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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813670/nkx2-1-is-required-in-the-embryonic-septum-for-cholinergic-system-development-learning-and-memory
#1
Lorenza Magno, Caswell Barry, Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Polyvios Theodotou, Michael Häusser, Nicoletta Kessaris
The transcription factor NKX2-1 is best known for its role in the specification of subsets of cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons. We demonstrate through genetic fate mapping and intersectional focal septal deletion that NKX2-1 is selectively required in the embryonic septal neuroepithelium for the development of cholinergic septohippocampal projection neurons and large subsets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the absence of NKX2-1, these neurons fail to develop, causing alterations in hippocampal theta rhythms and severe deficiencies in learning and memory...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807788/adolescent-binge-ethanol-exposure-alters-specific-forebrain-cholinergic-cell-populations-and-leads-to-selective-functional-deficits-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Gina M Fernandez, Lisa M Savage
Adolescence has been identified as a vulnerable developmental time period during which exposure to drugs can have long-lasting, detrimental effects. Although adolescent binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a significant reduction of forebrain cholinergic neurons, EtOH's functional effect on acetylcholine (ACh) release during behavior has yet to be examined. Using an adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure model (AIE), rats were exposed to binge-like levels of EtOH from postnatal day (PD) 25-55. Three weeks following the final EtOH exposure, cholinergic functioning was assessed during a spontaneous alternation protocol...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807148/acetylcholine-induces-intracellular-ca-2-oscillations-and-nitric-oxide-release-in-mouse-brain-endothelial-cells
#3
Estella Zuccolo, Dmitry Lim, Dlzar Ali Kheder, Angelica Perna, Paolo Catarsi, Laura Botta, Vittorio Rosti, Laura Riboni, Giulio Sancini, Franco Tanzi, Egidio D'Angelo, Germano Guerra, Francesco Moccia
Basal forebrain neurons increase cortical blood flow by releasing acetylcholine (Ach), which stimulates endothelial cells (ECs) to produce the vasodilating gasotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). Surprisingly, the mechanism whereby Ach induces NO synthesis in brain microvascular ECs is unknown. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration recruits a multitude of endothelial Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, such as Ca(2+)/calmodulin endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). The present investigation sought to investigate the role of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in Ach-induced NO production in bEND5 cells, an established model of mouse brain microvascular ECs, by conventional imaging of cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, Fura-2/AM, and the NO-sensitive fluorophore, DAF-DM diacetate...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806219/selective-activation-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-inflammation-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#4
Qian Zhai, Dengming Lai, Ping Cui, Rui Zhou, Qixing Chen, Jinchao Hou, Yunting Su, Libiao Pan, Hui Ye, Jing-Wei Zhao, Xiangming Fang
OBJECTIVES: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are proposed as a major neuromodulatory system in inflammatory modulation. However, the function of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in sepsis is unknown, and the neural pathways underlying cholinergic anti-inflammation remain unexplored. DESIGN: Animal research. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice and ChAT-ChR2-EYFP (ChAT) transgenic mice...
August 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803853/developmental-suppression-of-forebrain-trka-receptors-and-attentional-capacities-in-aging-rats-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh
Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex regulate cognitive, specifically attentional, processes. Cholinergic atrophy and cognitive decline occur at an accelerated pace in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that developmental suppression of nerve growth factor signaling, mediated via tropomyosin-related kinase A (trkA) receptors, would escalate age-related attentional vulnerability...
August 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802540/corrigendum-to-the-menagerie-of-the-basal-forebrain-how-many-neural-species-are-there-what-do-they-look-like-how-do-they-behave-and-who-talks-to-whom-curr-opin-neurobiol-2017-44-159-166
#6
Chun Yang, Stephen Thankachan, Robert W McCarley, Ritchie E Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794981/a-test-retest-study-on-parkinson-s-ppmi-dataset-yields-statistically-significant-white-matter-fascicles
#7
Martin Cousineau, Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Félix C Morency, Verena Rozanski, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Barry J Bedell, Maxime Descoteaux
In this work, we propose a diffusion MRI protocol for mining Parkinson's disease diffusion MRI datasets and recover robust disease-specific biomarkers. Using advanced high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) crossing fiber modeling and tractography robust to partial volume effects, we automatically dissected 50 white matter (WM) fascicles. These fascicles connect deep nuclei (thalamus, putamen, pallidum) to different cortical functional areas (associative, motor, sensorimotor, limbic), basal forebrain and substantia nigra...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794446/impaired-endo-lysosomal-membrane-integrity-accelerates-the-seeding-progression-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregates
#8
Peizhou Jiang, Ming Gan, Shu-Hui Yen, Pamela J McLean, Dennis W Dickson
In neurodegenerative diseases, seeding is a process initiated by the internalization of exogenous protein aggregates. Multiple pathways for internalization of aggregates have been proposed, including direct membrane penetration and endocytosis. To decipher the seeding mechanisms of alpha-synuclein (αS) aggregates in human cells, we visualized αS aggregation, endo-lysosome distribution, and endo-lysosome rupture in real-time. Our data suggest that exogenous αS can seed endogenous cytoplasmic αS by either directly penetrating the plasma membrane or via endocytosis-mediated endo-lysosome rupture, leading to formation of endo-lysosome-free or endo-lysosome-associated αS aggregates, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791701/electrophysiological-properties-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-identified-by-genetic-and-optogenetic-tagging
#9
Gretchen Y López-Hernández, Mala Ananth, Li Jiang, Elizabeth C Ballinger, David A Talmage, Lorna W Role
Recent developments in the generation of neuronal population-specific, genetically modified mouse lines have allowed precise identification and selective stimulation of cholinergic neurons in vivo. Although considerably less laborious than studies conducted with post hoc identification of cholinergic neurons by immunostaining, it is not known whether the genetically based labeling procedures that permit in vivo identification are electrophysiologically benign. In this study, we use mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that drives expression of a tau-green fluorescent fusion protein specifically in cholinergic neurons...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771384/vax1-plays-an-indirect-role-in-the-etiology-of-murine-cleft-palate
#10
F Geoghegan, G M Xavier, A A Birjandi, M Seppala, M T Cobourne
Cleft lip with or without palate (CLP) and isolated cleft palate (CP) are common human developmental malformations with a complex etiology that reflects a failure of normal facial development. VAX1 encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor identified as a candidate gene for CLP in human populations, with targeted deletion in mice associated with multiple anomalies, including disruption of the visual apparatus and basal forebrain, lobar holoprosencephaly, and CP. We have investigated Vax1 function during murine palatogenesis but found no evidence for a direct role in this process...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756309/activation-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-ameliorating-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-by-electroacupuncture
#11
Weilin Liu, Peiyuan Zhuo, Long Li, Hao Jin, Bingbing Lin, Yingzheng Zhang, Shengxiang Liang, Jie Wu, Jia Huang, Zhifu Wang, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen, Jing Tao
An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is implicated in brain energy metabolic impairment that is considered underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Therefore, therapeutic interventions to allay cognitive deficits that target energy metabolism may be an efficacy strategy in AD. In this study, we found that electroacupuncture (EA) at the DU20 acupoint obviously increased glucose metabolism in specific brain regions such as cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, basal forebrain septum, brain stem, and cerebellum in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by animal (18)F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose ((18)F-FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, accompanied by cognitive improvements in the spatial reference learning and memory and memory flexibility and novel object recognition performances...
July 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736837/acute-effects-of-alcohol-on-sleep-are-mediated-by-components-of-homeostatic-sleep-regulatory-system-an-editorial-highlight-for-lesions-of-the-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-sleepiness-and-adenosine-after-alcohol-consumption-on-doi-10-1111-jnc
#12
EDITORIAL
Md Noor Alam, Dennis McGinty
Alcohol causes adenosine buildup, which inhibits wake-active neurons via adenosine A1 receptors thus disinhibiting sleep active neurons and also stimulates sleep-active neurons via A2A receptors, causing sleep. This editorial highlights the study entitled, "Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuates sleepiness and adenosine after alcohol consumption" by Sharma and colleagues. They report that the wake-promoting basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons play a crucial role in mediating acute alcohol-induced sleep via adenosinergic signaling...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724360/injury-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-associated-with-delayed-post-hypoxic-leukoencephalopathy-a-case-report
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by neurological relapse after an initial recovery from hypoxic brain injury. We describe a patient with impaired consciousness following DPHL, concurrent with injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) shown using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old male patient was in a drowsy mental state after exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) for about ten hours...
July 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720872/associating-transcription-factors-and-conserved-rna-structures-with-gene-regulation-in-the-human-brain
#14
Nikolai Hecker, Stefan E Seemann, Asli Silahtaroglu, Walter L Ruzzo, Jan Gorodkin
Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription factors (TF) and RNA secondary structures on the regulation of gene expression in the human brain. First, we modeled the expression of a gene as a linear combination of the expression of TFs. We devised an approach to select robust TF-gene interactions and to determine localized contributions to gene expression of TFs...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712792/seasonal-plasticity-of-song-behavior-relies-on-motor-and-syntactic-variability-induced-by-a-basal-ganglia-forebrain-circuit
#15
Jorge Alliende, Nicolas Giret, Ludivine Pidoux, Catherine Del Negro, Arthur Leblois
The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment. In particular, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and behavior is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. Songbirds provide striking examples of seasonal changes in neural circuits and vocal behavior and have emerged as a leading model for adult brain plasticity. While seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning may share common neural mechanisms, the extent of their similarity remains unclear...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683305/somatostatin-neurons-in-the-basal-forebrain-promote-high-calorie-food-intake
#16
Chen Zhu, Yun Yao, Yan Xiong, Mingxiu Cheng, Jing Chen, Rui Zhao, Fangzhou Liao, Runsheng Shi, Sen Song
Obesity has become a global issue, and the overconsumption of food is thought to be a major contributor. However, the regulatory neural circuits that regulate palatable food consumption remain unclear. Here, we report that somatostatin (SOM) neurons and GABAergic (VGAT) neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) play specific roles in regulating feeding. Optogenetic stimulation of BF SOM neurons increased fat and sucrose intake within minutes and promoted anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of projections from BF SOM neurons to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) selectively resulted in fat intake...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660418/basal-forebrain-activation-enhances-between-trial-reliability-of-low-frequency-local-field-potentials-lfp-and-spiking-activity-in-tree-shrew-primary-visual-cortex-v1
#17
Paolo De Luna, Julia Veit, Gregor Rainer
Brain state has profound effects on neural processing and stimulus encoding in sensory cortices. While the synchronized state is dominated by low-frequency local field potential (LFP) activity, low-frequency LFP power is suppressed in the desynchronized state, where a concurrent enhancement in gamma power is observed. Recently, it has been shown that cortical desynchronization co-occurs with enhanced between-trial reliability of spiking activity in sensory neurons, but it is currently unclear whether this effect is also evident in LFP signals...
June 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#18
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657115/monosynaptic-retrograde-tracing-of-neurons-expressing-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr151-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
Jonas Broms, Matilda Grahm, Lea Haugegaard, Thomas Blom, Konstantinos Meletis, Anders Tingström
GPR151 is a G-protein coupled receptor for which the endogenous ligand remains unknown. In the nervous system of vertebrates, its expression is enriched in specific diencephalic structures, where the highest levels are observed in the habenular area. The habenula has been implicated in a range of different functions including behavioral flexibility, decision making, inhibitory control, and pain processing, which makes it a promising target for treating psychiatric and neurological disease. This study aimed to further characterize neurons expressing the Gpr151 gene, by tracing the afferent connectivity of this diencephalic cell population...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652219/the-fate-of-the-brain-cholinergic-neurons-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Giancarlo Pepeu, Maria Grazia Giovannini
The aims of this review are: 1) to describe which cholinergic neurons are affected in brain neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia; 2) to discuss the possible causes of the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons, 3) to summarize the functional consequences of the cholinergic deficit. The brain cholinergic system is basically constituted by three populations of phenotypically similar neurons forming a series of basal forebrain nuclei, the midpontine nuclei and a large population of striatal interneurons...
June 23, 2017: Brain Research
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