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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306713/trypanocidal-effect-of-isotretinoin-through-the-inhibition-of-polyamine-and-amino-acid-transporters-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#1
Chantal Reigada, Edward A Valera-Vera, Melisa Sayé, Andrea E Errasti, Carla C Avila, Mariana R Miranda, Claudio A Pereira
Polyamines are essential compounds to all living organisms and in the specific case of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, they are exclusively obtained through transport processes since this parasite is auxotrophic for polyamines. Previous works reported that retinol acetate inhibits Leishmania growth and decreases its intracellular polyamine concentration. The present work describes a combined strategy of drug repositioning by virtual screening followed by in vitro assays to find drugs able to inhibit TcPAT12, the only polyamine transporter described in T...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303984/silent-killers-transfusion-transmissible-infections-tti-among-asymptomatic-population-of-pakistan
#2
Muhammad Saeed, Shahida Hussain, Farhan Rasheed, Maqsood Ahmad, Mizna Arif, Muhammad Tariq Hamid Rahmani
OBJECTIVE: To analyse transfusion transmissible infections in asymptomatic population. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from December 2014 to November 2015, and comprised healthy asymptomatic blood donors.Every sample was screened for the presence of antibodies/antigens of hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, treponemapallidum, hepatitis B virus and malaria parasite through rapid immunochromatographic technique...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303822/human-papillomavirus-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-gyneco-obstetric-outpatients-from-a-mexican-hospital
#3
Laura Conde-Ferráez, Jorge Ramiro Carrillo Martíez, Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera, María Del Refugio González Losa
CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections, usually asymptomatic. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types and other cofactors such as the concomitant infection with C. trachomatis can represent a higher risk to develop cervical lesions; therefore, screening with sensitive methods could aid to identify women at risk. AIMS: The aim is to determine the prevalence and concurrence of both infections, detected with in-house molecular methods, and to identify the risk factors associated to the infections in Mexican women...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303153/de-novo-human-cardiac-myocytes-for-medical-research-promises-and-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Veronique Hamel, Kang Cheng, Shudan Liao, Aizhu Lu, Yong Zheng, Yawen Chen, Yucai Xie, Wenbin Liang
The advent of cellular reprogramming technology has revolutionized biomedical research. De novo human cardiac myocytes can now be obtained from direct reprogramming of somatic cells (such as fibroblasts), from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which are reprogrammed from somatic cells), and from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Such de novo human cardiac myocytes hold great promise for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell therapy of heart disease. Here, we review the technique advancements for generating de novo human cardiac myocytes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#5
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290961/kcnq1-gene-variants-in-large-asymptomatic-populations-considerations-for-genomic-screening-of-military-cohorts
#6
Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Donald W Hadley
INTRODUCTION: The advances in genomic technology of large populations make the potential for genomic screening of military cohorts and recruits feasible, affording the potential to identify at-risk individuals before occurrence of potentially life-threatening events. Exploring sudden cardiac death, known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in young military service members, we focused on the most common gene associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), KCNQ1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the publicly available database Exome Aggregation Consortium as a surrogate for a military population, variants in KCNQ1 were filtered on the basis of population prevalence, classification as a disease mutation in the Human Gene Mutation database, and classification as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in the ClinVar database...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290950/survey-of-sexually-transmitted-disease-laboratory-methods-in-u-s-army-laboratories-2012
#7
Nicole K Leamer, Nikki N Jordan, Laura A Pacha, Nabil H Latif, Eric C Garges, Joel C Gaydos
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) affect primarily young people (17-24 years). The U.S. Military, with many young people, strives to maintain effective STD treatment and prevention programs using current methods. Laboratory testing technology and capacity are important for appropriate clinical management and to provide data to direct prevention programs. STD laboratory capabilities are assessed in civilian and military laboratories using surveys. An Army laboratory survey was conducted in 2007...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279451/data-driven-models-to-predict-the-elimination-of-sleeping-sickness-in-former-equateur-province-of-drc
#8
K S Rock, A Pandey, M L Ndeffo-Mbah, K E Atkins, C Lumbala, A Galvani, M J Keeling
Approaching disease elimination, it is crucial to be able to assess progress towards key objectives using quantitative tools. For Gambian human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), the ultimate goal is to stop transmission by 2030, while intermediary targets include elimination as a public health problem - defined as <1 new case per 10,000 inhabitants in 90% of foci, and <2000 reported cases by 2020. Using two independent mathematical models, this study assessed the achievability of these goals in the former Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, which historically had endemic levels of disease...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274279/-preliminary-seroepidemiological-survey-of-dengue-infections-in-pakistan-2009-2014
#9
Muhammad Suleman, Hyeong-Woo Lee, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Nadia Nisar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Adnan Khurshid, Mehar Angez, Massab Umair, Ghulam Mujtaba, Rani Faryal
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is the causative agent of dengue fever, a vector borne infection which causes self-limiting to life threatening disease in humans. A sero-epidemiological study was conducted to understand the current epidemiology of dengue virus in Pakistan which is now known as a dengue endemic country after its first reported outbreak in 1994. METHODS: To investigate the prevalence of dengue virus in Pakistan during 2009-2014, a total of 9,493 blood samples were screened for the detection of anti-dengue IgM antibodies using ELISA...
March 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274244/where-is-students-research-in-evidence-informed-decision-making-in-health-assessing-productivity-and-use-of-postgraduate-students-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#10
E A Obuku, J N Lavis, A Kinengyere, D K Mafigiri, F Sengooba, C Karamagi, N K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Investing in research that is not accessible or used is a waste of resources and an injustice to human subject participants. Post-graduate students' research in institutions of higher learning involves considerable time, effort and money, warranting evaluation of the return on investment. Although individual studies addressing research productivity of post-graduate students are available, a synthesis of these results in low-income settings has not been undertaken. Our first aim is to identify the types of approaches that increase productivity and those that increase the application of medical post-graduate students' research and to assess their effectiveness...
March 9, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274212/analysis-of-the-three-dimensional-anatomical-variance-of-the-distal-radius-using-3d-shape-models
#11
Sebastian F Baumbach, Jakob Binder, Alexander Synek, Fabian G Mück, Yan Chevalier, Ekkehard Euler, Georg Langs, Lukas Fischer
BACKGROUND: Various medical fields rely on detailed anatomical knowledge of the distal radius. Current studies are limited to two-dimensional analysis and biased by varying measurement locations. The aims were to 1) generate 3D shape models of the distal radius and investigate variations in the 3D shape, 2) generate and assess morphometrics in standardized cut planes, and 3) test the model's classification accuracy. METHODS: The local radiographic database was screened for CT-scans of intact radii...
March 9, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271701/an-update-on-the-biological-markers-of-endometriosis
#12
Razvan Socolov, Demetra Socolov, Allia Sindilar, Ioana Pavaleanu
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a disease that affects 7-10% of reproductive-age women. When its diagnosis is delayed, its management becomes more difficult. Both for earlier detection and for therapeutic follow-up, discovering noninvasive biological markers with good specificity for this disease is a promising aspect of its research. We analyzed the recent data in the literature regarding these markers to determine which were worth following. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This literature review focused on medical data reported in the last 6 years (2011-2016)...
March 7, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266110/age-related-changes-in-immune-function-immune-senescence-in-caries-and-periodontal-diseases-a-systematic-review
#13
Philip M Preshaw, Karsten Henne, John J Taylor, Ruth A Valentine, Georg Conrads
AIM: To systematically review the evidence regarding immune senescence in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and dental caries. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases utilizing medical subject headings (MeSH terms) supplemented by screening of review articles and other relevant texts was undertaken. RESULTS: Seventy-three articles were included (43 for periodontitis, 30 for caries). Study results were found to be generally heterogeneous...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265177/-epidemiology-prevention-and-early-detection-of-cervical-cancer
#14
Nicolas Wentzensen
BACKGROUND: Persistent infections with human papillomaviruses are a necessary cause of cervical carcinomas. The development of HPV-based prevention tools, HPV vaccination and HPV testing, is leading to major changes in cervical cancer prevention programs worldwide. A decade after introduction of HPV vaccination in many countries reductions of HPV infections and cancer precursors have been observed in young women. The focus is now on the integration of new approaches for screening of increasingly vaccinated populations...
October 2016: Der Onkologe: Organ der Deutschen Krebsgesellschaft E.V
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263863/the-influence-of-surface-chemistry-on-adsorbed-fibrinogen-conformation-orientation-fiber-formation-and-platelet-adhesion
#15
Liudi Zhang, Brendan Casey, Dennis K Galanakis, Clement Marmorat, Shelby Skoog, Katherine Vorvolakos, Marcia Simon, Miriam H Rafailovich
Thrombosis is a clear risk when any foreign material is in contact with the bloodstream. Here we propose an immunohistological stain-based model for non-enzymatic clot formation that enables a facile screen for the thrombogenicity of blood-contacting materials. We exposed polymers with different surface chemistries to protease-free human fibrinogen. We observed that on hydrophilic surfaces, fibrinogen is adsorbed via αC regions, while the γ400-411 platelet-binding dodecapeptide on the D region becomes exposed, and fibrinogen fibers do not form...
March 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263467/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-drug-drug-interactions
#16
David J Greenblatt
Medications used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections present a special challenge with respect to the management of potential and actual drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The HIV and HCV treatments may interact with each other, and also interact with drugs of abuse and/or with medications used to treat substance abuse. Possible mechanisms of these DDIs generally include induction or inhibition of activity/expression of human cytochromes P450, glucuronosyl transferases, or energy-dependent transport proteins...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259326/extrapulmonary-findings-and-malignancies-in-participants-screened-with-chest-ct-in-the-national-lung-screening-trial
#17
Xuan V Nguyen, Louise Davies, James D Eastwood, Jenny K Hoang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of clinically significant extrapulmonary findings on chest CT for lung cancer screening in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). METHODS: Prospectively acquired data on 17,309 participants who underwent low-dose screening chest CT from August 2002 through September 2007 during the NLST were retrospectively analyzed for extrapulmonary findings. NLST radiologist readers coded such findings as "minor" or "potentially significant...
March 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250913/biomarkers-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-a-multiparametric-approach
#18
Dimphy Zeegers, Shriram Venkatesan, Shu Wen Koh, Grace Kah Mun Low, Pallavee Srivastava, Neisha Sundaram, Swaminathan Sethu, Birendranath Banerjee, Manikandan Jayapal, Oleg Belyakov, Rajamanickam Baskar, Adayabalam S Balajee, M Prakash Hande
Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250664/potential-of-cannabidiol-for-the-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#19
Henry I C Lowe, Ngeh J Toyang, Wayne McLaughlin
Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) pose a major health problem globally and if untreated, both viruses lead to severe liver damage resulting in liver cirrhosis and cancer. While HBV has a vaccine, HCV has none at the moment. The risk of drug resistance, combined with the high cost of current therapies, makes it a necessity for cost-effective therapeutics to be discovered and developed. The recent surge in interest in Medical Cannabis has led to interest in evaluating and validating the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis and its metabolites against various diseases including viruses...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248960/human-cystic-echinococcosis-in-morocco-ultrasound-screening-in-the-mid-atlas-through-an-italian-moroccan-partnership
#20
Houda Chebli, Abderrhamane Laamrani El Idrissi, Mustapha Benazzouz, Badre Eddine Lmimouni, Haddou Nhammi, Mourad Elabandouni, Mohammed Youbi, Rajaa Afifi, Sara Tahiri, Abdellah Essayd El Feydi, Adbellatif Settaf, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Souad Bouhout, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Simone Magnino, Enrico Brunetti, Carlo Filice, Francesca Tamarozzi
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with considerable socioeconomic impact on affected pastoral communities. CE is endemic throughout the Mediterranean, including Morocco, where the Mid Atlas is the most prevalent area for both human and animal infection. The highest hospital annual incidence of human CE is recorded in the provinces of Ifrane and El Hajeb. However, hospital-based statistics likely underestimate the real prevalence of infection, as a proportion of cases never reach medical attention or official records...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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