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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018854/cholinergic-depletion-and-basal-forebrain-volume-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#1
Jolien Schaeverbeke, Charlotte Evenepoel, Rose Bruffaerts, Koen Van Laere, Guy Bormans, Eva Dries, Thomas Tousseyn, Natalie Nelissen, Ronald Peeters, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Patrick Dupont, Rik Vandenberghe
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a heterogeneous syndrome with various neuropathological causes for which no medical treatment with proven efficacy exists. Basal forebrain (BF) volume loss has been reported in PPA but its relation to cholinergic depletion is still unclear. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether cholinergic alterations occur in PPA variants and how this relates to BF volume loss. An academic memory clinic based consecutive series of 11 PPA patients (five with the semantic variant (SV), four with the logopenic variant (LV) and two with the nonfluent variant (NFV)) participated in this cross-sectional in vivo PET imaging study together with 10 healthy control subjects...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011073/behavioral-effects-and-neuroanatomical-targets-of-acute-atrazine-exposure-in-the-male-sprague-dawley-rat
#2
V M Rodriguez, M S Mendoza-Trejo, I Hernandez-Plata, M Giordano
Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide broadly used in the world to control weeds in corn and sorghum fields, and it is potentially toxic for the dopaminergic system. Alterations in dopaminergic markers after ATR administration in rats and C57BL/6 mice have been reported. Behaviorally, it has been observed that ATR exposure causes hypoactivity shortly after its administration. To understand how acute ATR administration induces hypoactivity, we set out to map the brain areas responsive to ATR using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as a marker of dopaminergic neurons...
December 21, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000737/development-of-an-in-vivo-active-reversible-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitor
#3
Urban Košak, Boris Brus, Damijan Knez, Roman Šink, Simon Žakelj, Jurij Trontelj, Anja Pišlar, Jasna Šlenc, Martina Gobec, Marko Živin, Larisa Tratnjek, Martina Perše, Kinga Sałat, Adrian Podkowa, Barbara Filipek, Florian Nachon, Xavier Brazzolotto, Anna Więckowska, Barbara Malawska, Jure Stojan, Irena Mlinarič Raščan, Janko Kos, Nicolas Coquelle, Jacques-Philippe Colletier, Stanislav Gobec
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by severe basal forebrain cholinergic deficit, which results in progressive and chronic deterioration of memory and cognitive functions. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to the termination of cholinergic neurotransmission. Its enzymatic activity increases with the disease progression, thus classifying BChE as a viable therapeutic target in advanced AD. Potent, selective and reversible human BChE inhibitors were developed. The solved crystal structure of human BChE in complex with the most potent inhibitor reveals its binding mode and provides the molecular basis of its low nanomolar potency...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999310/effect-of-estradiol-on-neurotrophin-receptors-in-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-relevance-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Kwakowsky, Michael R Milne, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L Faull
The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer's disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons...
December 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997037/descending-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-orexin-neurons-in-mice
#5
Lindsay J Agostinelli, Loris L Ferrari, Carrie E Mahoney, Takatoshi Mochizuki, Bradford B Lowell, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
The orexin (hypocretin) neurons play an essential role in promoting arousal, and loss of the orexin neurons results in narcolepsy, a condition characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy. The orexin neurons excite wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), and a reciprocal projection from the BF back to the orexin neurons may help promote arousal and motivation. The BF contains at least three different cell types (cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurons) across its different regions (medial septum, diagonal band, magnocellular preoptic area, and substantia innominata)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956208/anatomical-evidence-for-functional-diversity-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-of-primates
#6
Sophie B Sébille, Hayat Belaid, Anne-Charlotte Philippe, Arthur André, Brian Lau, Chantal François, Carine Karachi, Eric Bardinet
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a highly preserved brainstem structure in vertebrates. The MLR performs a crucial role in locomotion but also controls various other functions such as sleep, attention, and even emotion. The MLR comprises the pedunculopontine (PPN) and cuneiform nuclei (CuN) but their specific roles are still unknown in primates. Here, we sought to characterise the inputs and outputs of the PPN and CuN to and from the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and cortex, with a specific interest in identifying functional anatomical territories...
December 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923657/prohormone-convertase-7-is-necessary-for-the-normal-processing-of-cholecystokinin-in-mouse-brain
#7
Emmanuel N Anyetei-Anum, Alissa Blum, Nabil G Seidah, Margery C Beinfeld
Endoproteases in the secretory pathway process pro-cholecystokinin (CCK) into the biologically active forms found in the tissues that express CCK mRNA. Thus far, the endoproteases involved in CCK processing include cathepsin L and the prohormone convertases (PC) 1, 2, and 5. This study finds that PC7 is also critical for normal production of CCK in specific areas of the brain. Loss of PC7 results in decreased levels of CCK in more brain regions than any other endoprotease studied to date. Substantial decreases in brain levels of CCK are found in the prefrontal, frontal, parietal-insular-pyriform, and temporal cortex, caudate-putamen, basal forebrain, thalamus, hippocampus, septum, and medulla of PC7 knock-out (KO) mice...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#8
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
September 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#9
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904504/recovery-of-an-injured-anterior-cingulum-to-the-basal-forebrain-in-a-patient-with-brain-injury-a-4-year-follow-up-study-of-cognitive-function
#10
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904476/impairment-of-the-nerve-growth-factor-pathway-driving-amyloid-accumulation-in-cholinergic-neurons-the-incipit-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-story
#11
REVIEW
Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF) alterations in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876653/manual-segmentation-of-the-human-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-using-3t-mri
#12
Justin D Theiss, Caitlin Ridgewell, Maureen McHugo, Stephan Heckers, Jennifer Urbano Blackford
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)-a small gray matter region located in the basal forebrain-has been implicated in both anxiety and addiction based on compelling evidence from rodent and non-human primate studies. However, the BNST's small size and proximity to other gray matter regions has hindered non-invasive study in human subjects using standard neuroimaging methods. While initial studies have benefitted from a BNST mask created from a single human subject using a 7T scanner, individual variability is likely-especially in patient populations-thus a manual segmentation protocol is needed...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871922/linking-canonical-microcircuits-and-neuronal-activity-dynamic-causal-modelling-of-laminar-recordings
#13
D A Pinotsis, J P Geerts, L Pinto, T H B FitzGerald, V Litvak, R Auksztulewicz, K J Friston
Neural models describe brain activity at different scales, ranging from single cells to whole brain networks. Here, we attempt to reconcile models operating at the microscopic (compartmental) and mesoscopic (neural mass) scales to analyse data from microelectrode recordings of intralaminar neural activity. Although these two classes of models operate at different scales, it is relatively straightforward to create neural mass models of ensemble activity that are equipped with priors obtained after fitting data generated by detailed microscopic models...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857040/effect-of-stress-on-structural-brain-asymmetry
#14
Petr Zach, Karel Vales, Ales Stuchlik, Pavla Cermakova, Jana Mrzilkova, Antonella Koutela, Martina Kutova
There is a growing body of evidence that stressful events may affect the brain not only as a whole, but also in multiple laterality aspects. The present review is aimed at discussing the effect of stress and stress hormones on structural brain asymmetry. Differences and crossroads of functional and structural asymmetry are briefly mentioned throughout the document. The first part of this review summarizes major findings in the field of structural brain asymmetries in animals and humans from the evolutionary perspective...
September 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847324/developmental-specification-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#15
REVIEW
Kathryn C Allaway, Robert Machold
Striatal cholinergic interneurons and basal forebrain cholinergic projection neurons, which together comprise the forebrain cholinergic system, regulate attention, memory, reward pathways, and motor activity through the neuromodulation of multiple brain circuits. The importance of these neurons in the etiology of neurocognitive disorders has been well documented, but our understanding of their specification during embryogenesis is still incomplete. All forebrain cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons appear to share a common developmental origin in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, a region that also gives rise to GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons...
January 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843750/permeability-and-distribution-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-brain-of-neonatal-rats-by-periphery-venous-injection-in-hypoxic-ischemic-state
#16
Wenli Zhou, Jiantao Zhang, Guangming Wang, Limian Ling, Chaoying Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the permeability of β-NGF through blood-brain-barrier (BBB) in neonatal and adult rats, and the spatial distribution of β-NGF in different brain regions in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) and normal neonatal rats. METHODS: To investigate the overall permeability of β-NGF through BBB, β-NGF labeled with I(125) was injected into adult rats, neonatal rats and HI neonatal rats via tail vein. The radioactivity of brain tissue and blood was examined and analyzed 30 min after injection...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843470/childhood-neurogenic-stuttering-due-to-bilateral-congenital-abnormality-in-globus-pallidus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Mohammad Javad Saeedi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Mostafa Almasi Dooghaee
Objective The basal ganglia are a group of structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Some speech disorders such as stuttering can resulted from disturbances in the circuits between the basal ganglia and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Stuttering consists of blocks, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of speech. We present a 7.5 -year-old male child with bilateral basal ganglia lesion in globus pallidus with unclear reason...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834778/hippocampus-and-basal-forebrain-volumetry-for-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-diagnosis-could-it-be-useful-in-primary-care
#18
Stefan J Teipel, Felix Keller, Jochen R Thyrian, Urs Strohmaier, Attila Altiner, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Ingo Kilimann
BACKGROUND: Once a patient or a knowledgeable informant has noticed decline in memory or other cognitive functions, initiation of early dementia assessment is recommended. Hippocampus and cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) volumetry supports the detection of prodromal and early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in highly selected patient populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare effect size and diagnostic accuracy of hippocampus and BF volumetry between patients recruited in highly specialized versus primary care and to assess the effect of white matter lesions as a proxy for cerebrovascular comorbidity on diagnostic accuracy...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#19
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821764/the-cholinergic-forebrain-arousal-system-acts-directly-on-the-circadian-pacemaker
#20
Glenn R Yamakawa, Priyoneel Basu, Filomeno Cortese, Johanna MacDonnell, Danica Whalley, Victoria M Smith, Michael C Antle
Sleep and wake states are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. One such important system is the circadian clock, which provides temporal structure to sleep and wake. Conversely, changes in behavioral state, such as sleep deprivation (SD) or arousal, can phase shift the circadian clock. Here we demonstrate that the level of wakefulness is critical for this arousal resetting of the circadian clock. Specifically, drowsy animals with significant power in the 7- to 9-Hz band of their EEGs do not exhibit phase shifts in response to a mild SD procedure...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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