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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#1
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#2
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904504/recovery-of-an-injured-anterior-cingulum-to-the-basal-forebrain-in-a-patient-with-brain-injury-a-4-year-follow-up-study-of-cognitive-function
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904476/impairment-of-the-nerve-growth-factor-pathway-driving-amyloid-accumulation-in-cholinergic-neurons-the-incipit-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-story
#4
REVIEW
Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF) alterations in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876653/manual-segmentation-of-the-human-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-using-3t-mri
#5
Justin D Theiss, Caitlin Ridgewell, Maureen McHugo, Stephan Heckers, Jennifer Urbano Blackford
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)-a small gray matter region located in the basal forebrain-has been implicated in both anxiety and addiction based on compelling evidence from rodent and non-human primate studies. However, the BNST's small size and proximity to other gray matter regions has hindered non-invasive study in human subjects using standard neuroimaging methods. While initial studies have benefitted from a BNST mask created from a single human subject using a 7T scanner, individual variability is likely-especially in patient populations-thus a manual segmentation protocol is needed...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871922/linking-canonical-microcircuits-and-neuronal-activity-dynamic-causal-modelling-of-laminar-recordings
#6
D A Pinotsis, J P Geerts, L Pinto, T H B FitzGerald, V Litvak, R Auksztulewicz, K J Friston
Neural models describe brain activity at different scales, ranging from single cells to whole brain networks. Here, we attempt to reconcile models operating at the microscopic (compartmental) and mesoscopic (neural mass) scales to analyse data from microelectrode recordings of intralaminar neural activity. Although these two classes of models operate at different scales, it is relatively straightforward to create neural mass models of ensemble activity that are equipped with priors obtained after fitting data generated by detailed microscopic models...
November 18, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857040/effect-of-stress-on-structural-brain-asymmetry
#7
(no author information available yet)
There is a growing body of evidence that stressful events may affect the brain not only as a whole, but also in multiple laterality aspects. The present review is aimed at discussing the effect of stress and stress hormones on structural brain asymmetry. Differences and crossroads of functional and structural asymmetry are briefly mentioned throughout the document. The first part of this review summarizes major findings in the field of structural brain asymmetries in animals and humans from the evolutionary perspective...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847324/developmental-specification-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#8
REVIEW
Kathryn C Allaway, Robert Machold
Striatal cholinergic interneurons and basal forebrain cholinergic projection neurons, which together comprise the forebrain cholinergic system, regulate attention, memory, reward pathways, and motor activity through the neuromodulation of multiple brain circuits. The importance of these neurons in the etiology of neurocognitive disorders has been well documented, but our understanding of their specification during embryogenesis is still incomplete. All forebrain cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons appear to share a common developmental origin in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, a region that also gives rise to GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons...
November 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843750/permeability-and-distribution-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-brain-of-neonatal-rats-by-periphery-venous-injection-in-hypoxic-ischemic-state
#9
Wenli Zhou, Jiantao Zhang, Guangming Wang, Limian Ling, Chaoying Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the permeability of β-NGF through blood-brain-barrier (BBB) in neonatal and adult rats, and the spatial distribution of β-NGF in different brain regions in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) and normal neonatal rats. METHODS: To investigate the overall permeability of β-NGF through BBB, β-NGF labeled with I(125) was injected into adult rats, neonatal rats and HI neonatal rats via tail vein. The radioactivity of brain tissue and blood was examined and analyzed 30 min after injection...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843470/childhood-neurogenic-stuttering-due-to-bilateral-congenital-abnormality-in-globus-pallidus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Mohammad Javad Saeedi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Mostafa Almasi Dooghaee
Objective The basal ganglia are a group of structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Some speech disorders such as stuttering can resulted from disturbances in the circuits between the basal ganglia and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Stuttering consists of blocks, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of speech. We present a 7.5 -year-old male child with bilateral basal ganglia lesion in globus pallidus with unclear reason...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834778/hippocampus-and-basal-forebrain-volumetry-for-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-diagnosis-could-it-be-useful-in-primary-care
#11
Stefan J Teipel, Felix Keller, Jochen R Thyrian, Urs Strohmaier, Attila Altiner, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Ingo Kilimann
BACKGROUND: Once a patient or a knowledgeable informant has noticed decline in memory or other cognitive functions, initiation of early dementia assessment is recommended. Hippocampus and cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) volumetry supports the detection of prodromal and early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in highly selected patient populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare effect size and diagnostic accuracy of hippocampus and BF volumetry between patients recruited in highly specialized versus primary care and to assess the effect of white matter lesions as a proxy for cerebrovascular comorbidity on diagnostic accuracy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#12
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821764/the-cholinergic-forebrain-arousal-system-acts-directly-on-the-circadian-pacemaker
#13
Glenn R Yamakawa, Priyoneel Basu, Filomeno Cortese, Johanna MacDonnell, Danica Whalley, Victoria M Smith, Michael C Antle
Sleep and wake states are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. One such important system is the circadian clock, which provides temporal structure to sleep and wake. Conversely, changes in behavioral state, such as sleep deprivation (SD) or arousal, can phase shift the circadian clock. Here we demonstrate that the level of wakefulness is critical for this arousal resetting of the circadian clock. Specifically, drowsy animals with significant power in the 7- to 9-Hz band of their EEGs do not exhibit phase shifts in response to a mild SD procedure...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815021/interleukin-1%C3%AE-induces-sleep-independent-of-prostaglandin-d2-in-rats-and-mice
#14
Bin-Jia Zhang, Shu-Rong Shao, Kosuke Aritake, Atsuko Takeuchi, Yoshihiro Urade, Zhi-Li Huang, Michael Lazarus, Wei-Min Qu
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and prostaglandin (PG) D2 are endogenous sleep-promoting substances. Since it was reported that a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, NS398, completely inhibited IL-1β-induced sleep in rats, IL-1β-induced sleep had been believed to be mediated by prostanoids, most probably PGD2. However, in the present study, pretreatment of rats with NS398 (3mg/kg) did not suppress the 64.2% increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep during infusion of IL-1β (10ng) for 6h in the nocturnal (active) period between 23:00 and 5:00 into the subarachnoid space of the PGD2-sensitive sleep-promoting zone of the basal forebrain...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811848/basal-forebrain-degeneration-precedes-and-predicts-the-cortical-spread-of-alzheimer-s-pathology
#15
Taylor W Schmitz, R Nathan Spreng
There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received negligible support...
November 4, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798374/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-delivery-of-neural-stem-cells-into-the-basal-ganglia-of-nonhuman-primates-reveals-a-pulsatile-mode-of-cell-dispersion
#16
Kristen E Malloy, Jinqi Li, Gourav R Choudhury, April Torres, Shruti Gupta, Chris Kantorak, Tim Goble, Peter T Fox, Geoffrey D Clarke, Marcel M Daadi
: : Optimal stem cell delivery procedures are critical to the success of the cell therapy approach. Variables such as flow rate, suspension solution, needle diameter, cell density, and tissue mechanics affect tissue penetration, backflow along the needle, and the dispersion and survival of injected cells during delivery. Most cell transplantation centers engaged in human clinical trials use custom-designed cannula needles, syringes, or catheters, sometimes precluding the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided delivery to target tissue...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796759/increased-src-family-kinase-activity-disrupts-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-impairs-remote-fear-memory-in-forebrain-shp2-deficient-mice
#17
Xunyi Yan, Bin Zhang, Wen Lu, Lin Peng, Qian Yang, Wei Cao, Shen Lin, Wenyue Yu, Xiaoming Li, Yuehai Ke, Shengtian Li, Wei Yang, Jianhong Luo
Src homolog domain-containing phosphatase 2 (Shp2) signals a variety of cellular and physiological functions including learning and memory. Dysregulation of ERK signaling is known to be responsible for the cognitive deficits associated with gain-of-function mutated Shp2 mimicking Noonan syndrome. However, here, we report that CaMKIIα-cre induced knockout (CaSKO) of Shp2 in hippocampal pyramidal neurons resulted in increased Src activity, upregulated phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at Y1325 of GluN2A and at Y1472 of GluN2B, disrupted the balance of synaptic transmission, and impaired long-term potentiation and remote contextual fear memory...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793193/hippocampal-phospho-tau-mapt-neuropathology-in-the-fornix-in-alzheimer-disease-an-immunohistochemical-autopsy-study
#18
Edward D Plowey, Jennifer L Ziskin
Whereas early Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology and mild cognitive impairment are relatively common in aging, accurate prediction of patients that will progress to dementia requires new biomarkers. Recently, substantial work has focused on phospho-tau/MAPT (p-MAPT) neuropathology since its regional propagation correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in AD suggest that increased diffusion in the fornix secondary to p-MAPT-related axonal injury could serve as a predictive biomarker of the risk of disease progression...
October 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784808/the-role-of-adenosine-in-the-maturation-of-sleep-homeostasis-in-rats
#19
Irma Gvilia, Natalia Suntsova, Andrey Kostin, Anna Kalinchuk, Dennis McGinty, Radhika Basheer, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis in rats undergoes significant maturational changes during post-weaning development, but underlying mechanisms of this process are unknown. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the maturation of sleep is related to the functional emergence of adenosine (AD) signaling in the brain. We assessed post-weaning changes in (1) wake-related elevation of extracellular AD in the basal forebrain (BF) and adjacent lateral preoptic area (LPO) and (2) the responsiveness of median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) sleep-active cells to increasing homeostatic sleep drive...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777554/whole-brain-monosynaptic-afferent-inputs-to-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system
#20
Rongfeng Hu, Sen Jin, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Ji Hu
The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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