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Nestor D Ortega-de la Rosa, Jose L Vázquez-Vázquez, Sergio Huerta-Ochoa, Miquel Gimeno, Mariano Gutiérrez-Rojas
Acinetobacter species are identified as producing surface-active and emulsifying molecules known as bioemulsifiers. Production, characterization and stability of bioemulsifiers produced by Acinetobacter bouvetii UAM25 were studied. A. bouvetii UAM25 grew in three different carbon and energy sources: ethanol, a glycerol-hexadecane mixture and waste cooking oil in an airlift bioreactor, showing that bioemulsifier production was growth associated. The three purified bioemulsifiers were lipo-heteropolysaccharides of high molecular weight (4866 ± 533 and 462 ± 101 kDa)...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Tang, Andras Szeitz, Jayesh Kulkarni, Pieter Cullis, Shyh-Dar Li
The solvent-assisted active loading technology (SALT) was developed for encapsulating a water insoluble weak base into the liposomal core in the presence of 5% DMSO. In this study, we further examined the effect of various water miscible solvents in promoting active loading of other types of drugs into liposomes. To achieve complete drug loading, the amount of solvent required must result in complete drug solubilization and membrane permeability enhancement, but must be below the threshold that induces liposomal aggregation or causes bilayer disruption...
March 3, 2018: Biomaterials
Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Yan Ding, Yiting Zhang, Qian Li, Jerry Flores, Mina Haghighiabyaneh, Desislava Doycheva, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Chemerin, an adipokine, has been reported to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration. This study investigated the role of Chemerin and its natural receptor, ChemR23, as well as its downstream mediator calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) /adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) /Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) in neonatal rats, with a specific focus on inflammation. GMH was induced by intraparenchymal injection of bacterial collagenase (0...
February 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei, Leila Gholami, Fariba Asghari, Saeedeh Askarian, Saeedeh Barzegar, Mehdi Rezaee, Reza Kazemi Oskuee
Non-viral vectors such as polymers and liposomes have been used as gene delivery systems to overcome intrinsic problems of viral vectors, but transfection efficiency of these vectors is lower than viral vectors. In the present study, we tried to design non-viral gene delivery vectors that mimic the viral vectors using the benefits of both cationic liposomes and cationic polymer vectors along with targeting glucocorticoid receptors to enhance cellular trafficking of vectors. Cationic liposomes containing DOTAP and cholesterol were prepared by thin-film hydration following extrusion method...
February 21, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Isabelle Pluvy, Benoit Chaput, Marie Panouillères, Damien Feuvrier, Eric Watier, Nicolas Bertheuil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yina Chen, Qian Zhao, Yangjie Sun, Yin Jin, Jie Zhang, Jiansheng Wu
Melatonin, which is predominantly secreted by the pineal gland and is released into the blood, appears to have anti‑inflammatory properties. Several studies have shown that melatonin can relieve lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this anti‑inflammatory effect remain to be fully elucidated, particularly the association between melatonin and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS). Therefore, the present study examined the anti‑inflammatory activity of melatonin in RAW264...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Takashi Matsunaga, Naoya Matsunaga, Naoki Kusunose, Eriko Ikeda, Hiroyuki Okazaki, Keisuke Kakimoto, Kengo Hamamura, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo
One approach to increasing pharmacotherapy effects is administering drugs at times of day when they are most effective and/or best tolerated. Circadian variation in expression of pharmacokinetics- and pharmacodynamics-related genes was shown to contribute to dosing time-dependent differences in therapeutic effects of small molecule drugs. However, influence of dosing time of day on effects of high molecular weight formulations, such as drugs encapsulated in liposomes, has not been studied in detail. This study demonstrates that blood pressure rhythm affects dosing time-dependent variation in effects of high molecular weight formulations...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Ying-Dong Li, Lu-Lu Luo, Yong-Qi Liu, Yang Li, Chao Guo, Zhen-Dong Li, Xiao-Rong Xie, Hai-Xia Song, Li-Ping Yang, Shao-Bo Sun, Fang-Yu An
Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumors. An appropriate adjuvant is of fundamental importance for inducing cellular immune response. Since the antigen in particulate form is substantially more immunogenic than soluble form antigen, it is beneficial to interact with antigen-presenting cells membrane to induce robust CD8+ T cell activation following vaccination. Based on previous research, we designed an adjuvant formulation by combining Astragalus saponins, cholesterol, and liposome to incorporate antigen into a particulate delivery system, so as to enhance cellular immune response...
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Efe Serinan, Zekiye Altun, Safiye Aktaş, Emre Çeçen, Nur Olgun
OBJECTIVE: Cisplatin (CDDP) is an anti-neoplastic agent that has been used in treatments of both pediatric and adult cancers. It has many side effects, such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Lipoplatin (LIPO) is a nanomolecule with 110 nm diameter and composed of lipids and CDDP. In this study, we aimed to compare the toxic effects of LIPO with CDDP in the cochlear cells with anti-tumoral doses determined in neuroblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: House Ear Institute Organ Corti 1 (HEI-OC1), MYC-N amplified KELLY, and MYC-N non-amplified SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were used in this study...
February 20, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Yujiao Zu, Haley Overby, Guofeng Ren, Zhaoyang Fan, Ling Zhao, Shu Wang
Trans-resveratrol (R) has a potential to increase energy expenditure via inducing browning in white adipose tissue. However, its low levels of aqueous solubility, stability, and poor bioavailability limit its application. We have successfully synthesized biocompatible, and biodegradable R encapsulated lipid nanocarriers (R-nano), and R encapsulated liposomes (R-lipo). The mean particle size of R-nano and R-lipo were 140 nm and 110 nm, respectively, and their polydispersity index values were less than 0...
December 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Chunsong Yu, Myunggi An, Evan Jones, Haipeng Liu
PURPOSE: This paper aims to investigate the immunoinhibitory properties of a lymph nodes-targeting suppressive oligonucleotide (ODN) for the potential treatment of autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammation. METHODS: Synthetic suppressive ODN engineered with an albumin-binding diacyl lipid at the 5'-terminal (lipo-ODN) was synthesized. In vitro and in vivo experiments were designed to compare the immune suppressive properties of lipo-ODN and unmodified ODN. Cellular uptake and distribution, inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, lymph nodes (LN) draining, and the suppression of antigen-specific immune responses in an ovalbumin protein model was investigated...
February 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Badrul Islam, Zhahirul Islam, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Israt Jahan, Hubert P Endtz, Quazi D Mohammad, Bart C Jacobs
We describe the frequency, clinical features, and electrophysiological and immunological phenotypes of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) patients treated at a single institution in Bangladesh who had preceding chicken pox (primary Varicella-zoster virus [VZV] infection) within 4 weeks of GBS onset. A literature review of GBS cases preceding VZV infection is also provided. Diagnosis of GBS was based on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS. Serum anti-VZV IgM and IgG antibodies were quantified by indirect chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA); anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies and anti-ganglioside GM1 IgM and IgG antibodies, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
March 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Shahira F El-Menshawe, Adel A Ali, Mohamed A Rabeh, Nermeen M Khalil
Purpose: Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity, which has become a rising problem over the recent years. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity but high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit its use. Nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, was formulated and evaluated in an attempt to investigate its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Changcheng You, Jianing Zu, Xiaoqi Liu, Pengyu Kong, Chengchao Song, Rongzhi Wei, Changlong Zhou, Yufu Wang, Jinglong Yan
Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) play a crucial role in the inflammatory process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The highly activated NF-κB signal in SFs is responsible for most of the synovial inflammation associated with this disease. In this study, we have developed an SF-targeting liposomal system that encapsulates the NF-κB-blocking peptide (NBD peptide) HAP-lipo/NBD. HAP-lipo/NBDs demonstrated efficient SF-specific targeting in vitro and in vivo. Our study also showed a significant inhibitory effect of HAP-lipo/NBD on NF-κB activation, inflammatory cytokine release and SF migration capability after zymosan stimulation...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Wenqian Gu, Andreas Rebsdorf, Kjeld Hermansen, Søren Gregersen, Per Bendix Jeppesen
Isosteviol (ISV), a diterpene molecule, is an isomer of the backbone structure of a group of substances with proven antidiabetic capabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate if ISV elicits dynamic insulin release from pancreatic islets and concomitantly is able to ameliorate gluco-, lipo-, and aminoacidotoxicity in clonal β-cell line (INS-1E) in relation to cell viability and insulin secretion. Isolated mice islets placed into perifusion chambers were perifused with 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose with/without 10-7 M ISV...
January 26, 2018: Nutrients
Ashraf Abdu, Gerardo Lara-Juarez, Jonathan J Dennis
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) consists of at least 20 phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct Gram-negative bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, are capable of promoting plant growth and biodegradation of pollutants, but that also are highly antibiotic resistant and produce damaging effects towards plants, fungi, and humans. To study these genetically recalcitrant bacteria in detail, molecular tools are required that work efficiently with the many strains and species of the Bcc. One mutagenesis strategy that has been used effectively to analyze the genes of Burkholderia cenocepacia is based upon the activity of the Sce-I restriction enzyme...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Y Fujimura, M Watanabe, K Natsuga, H Shimizu
Lipo-prostaglandin E1 (Lipo-PGE1) is a PGE1 product in lipid microspheres and acts as a vasodilator. Injection of Lipo-PGE1 is used clinically for chronic skin ulcers caused by collagen diseases, diabetes mellitus and impaired blood circulation. Erythema, vascular pain, and phlebitis of the injected sites are recognized as cutaneous manifestations of the side effects of PGE1. Here we present the first case of acute vascular reaction along veins injected with Lipo-PGE1. This article is protected by copyright...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Min Qiu, Huanli Sun, Fenghua Meng, Ru Cheng, Jian Zhang, Chao Deng, Zhiyuan Zhong
Doxil® is the first FDA-approved anti-cancer nano-drug. Notably, no targeted liposomal formulation has advanced to clinical stage despite tremendous work undertaken, partly due to a low stability of liposomes. Here, we report on novel lipopepsomes self-assembled from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(α-aminopalmitic acid) as a stable and versatile alternative to liposomes for highly efficient encapsulation and tumor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox·HCl). Interestingly, lipopepsomes could be easily decorated with 20mol% cRGD peptide and loaded with 17...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Govindarajan Karthivashan, Palanivel Ganesan, Shin-Young Park, Joon-Soo Kim, Dong-Kug Choi
In recent years, the incidental rate of neurodegenerative disorders has increased proportionately with the aging population. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most commonly reported neurodegenerative disorders, and it is estimated to increase by roughly 30% among the aged population. In spite of screening numerous drug candidates against various molecular targets of AD, only a few candidates - such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are currently utilized as an effective clinical therapy. However, targeted drug delivery of these drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibits several limitations including meager solubility, low bioavailability, and reduced efficiency due to the impediments of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
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