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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320270/role-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-plasticity-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#1
REVIEW
N K Isaev, E V Stelmashook, E E Genrikhs
Neuronal plastic rearrangements during the development and functioning of neurons are largely regulated by trophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In the brain, NGF is produced in structures innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and retrogradely transported along the axons to the bodies of cholinergic neurons. NGF is essential for normal development and functioning of the basal forebrain; it affects formation of the dendritic tree and modulates the activities of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in basal forebrain neurons...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303377/the-differences-of-the-precommissural-and-postcommissural-fornix-in-the-hippocampal-location-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#2
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
PURPOSE: The precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix have different connections to the basal forebrain and septal region, and mammillary body, respectively. However, little is known about the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we investigated the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. METHODS: We recruited 25 healthy volunteers for this study...
March 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293176/muscarinic-receptors-are-responsible-for-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-projection-neurons-in-the-song-production-brain-nucleus-ra-of-zebra-finches
#3
Wei Meng, Songhua Wang, Lihua Yao, Nan Zhang, Dongfeng Li
Songbirds are a useful model for the study of learned vocal behavior in vertebrates. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus in the vocal motor pathway. It receives excitatory synaptic inputs from the anterior forebrain pathway. RA also receives cholinergic inputs from the ventral paleostriatum of the basal forebrain. Our previous study showed that carbachol, a non-selective cholinergic receptor agonist, modulates the electrophysiology of RA projection neurons (PNs), indicating that cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289381/white-matter-damage-in-the-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-cognitive-impairment-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment-no-dementia
#4
Qing Liu, Zude Zhu, Stefan J Teipel, Jianwei Yang, Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Jianping Jia
Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263766/shh-e176-e177-zn-2-conformation-is-required-for-signaling-at-endogenous-sites
#5
Diana S Himmelstein, Ivelisse Cajigas, Chunming Bi, Brian S Clark, Grant Van Der Voort, Jhumku D Kohtz
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a master developmental regulator. In 1995, the SHH crystal structure predicted that SHH-E176 (human)/E177 (mouse) regulates signaling through a Zn(2+)-dependent mechanism. While Zn(2+) is known to be required for SHH protein stability, a regulatory role for SHH-E176 or Zn(2+) has not been described. Here, we show that SHH-E176/177 modulates Zn(2+)-dependent cross-linking in vitro and is required for endogenous signaling, in vivo. While ectopically expressed SHH-E176A is highly active, mice expressing SHH-E177A at endogenous sites (Shh(E177A/-)) are morphologically indistinguishable from mice lacking SHH (Shh(-/-)), with patterning defects in both embryonic spinal cord and forebrain...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240674/a-second-wind-for-the-cholinergic-system-in-alzheimer-s-therapy
#6
Vincent Douchamps, Chantal Mathis
Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. It relied on a series of observations obtained in aged animals, elderly, and AD patients that pointed to dysfunctions of cholinergic basal forebrain, similarities between cognitive impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those found in advanced age and AD, and beneficial effects of drugs stimulating cholinergic activity...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239803/nasal-hppsis-administration-enhances-ngf-and-tumor-suppressor-protein-p73-in-human-brain-cancer-tissues-preliminary-data
#7
L Aloe, M L Rocco, E Stigliano, F Angelini, M Iacoangeli, V Frari, F Salvinelli
OBJECTIVE: Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor known to play a critical role in growth, survival, differentiation and neuroprotection of peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons, as well as brain neurons. We have recently reported that nasal administration of high-pressure isotonic physiological saline solution (HPpSIS) enhances the level of NGF and the expression of NGF receptors in neurons of the olfactory bulbs and forebrain cholinergic neurons of laboratory animals...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223096/the-habenula-in-psychiatric-disorders-more-than-three-decades-of-translational-investigation
#8
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have also implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222508/chronic-lithium-treatment-in-a-rat-model-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-depletion-effects-on-memory-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#9
Francesca Gelfo, Debora Cutuli, Annalisa Nobili, Paola De Bartolo, Marcello D'Amelio, Laura Petrosini, Carlo Caltagirone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. A fundamental neuropathological feature of AD is the early and severe brain cholinergic neurodegeneration. Lithium is a monovalent cation classically utilized in the treatment of mood disorders, but recent evidence also advances a beneficial potentiality of this compound in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, lithium acts on several processes whose alterations characterize the brain cholinergic impairment at short and long term...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217760/sleep-in-alzheimer-s-disease-beyond-amyloid
#10
Jerrah Holth, Tirth Patel, David M Holtzman
Sleep disorders are prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a major cause of institutionalization. Like AD pathology, sleep abnormalities can appear years before cognitive decline and may be predictive of dementia. A bidirectional relationship between sleep and amyloid β (Aβ) has been well established with disturbed sleep and increased wakefulness leading to increased Aβ production and decreased Aβ clearance; whereas Aβ deposition is associated with increased wakefulness and sleep disturbances. Aβ fluctuates with the sleep wake cycle and is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213811/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-memory
#11
M G Blake, M M Boccia
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199851/the-input-output-relationship-of-the-cholinergic-basal-forebrain
#12
Matthew R Gielow, Laszlo Zaborszky
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197081/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-orexin-neurons-effects-on-attention
#13
REVIEW
Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Maria Esposito, Francesco Precenzano, Marco Carotenuto, Andrea Viggiano, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195219/constitutive-activation-of-creb-in-mice-enhances-temporal-association-learning-and-increases-hippocampal-ca1-neuronal-spine-density-and-complexity
#14
Tatsurou Serita, Hotaka Fukushima, Satoshi Kida
Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#15
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185047/histaminergic-h1-and-h2-receptors-mediate-the-effects-of-propofol-on-the-noradrenalin-inhibited-neurons-in-rat-ventrolateral-preoptic-nucleus
#16
Yang Liu, Yu Zhang, Kun Qian, Lin Zhang, Tian Yu
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167808/how-do-individuals-cope-with-stress-behavioural-physiological-and-neuronal-differences-between-proactive-and-reactive-coping-styles-in-fish
#17
Marco A Vindas, Marnix Gorissen, Erik Höglund, Gert Flik, Valentina Tronci, Børge Damsgård, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Tom O Nilsen, Svante Winberg, Øyvind Øverli, Lars O E Ebbesson
Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternate stress coping styles is poor. Since perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses at basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163217/neurochemical-organization-and-morphology-of-the-sleep-related-nuclei-in-the-brain-of-the-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx
#18
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Osama B Mohammed, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder Cetartiodactyla and is native to the Arabian Desert. The desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. The current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep control in other mammals for the Arabian oryx. The nuclei delineated include those revealed immunohistochemically as belonging to the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems within the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, midbrain and pons...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139695/dynamic-behaviour-of-human-neuroepithelial-cells-in-the-developing-forebrain
#19
Lakshmi Subramanian, Marina Bershteyn, Mercedes F Paredes, Arnold R Kriegstein
To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells...
January 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129944/reduced-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-integrity-links-neonatal-complications-and-adult-cognitive-deficits-after-premature-birth
#20
Michel J Grothe, Lukas Scheef, Josef Bäuml, Chun Meng, Marcel Daamen, Nicole Baumann, Claus Zimmer, Stefan Teipel, Peter Bartmann, Henning Boecker, Dieter Wolke, Afra Wohlschläger, Christian Sorg
BACKGROUND: Prematurely born individuals have an increased risk for long-term neurocognitive impairments. In animal models, development of the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) is selectively vulnerable to adverse effects of perinatal stressors, and impaired cBF integrity results in lasting cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that cBF integrity is impaired in prematurely born individuals and mediates adult cognitive impairments associated with prematurity. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric assessments of a cytoarchitectonically defined cBF region of interest to determine differences in cBF integrity between 99 adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight and 106 term-born control subjects from the same birth cohort...
December 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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