain slice technique, which offers a closer in vivo-like scenario than in vitro preparations, for investigating the early events triggering cell degeneration, as observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This variation consists of simple and easily reproducible steps, which enable preservation of the anatomical cytoarchitecture of the selected brain region and its local functionality in a physiological milieu...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705686/addiction-vulnerability-trait-impacts-complex-movement-control-evidence-from-sign-trackers
#13
Aaron Kucinski, Cindy Lustig, Martin Sarter
Cognitive-motivational vulnerability traits are associated with increased risk for substance addiction and relapse. Sign-tracking (ST) behavior in rats is associated with poor attentional control, mediated by an unresponsive basal forebrain cholinergic system, and an increased risk for substance addiction/relapse. A separate literature links poor attentional control and cholinergic losses to increased fall risk in Parkinson's disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that the relatively inferior attentional control of STs extends to complex movement control and a propensity for falls...
April 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704983/intermittent-stimulation-in-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-improves-sustained-attention-in-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Ruifeng Liu, Jonathan Crawford, Patrick M Callahan, Alvin V Terry, Christos Constantinidis, David T Blake
Sustained attention is essential in important behaviors in daily life. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by a compromised ability to sustain attention, making this cognitive domain an important therapeutic target. In this study, we tested a novel method of improving sustained attention. Monkeys were engaged in a continuous performance task (CPT) while the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NB), the main source of cholinergic innervation of the neocortex, was stimulated. Intermittent NB stimulation improved the animals' performance by increasing the hit rate and decreasing the false alarm rate...
April 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700823/the-cholinergic-system-in-the-basal-forebrain-of-the-atlantic-white-sided-dolphin-lagenorhynchus-acutus
#15
George Andrew Reid, Changiz Geula, Sultan Darvesh
The basal forebrain (BFB) cholinergic neurotransmitter system is important in a number of brain functions including attention, memory and the sleep-wake cycle. The size of this region has been linked to the increase in encephalization of the brain in a number of species. Cetaceans, particularly those belonging to the family delphinidae, have a relatively large brain compared to its body size and it is expected that the cholinergic BFB in the dolphin would be a prominent feature. However, this has not yet been explored in detail...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700637/lateral-preoptic-and-ventral-pallidal-roles-in-locomotion-and-other-movements
#16
Suriya Subramanian, Rhett A Reichard, Hunter S Stevenson, Zachary M Schwartz, Kenneth P Parsley, Daniel S Zahm
The lateral preoptic area (LPO) and ventral pallidum (VP) are structurally and functionally distinct territories in the subcommissural basal forebrain. It was recently shown that unilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, into the LPO strongly invigorates exploratory locomotion, whereas bicuculline infused unilaterally into the VP has a negligible locomotor effect, but when infused bilaterally, produces vigorous, abnormal pivoting and gnawing movements and compulsive ingestion. This study was done to further characterize these responses...
April 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#17
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665406/sn56-neuronal-cell-death-after-24-h-and-14-days-chlorpyrifos-exposure-through-glutamate-transmission-dysfunction-increase-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-enzyme-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-tau-protein-levels
#18
Paula Moyano, María Teresa Frejo, María José Anadon, José Manuel García, María Jesús Díaz, Margarita Lobo, Emma Sola, Jimena García, Javier Del Pino
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide described to induce cognitive disorders, both after acute and repeated administration. However, the mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. CPF has been reported to produce basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal cell death, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. Neuronal cell death was partially mediated by oxidative stress generation, P75NTR and α7 -nAChRs gene expression alteration triggered through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variants disruption, suggesting other mechanisms are involved...
April 14, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662442/topographic-organization-of-cholinergic-innervation-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-visual-cortex-in-the-rat
#19
Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues, Karim Jegouic, Elvire Vaucher
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively) are organized retinotopically...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660838/tdp-43-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy-colocalization-of-tdp-43-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-glial-cytoplasmic-inclusions
#20
Shunsuke Koga, Wen-Lang Lin, Ronald L Walton, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson
AIMS: This study aimed to assess clinicopathologic features of transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology and its risk factors in multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of the amygdala and basal forebrain from 186 autopsy-confirmed MSA cases were screened with immunohistochemistry for phospho-TDP-43. In cases having TDP-43 pathology, additional brain regions were assessed. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence double-staining and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM) were performed to evaluate colocalization of TDP-43 and α-synuclein...
April 16, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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