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Basal Forebrain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419375/transcriptional-profiling-of-cholinergic-neurons-from-basal-forebrain-identifies-changes-in-expression-of-genes-between-sleep-and-wake-mrna-profiling-in-basal-forebrain-with-sleep-sleep-deprivation
#1
Elena V Nikonova, Jason DA Gilliland, Keith Q Tanis, Alexei A Podtelezhnikov, Alison M Rigby, Raymond J Galante, Eva M Finney, David J Stone, John J Renger, Allan I Pack, Christopher J Winrow
Study objective: To assess differences in gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain cells between sleeping and sleep deprived mice sacrificed at the same time of day. Methods: Tg(ChAT-eGFP)86Gsat mice expressing eGFP under control of the choline acetyltransferase (Chat) promoter were utilized to guide laser capture of cholinergic cells in basal forebrain. mRNA expression levels in these cells were profiled using microarrays. Gene expression in eGFP(+) neurons was compared (1) to that in eGFP(-) neurons and to adjacent white matter, (2) between 7:00 am (lights on) and 7:00 pm (lights off), (3) between sleep deprived and sleeping animals at 0, 3, 6, 9 hrs from lights on...
April 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411158/intrinsic-membrane-properties-and-cholinergic-modulation-of-mouse-basal-forebrain-glutamatergic-neurons-in-vitro
#2
Chun Yang, James T McKenna, Ritchie E Brown
The basal forebrain (BF) controls sleep-wake cycles, attention and reward processing. Compared to cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, BF glutamatergic neurons are less well understood, due to difficulties in identification. Here, we use vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2)-tdTomato mice, expressing a red fluorescent protein (tdTomato) in the major group of BF glutamatergic neurons (vGluT2+) to characterize their intrinsic electrical properties and cholinergic modulation. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings were made from vGluT2+ neurons in coronal BF slices...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360840/impaired-ngf-trka-signaling-causes-early-ad-linked-presynaptic-dysfunction-in-cholinergic-primary-neurons
#3
Valentina Latina, Silvia Caioli, Cristina Zona, Maria T Ciotti, Giuseppina Amadoro, Pietro Calissano
Alterations in NGF/TrkA signaling have been suggested to underlie the selective degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons occurring in vivo in AD (Counts and Mufson, 2005; Mufson et al., 2008; Niewiadomska et al., 2011) and significant reduction of cognitive decline along with an improvement of cholinergic hypofunction have been found in phase I clinical trial in humans affected from mild AD following therapeutic NGF gene therapy (Tuszynski et al., 2005, 2015). Here, we show that the chronic (10-12 D...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352217/elucidation-of-white-matter-tracts-of-the-human-amygdala-by-detailed-comparison-between-high-resolution-postmortem-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-histology
#4
Susumu Mori, Yusuke Kageyama, Zhipeng Hou, Manisha Aggarwal, Jaymin Patel, Timothy Brown, Michael I Miller, Dan Wu, Juan C Troncoso
The amygdala has attracted considerable research interest because of its potential involvement in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, attempts have been made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the integrity of the axonal connections to and from the amygdala under pathological conditions. Although amygdalar pathways have been studied extensively in animal models, anatomical references for the human brain are limited to histology-based resources from a small number of slice locations, orientations and annotations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346493/aberrant-neuronal-activity-induced-signaling-and-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-rasopathy
#5
Franziska Altmüller, Santosh Pothula, Anil Annamneedi, Saeideh Nakhaei-Rad, Carolina Montenegro-Venegas, Eneko Pina-Fernández, Claudia Marini, Monica Santos, Denny Schanze, Dirk Montag, Mohammad R Ahmadian, Oliver Stork, Martin Zenker, Anna Fejtova
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341206/alcohol-and-basal-ganglia-circuitry-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
David M Lovinger, Veronica A Alvarez
Brain circuits that include the cortex and basal ganglia make up the bulk of the forebrain, and influence behaviors related to almost all aspects of affective, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. The learning of new actions as well as association of existing action repertoires with environmental events are key functions of this circuitry. Unfortunately, the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry is also the target for all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. This makes the circuitry susceptible to the actions of chronic alcohol exposure that impairs circuit function in ways that contribute to cognitive dysfunction and drug use disorders...
March 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320270/role-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-plasticity-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#7
REVIEW
N K Isaev, E V Stelmashook, E E Genrikhs
Neuronal plastic rearrangements during the development and functioning of neurons are largely regulated by trophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In the brain, NGF is produced in structures innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and retrogradely transported along the axons to the bodies of cholinergic neurons. NGF is essential for normal development and functioning of the basal forebrain; it affects formation of the dendritic tree and modulates the activities of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in basal forebrain neurons...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303377/the-differences-of-the-precommissural-and-postcommissural-fornix-in-the-hippocampal-location-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
PURPOSE: The precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix have different connections to the basal forebrain and septal region, and mammillary body, respectively. However, little is known about the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we investigated the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. METHODS: We recruited 25 healthy volunteers for this study...
March 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293176/muscarinic-receptors-are-responsible-for-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-projection-neurons-in-the-song-production-brain-nucleus-ra-of-zebra-finches
#9
Wei Meng, Songhua Wang, Lihua Yao, Nan Zhang, Dongfeng Li
Songbirds are a useful model for the study of learned vocal behavior in vertebrates. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus in the vocal motor pathway. It receives excitatory synaptic inputs from the anterior forebrain pathway. RA also receives cholinergic inputs from the ventral paleostriatum of the basal forebrain. Our previous study showed that carbachol, a non-selective cholinergic receptor agonist, modulates the electrophysiology of RA projection neurons (PNs), indicating that cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289381/white-matter-damage-in-the-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-cognitive-impairment-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment-no-dementia
#10
Qing Liu, Zude Zhu, Stefan J Teipel, Jianwei Yang, Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Jianping Jia
Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263766/shh-e176-e177-zn-2-conformation-is-required-for-signaling-at-endogenous-sites
#11
Diana S Himmelstein, Ivelisse Cajigas, Chunming Bi, Brian S Clark, Grant Van Der Voort, Jhumku D Kohtz
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a master developmental regulator. In 1995, the SHH crystal structure predicted that SHH-E176 (human)/E177 (mouse) regulates signaling through a Zn(2+)-dependent mechanism. While Zn(2+) is known to be required for SHH protein stability, a regulatory role for SHH-E176 or Zn(2+) has not been described. Here, we show that SHH-E176/177 modulates Zn(2+)-dependent cross-linking in vitro and is required for endogenous signaling, in vivo. While ectopically expressed SHH-E176A is highly active, mice expressing SHH-E177A at endogenous sites (Shh(E177A/-)) are morphologically indistinguishable from mice lacking SHH (Shh(-/-)), with patterning defects in both embryonic spinal cord and forebrain...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240674/a-second-wind-for-the-cholinergic-system-in-alzheimer-s-therapy
#12
Vincent Douchamps, Chantal Mathis
Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. It relied on a series of observations obtained in aged animals, elderly, and AD patients that pointed to dysfunctions of cholinergic basal forebrain, similarities between cognitive impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those found in advanced age and AD, and beneficial effects of drugs stimulating cholinergic activity...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239803/nasal-hppsis-administration-enhances-ngf-and-tumor-suppressor-protein-p73-in-human-brain-cancer-tissues-preliminary-data
#13
L Aloe, M L Rocco, E Stigliano, F Angelini, M Iacoangeli, V Frari, F Salvinelli
OBJECTIVE: Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor known to play a critical role in growth, survival, differentiation and neuroprotection of peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons, as well as brain neurons. We have recently reported that nasal administration of high-pressure isotonic physiological saline solution (HPpSIS) enhances the level of NGF and the expression of NGF receptors in neurons of the olfactory bulbs and forebrain cholinergic neurons of laboratory animals...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223096/the-habenula-in-psychiatric-disorders-more-than-three-decades-of-translational-investigation
#14
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have also implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222508/chronic-lithium-treatment-in-a-rat-model-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-depletion-effects-on-memory-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#15
Francesca Gelfo, Debora Cutuli, Annalisa Nobili, Paola De Bartolo, Marcello D'Amelio, Laura Petrosini, Carlo Caltagirone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. A fundamental neuropathological feature of AD is the early and severe brain cholinergic neurodegeneration. Lithium is a monovalent cation classically utilized in the treatment of mood disorders, but recent evidence also advances a beneficial potentiality of this compound in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, lithium acts on several processes whose alterations characterize the brain cholinergic impairment at short and long term...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217760/sleep-in-alzheimer-s-disease-beyond-amyloid
#16
Jerrah Holth, Tirth Patel, David M Holtzman
Sleep disorders are prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a major cause of institutionalization. Like AD pathology, sleep abnormalities can appear years before cognitive decline and may be predictive of dementia. A bidirectional relationship between sleep and amyloid β (Aβ) has been well established with disturbed sleep and increased wakefulness leading to increased Aβ production and decreased Aβ clearance; whereas Aβ deposition is associated with increased wakefulness and sleep disturbances. Aβ fluctuates with the sleep wake cycle and is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213811/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-memory
#17
M G Blake, M M Boccia
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199851/the-input-output-relationship-of-the-cholinergic-basal-forebrain
#18
Matthew R Gielow, Laszlo Zaborszky
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197081/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-orexin-neurons-effects-on-attention
#19
REVIEW
Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Maria Esposito, Francesco Precenzano, Marco Carotenuto, Andrea Viggiano, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195219/constitutive-activation-of-creb-in-mice-enhances-temporal-association-learning-and-increases-hippocampal-ca1-neuronal-spine-density-and-complexity
#20
Tatsurou Serita, Hotaka Fukushima, Satoshi Kida
Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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