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Human medical screening

Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Kim V E Braun, Trudy Voortman, Klodian Dhana, Jenna Troup, Wichor M Bramer, John Troup, Rajiv Chowdhury, Abbas Dehghan, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, might be involved in the regulation of blood lipid concentration variability and may thereby affect cardiovascular health. We aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks and plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Six medical databases were searched until September 3rd 2015, reference lists were screened, and experts in the field were contacted...
October 13, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Chun Chao, Michael J Silverberg, Tracy A Becerra, Douglas A Corley, Christopher D Jensen, Qiaoling Chen, Virginia P Quinn
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus vaccination may result in lowered intention to be screened for cervical cancer, potentially leading to gaps in screening coverage and avoidable cervical cancer diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between human papillomavirus vaccination and subsequent cervical cancer screening initiation and adherence to recommended screening intervals to detect gaps in screening coverage and inform future prevention efforts. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in two distinct cohorts of female members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large integrated healthcare delivery system...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Zehra Ordulu, Tammy Kammin, Harrison Brand, Vamsee Pillalamarri, Claire E Redin, Ryan L Collins, Ian Blumenthal, Carrie Hanscom, Shahrin Pereira, India Bradley, Barbara F Crandall, Pamela Gerrol, Mark A Hayden, Naveed Hussain, Bibi Kanengisser-Pines, Sibel Kantarci, Brynn Levy, Michael J Macera, Fabiola Quintero-Rivera, Erica Spiegel, Blair Stevens, Janet E Ulm, Dorothy Warburton, Louise E Wilkins-Haug, Naomi Yachelevich, James F Gusella, Michael E Talkowski, Cynthia C Morton
In this exciting era of "next-gen cytogenetics," integrating genomic sequencing into the prenatal diagnostic setting is possible within an actionable time frame and can provide precise delineation of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the nucleotide level. Given the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in newborns with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements, comprehensive interpretation of breakpoints could substantially improve prediction of phenotypic outcomes and support perinatal medical care...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Brian H Shirts, Colin C Pritchard, Tom Walsh
Every single-nucleotide change compatible with life is present in the human population today. Understanding these rare human variants defines an extraordinary challenge for genetics and medicine. The new clinical practice of sequencing many genes for hereditary cancer risk has illustrated the utility of clinical next-generation sequencing in adults, identifying more medically actionable variants than single-gene testing. However, it has also revealed a linear relationship between the length of DNA evaluated and the number of rare 'variants of uncertain significance' reported...
October 11, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Amitava Banerjee, Shweta Khandelwal, Lavanya Nambiar, Malvika Saxena, Victoria Peck, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Jose Rocha Faria Neto, Katherine Curi Quinto, Andrew Smyth, Darryl Leong, José Pablo Werba
BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. METHODS: Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease)...
2016: Open Heart
Shubha Rao, Puja Seth, Tanja Walker, Guoshen Wang, Mesfin S Mulatu, John Gilford, Emilio J German
The 2015 National HIV/AIDS Strategy provides an updated plan to address health disparities in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1,2). Hispanics/Latinos* are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. In 2014, 23% of HIV diagnoses were among Hispanics/Latinos, who represented 16% of the U.S. population (3). To examine HIV testing services, CDC analyzed 2014 data from the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation (NHM&E) system submitted by 60 CDC-funded health departments(†) and 151 community-based organizations...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
James Conniff
A transformation in legal and cultural attitudes toward same-sex relationships is under way nationwide. As same-sex marriage has become legal, the unique social and medicolegal issues faced by individuals in same-sex relationships are evolving rapidly. National organizations have published recommendations for making clinical environments more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals and their families. Medical issues for patients in same-sex relationships include a higher risk of HIV infection for men who have sex with men (a majority of new cases of HIV infection occur within relationships), higher rates of obesity among women who have sex with women, and disproportionately high rates of mental health issues and alcohol and drug use...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Erika E Doxtader, Jennifer A Brainard, Dawn Underwood, Deborah J Chute
BACKGROUND: Because of cervical cancer screening recommendations and forthcoming first-line human papillomavirus (HPV) screening, many Papanicolaou (Pap) tests will be performed in patients with known concurrent HPV results. This study was designed to evaluate whether knowledge of the HPV status affects cytotechnologists' interpretation of Pap tests. METHODS: A retrospective search of cervical screening Pap tests with known concurrent HPV results provided 250 ThinPrep Pap tests, which were chosen to reflect an atypical rate similar to the rate of the Cleveland Clinic's normal practice...
October 12, 2016: Cancer
Feng Yang-Chun, Yang Jia, Huang Yan-Chun
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) in cervical lesions screening in high-risk hu-man papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infected women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective study. First, the results of CYFRA21-1, cytology (TCT), and HR-HPV examinations of 1039 outpatients from gynecology department in Tumor Hospital Affiliated to Xinjiang Medical University were collected. Then, the data was analyzed using a series of statistical methods...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Piriyatharisini Thamilselvan, Krishna Raj Muthuraman, Jharna Mandal, Subash Chandra Parija
INTRODUCTION: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the "most neglected" tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Sabine Tischer, René Geyeregger, Julian Kwoczek, Albert Heim, Constanca Figueiredo, Rainer Blasczyk, Britta Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta Eiz-Vesper
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Efficient antiviral T-cell responses are necessary to clear infection, which is hampered by delayed immune reconstitution and medical immunosuppression after HSCT. Protective immunity may be conferred by adoptive transfer of HAdV-specific T cells. For identification of patients at risk and monitoring of treatment responses diligent assessment of anti-HAdV cellular immune responses is crucial...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Neetu Gupta, Romain Noël, Amélie Goudet, Karen Hinsinger, Aurélien Michau, Valérie Pons, Hajer Abdelkafi, Thomas Secher, Ayaka Shima, Olena Shtanko, Yasuteru Sakurai, Sandrine Cojean, Sébastien Pomel, Vanessa Liévin-Le Moal, Véronique Leignel, Jo-Ana Herweg, Annette Fischer, Ludger Johannes, Kate Harrison, Philippa M Beard, Pascal Clayette, Roger Le Grand, Jonathan O Rayner, Thomas Rudel, Joël Vacus, Philippe M Loiseau, Robert A Davey, Eric Oswald, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Julien Barbier, Daniel Gillet
Medical countermeasures to treat biothreat agent infections require broad-spectrum therapeutics that do not induce agent resistance. A cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against ricin toxin combined with hit optimization allowed selection of a family of compounds that meet these requirements. The hit compound Retro-2 and its derivatives have been demonstrated to be safe in vivo in mice even at high doses. Moreover, Retro-2 is an inhibitor of retrograde transport that affects syntaxin-5-dependent toxins and pathogens...
October 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Marta Maciejewska, Delphine Adam, Loïc Martinet, Aymeric Naômé, Magdalena Całusińska, Philippe Delfosse, Monique Carnol, Hazel A Barton, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Nicolas Smargiasso, Edwin De Pauw, Marc Hanikenne, Denis Baurain, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk speleothems of limestone caves host a rich microbiome, among which Actinobacteria represent one of the most abundant phyla. Ancient medical texts reported that moonmilk had therapeutical properties, thereby suggesting that its filamentous endemic actinobacterial population might be a source of natural products useful in human treatment. In this work, a screening approach was undertaken in order to isolate cultivable Actinobacteria from moonmilk of the Grotte des Collemboles in Belgium, to evaluate their taxonomic profile, and to assess their potential in biosynthesis of antimicrobials...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gen Li, Anqing Wu, Dandan Qi, Fengmei Cui, Yanan Zeng, Fang Xie, Hongya Wu, Yongping Gu, Qiu Chen, Xueguang Zhang
Immediate medical intervention is required after pelvic tumor radiotherapy to protect the radiosensitive intestine and also to mitigate tumor growth. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to promote tissue repair processes. Here, we analyzed the effect observed upon combining the TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan (PGN), with radiation therapy on tumors as well as intestinal tissue, both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to radiotherapy alone, PGN when combined with ionizing radiation (IR) elicited enhanced antitumor effects and also reduced the IR-induced intestinal damage...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Sean E Collins, Philip M Grant, Francois Uwinkindi, Annie Talbot, Eric Seruyange, Deborah Slamowitz, Adeline Mugeni, Eric Remera, Simon Pierre Niyonsenga, Josbert Nyirimigabo, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe, Pierre Dongier, Ribakare Muhayimpundu, Jean-Baptiste Mazarati, Andrew Zolopa, Sabin Nsanzimana
Background.  Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remain on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite safety and efficacy concerns. Switching to a rilpivirine-based regimen is an alternative, but there is little experience with rilpivirine in sub-Saharan Africa where induction of rilpivirine metabolism by nevirapine, HIV subtype, and dietary differences could potentially impact efficacy. Methods.  We conducted an open-label noninferiority study of virologically suppressed (HIV-1 ribonucleic acid [RNA] < 50 copies/mL) HIV-1-infected Rwandan adults taking nevirapine plus 2 nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Connie Luk, Samantha Jones, Claire Thomas, Nick C Fox, Tze H Mok, Simon Mead, John Collinge, Graham S Jackson
Importance: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder associated with the accumulation of infectious abnormal prion protein through a mechanism of templated misfolding. A recent report has described the detection of abnormal prion protein in the urine of patients with variant CJD (vCJD) using protein misfolding by cyclic amplification, which was apparently absent in the more common sporadic form of CJD (sCJD). A noninvasive diagnostic test could improve early diagnosis of sCJD and, by screening donations, mitigate the potential risks of prion transmission through human urine-derived pharmaceuticals...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Neurology
M Daniel, N Rudenko, M Golovchenko, V Danielová, A Fialová, B Kříž, M Malý
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
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