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Human medical screening

Fumika Ichino, Hidemasa Bono, Takeru Nakazato, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Ryoichi Sato, Hiroko Tabunoki
Human intestinal absorption is estimated using a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cells from human colorectal adenocarcinoma, intestinal perfusion, or a mammalian model. These current evaluation systems are limited in their ability to estimate human intestinal absorption. In addition, in vivo evaluation systems using laboratory animals such as mice and rats entail animal ethics problems, and it is difficult to screen compounds on a large scale at the drug discovery stage. Thus, we propose the use of Bombyx mori larvae for evaluation of intestinal absorption of compounds as an alternative system in this study...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Lucine Vuitton, Elise Jacquin, Anne-Laure Parmentier, Elise Crochet, Francine Fein, Anne-Claire Dupont-Gossart, Laurianne Plastaras, Charles-Henri Bretagne, Frédéric Mauny, Stéphane Koch, Jean-Luc Prétet, Christiane Mougin, Séverine Valmary-Degano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increasing incidence of anal canal carcinomas requires better knowledge on anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to assess anal canal HPV infection prevalence and risk factors among patients seen at a gastroenterology department in France. METHODS: We analyzed anal tissue samples collected from 469 consecutive patients (median age 54 years, 52% women), including 112 who received immunosuppressant therapies and 101 with inflammatory bowel disease (70 with Crohn's disease), who underwent colonoscopy examinations from April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michael L Wilson, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Nestor Lago, Kun Ru
As global efforts accelerate to implement the Sustainable Development Goals and, in particular, universal health coverage, access to high-quality and timely pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) services will be needed to support health-care systems that are tasked with achieving these goals. This access will be most challenging to achieve in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have a disproportionately large share of the global burden of disease but a disproportionately low share of global health-care resources, particularly PALM services...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
Dezső Ribli, Anna Horváth, Zsuzsa Unger, Péter Pollner, István Csabai
In the last two decades, Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems were developed to help radiologists analyse screening mammograms, however benefits of current CAD technologies appear to be contradictory, therefore they should be improved to be ultimately considered useful. Since 2012, deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been a tremendous success in image recognition, reaching human performance. These methods have greatly surpassed the traditional approaches, which are similar to currently used CAD solutions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
William J Meurer, Bradley Barth, Michael Abraham, Jerome Hoffman, Gary M Vilke, Gerard DeMers
BACKGROUND: Stroke treatment is a continuum that begins with the rapid identification of symptoms and treatment with transition to successful rehabilitation. Therapies for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) may vary based on anatomic location, interval from symptom onset, and coexisting health conditions. Successful therapy requires a seamless systematic approach with coordination from prehospital environment through acute management at medical facilities to disposition and long-term care of the patient...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nancy D Campbell
Using the ethical and legal concept of shared responsibility for healthy births, this article considers social, cultural, and historical contexts in which medicalization and criminalization have worked in tandem to widen surveillance in ways that intensify scrutiny of women's lives under the guise of child protection, bringing women who are pregnant, postpartum, or parenting under criminal justice control. Although pregnant and postpartum women are prime candidates for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the expanding carceral system has not prioritized drug treatment or reproductive justice...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Hélène Carabin, Athanase Millogo, Helena A Ngowi, Cici Bauer, Veronique Dermauw, Assana Cissé Koné, Ida Sahlu, Alicia L Salvator, Pierre-Marie Preux, Télesphore Somé, Zékiba Tarnagda, Sarah Gabriël, Rabiou Cissé, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Linda D Cowan, Marie-Paule Boncoeur-Martel, Pierre Dorny, Rasmané Ganaba
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of drug-free interventions in controlling human cysticercosis is not well known. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a community-based educational intervention in reducing the frequency of human cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial between 2011 and 2014. 60 eligible villages from three provinces (Boulkiemdé, Sanguié, and Nayala) were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Kerry Wilbur, Alaa Elmubark, Sara Shabana
INTRODUCTION: The standardized patient (SP) has assumed a fundamental role in undergraduate medical education since first conceived over 50 years ago. While widely used in student training and assessment of communication and clinical examination across health disciplines, little is known how SPs enhance knowledge or skill development among professionals. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of SPs in continuing medical education (CME) programs. METHODS: Authors independently searched for studies published between 1966 and 2016, describing CME initiatives using SP encounters as practice for participants compared with those which did not...
January 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Sara Ahmed, Dhanveer Singh, Shereen Khattab, Jessica Babineau, Dinesh Kumbhare
Background: There is an increasing trend in the consumption of poor-quality diets worldwide, contributing to the increase of non-communicable diseases. Diet directly influences physiological composition and subsequently physical health. Studies have shown that dietary macronutrient and energy content can influence the proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), which mediates various metabolic and endocrine dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify evidence in the literature assessing the association between different dietary interventions on the proportion of IMF in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
E McLachlan, S Anderson, D Hawkes, M Saville, K Arabena
Objectives: To examine factors that enhance under-screened and never-screened women's completion of the self-collection alternative pathway of the Renewed National Cervical Screening Program (ncsp) in Victoria, Australia. Background: With the Australian ncsp changing, starting on 1 December 2017, the Medical Services Advisory Committee (msac) recommended implementing human papillomavirus (hpv) testing using a self-collected sample for under-screened and never-screened populations...
February 2018: Current Oncology
David E Moody, Yueqiao Fu, Wenfang B Fang
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle relaxants could inhibit the in vitro metabolism of common co-medications opioids buprenorphine, methadone and oxycodone. The compounds (solubility-limited concentration (μM) studied) were: baclofen (1000), carisoprodol (200), its metabolite meprobamate (1000), chlorzoxazone (200), cyclobenzaprine (1000), metaxalone (50), methocarbamol (1000), orphenadrine (1000) and tizanidine (1000). Compounds were first incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM) ± pre-incubation, screened with pathway-specific cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s (rCYP), and then IC50 values determined using either 8-concentration tests for those where the rCYP screen suggested an IC50 was achievable, or a 3-concentration test with downward extrapolation if screen suggested 50% inhibition was not achievable...
March 5, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Julia Walther, Christian Schnabel, Florian Tetschke, Tobias Rosenauer, Jonas Golde, Nadja Ebert, Michael Baumann, Christian Hannig, Edmund Koch
The common way to diagnose hard and soft tissue irregularities in the oral cavity is initially the visual inspection by an experienced dentist followed by further medical examinations, such as radiological imaging and/or histopathological investigation. For the diagnosis of oral hard and soft tissues, the detection of early transformations is mostly hampered by poor visual access, low specificity of the diagnosis techniques, and/or limited feasibility of frequent screenings. Therefore, optical noninvasive diagnosis of oral tissue is promising to improve the accuracy of oral screening...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Valentin Trofimov, Sébastien Kicka, Sabrina Mucaria, Nabil Hanna, Fernando Ramon-Olayo, Laura Vela-Gonzalez Del Peral, Joël Lelièvre, Lluís Ballell, Leonardo Scapozza, Gurdyal S Besra, Jonathan A G Cox, Thierry Soldati
Tuberculosis remains a serious threat to human health world-wide, and improved efficiency of medical treatment requires a better understanding of the pathogenesis and the discovery of new drugs. In the present study, we performed a whole-cell based screen in order to complete the characterization of 168 compounds from the GlaxoSmithKline TB-set. We have established and utilized novel previously unexplored host-model systems to characterize the GSK compounds, i.e. the amoeboid organisms D. discoideum and A. castellanii, as well as a microglial phagocytic cell line, BV2...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Debbie Y Mohammed, Prerak Shukla, Yuriy Babayants, Raymund Sison, Jihad Slim
Background: HIV-infected women are five times more likely to develop invasive cervical cancer. Routine screening can detect early signs of cancer and provide an opportunity for treatment. However, suboptimal screening rates are reported in this population. This retrospective study examined the rates of cervical cancer screening in HIV-positive women, conducted according to the current guidelines, from 2014 to 2016 in an inner-city clinic. Materials and methods: We implemented focused scheduling for eligible women by a designated medical assistant...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Michelle I Mighdoll, Thomas M Hyde
The study of postmortem human brain tissue is central to the advancement of neurobiologic studies of psychiatric and neurologic illnesses, particularly the study of brain-specific isoforms and molecules. Due to tissue demands, especially pertaining to brain regions strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, the success and future of this research depend on the availability of high-quality brain specimens from large numbers of subjects, including nonpsychiatric controls, both of which may be obtained from brain banks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Olivier Mortelé, Philippe Vervliet, Celine Gys, Maarten Degreef, Matthias Cuykx, Kristof Maudens, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Foon Yin Lai
Designer benzodiazepines have recently emerged as a class of new psychoactive substances. These substances are used in recreational settings and as alternatives to prescription benzodiazepines as self-medication for patients suffering from anxiety or other mental disorders. Due to the limited information available on the metabolic fate of these new substances, it is challenging to reliably detect their usage in bioanalytical (e.g. clinical and forensic) settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of the new designer benzodiazepine cloniprazepam and identify potential biomarkers for its detection in human biological fluids...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
R Rodney Howell
Mike, a memorable young patient with untreated phenylketonuria, as well as others affected by genetic disorders that could be treated if diagnosed in infancy, launched my six-decade career. This autobiographical article reflects on my childhood, early research, and professional experiences in pediatric genetics. My laboratory research focused on inborn errors of metabolism, including the glycogen storage diseases. My effort to organize newborn screening through the recommended uniform screening panel shaped and standardized newborn screening nationwide...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
Francis Onwugamba, J Ross Fitzgerald, Kateryn Rochon, Luca Guardabassi, Abraham Alabi, Stefan Kühne, Martin P Grobusch, Frieder Schaumburg
BACKGROUND: 'Filth flies' feed and develop in excrement and decaying matter and can transmit enteric pathogens to humans and animals, leading to colonization and infection. Considering these characteristics, 'filth flies' are potential vectors for the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This review defines the role of flies in the spread of AMR and identifies knowledge gaps. METHODS: The literature search (original articles, reviews indexed for PubMed) was restricted to the English language...
February 23, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Nirupama Bonthala, Sunanda Kane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel disease affects approximately 800,000 women in the USA with the peak incidence between ages 15 to 40. Thus for many females, IBD can impact nearly every stage of their life from menarche to pregnancy, menopause, and beyond. This paper will review the most recent updates on the topics of sexual health, cervical cancer screening, menstruation, fertility, contraception, and menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: Menarche can be delayed in females especially those who are underweight, malnourished, or with active inflammatory bowel disease...
February 26, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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