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Limin Guo, Lipo Ma, Yelong Zhang, Xun Cheng, Ye Xu, Jin Wang, Erkang Wang, Zhangquan Peng
Electro-reduction of aryl diazonium salts on gold can produce organic films that are more robust than their analogous self-assembled monolayers formed from chemical adsorption of organic thiols on gold. However, whether or not the enhanced stability is due to the Au-C bond formation remains debated. In this work, we report the electro-reduction of an aryl diazonium salt of 4,4'-disulfanediyldibenzenediazonium on gold forming a multilayer of Au-(Ar-S-S-Ar)n, which can be further degraded to a monolayer of Au-Ar-S- by electrochemical cleavage of the S-S moieties within the multilayer...
October 15, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Katharina Müller, Philipp M Klein, Philipp Heissig, Andreas Roidl, Ernst Wagner
Antitumoral siRNA and miRNA delivery was demonstrated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted oligoaminoamide polyplexes. For this purpose, the T-shaped lipo-oligomer 454 was used to complex RNA into a core polyplex, which was subsequently functionalized with the targeting peptide ligand GE11 via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker. To this end, free cysteines on the surface of 454 polyplex were coupled with a maleimide-PEG-GE11 reagent (Mal-GE11). Resulting particles with sizes of 120-150 nm showed receptor-mediated uptake into EGFR-positive T24 bladder cancer cells, MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells and Huh7 liver cancer cells...
October 13, 2016: Nanotechnology
Philipp Michael Klein, Sören Reinhard, Dian-Jang Lee, Katharina Müller, Daniela Ponader, Laura Hartmann, Ernst Wagner
Lipo-oligomers have been proven as potent siRNA carriers based on stable electrostatic and hydrophobic complex formation and endosomal membrane destabilization. Although high stability of siRNA polyplexes is desirable in the extracellular space and cellular uptake, intracellular disassembly is important for the cytosolic release of siRNA and RNA-induced silencing complex formation. To improve the release, bioreducible sequence-defined lipo-oligomers were synthesized by solid-phase assisted synthesis using the disulfide building block Fmoc-succinoyl-cystamine for precise positioning of a disulfide unit between a lipophilic diacyl (bis-myristyl, bis-stearyl or bis-cholestanyl) domain and an ionizable oligocationic siRNA binding unit...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Eric Piver, Audrey Boyer, Julien Gaillard, Anne Bull, Elodie Beaumont, Philippe Roingeard, Jean-Christophe Meunier
OBJECTIVE: HCV particles are associated with very low-density lipoprotein components in chronically infected patients. These hybrid particles, or 'lipo-viro particles' (LVPs), are rich in triglycerides, and contain the viral RNA, the capsid protein, E1E2 envelope glycoproteins and apolipoproteins B and E. However, their specific ultrastructural organisation has yet to be determined. We developed a strategy for the preparation of any viral sample that preserves the native structure of the LVPs, facilitating their precise morphological characterisation...
October 11, 2016: Gut
Hiroyuki Nakashima, Masahiro Nakashima, Manabu Kinoshita, Masami Ikarashi, Hiromi Miyazaki, Hiromi Hanaka, Junko Imaki, Shuhji Seki
We have recently reported that Kupffer cells consist of two subsets, radio-resistant resident CD68+ Kupffer cells and radio-sensitive recruited CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages (Mφs). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized not only by hepatic steatosis but also chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the immunological mechanism of diet-induced steatohepatitis in fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) deficient mice. After consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, FGF5 null mice developed severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis resembling human NASH...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephan Grabbe, Heinrich Haas, Mustafa Diken, Lena M Kranz, Peter Langguth, Ugur Sahin
The development of nucleic acid based vaccines against cancer has gained considerable momentum through the advancement of modern sequencing technologies and on novel RNA-based synthetic drug formats, which can be readily adapted following identification of every patient's tumor-specific mutations. Furthermore, affordable and individual 'on demand' production of molecularly optimized vaccines should allow their application in large groups of patients. This has resulted in the therapeutic concept of an active personalized cancer vaccine, which has been brought into clinical testing...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Kaberi Gautam, Timothy D Schwinghamer, Donald L Smith
Microbe-to-plant signals can enhance the growth of a wide range of crops. The responses by soybean (Glycine max var. 91M01) to two signal molecules were investigated: Bradyrhizobium japonicum 532C lipo-chitooligosaccharide (Nod Bj V [C:18, MeFuc]) (LCO); and Bacillus thuringiensis strain NEB17 bacteriocin thuricin 17 (Th17). The objective was to assess and quantify the response by soybean, in terms of factors that contribute to yield, to the experimental signal molecules in germination experiments and field experiments...
October 4, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Cássia R A da Cunha, Luís C N da Silva, Fábio J F Almeida, Milena S Ferraz, Nathalia Varejão, Marina F de Souza Cartaxo, Rita de Cássia M de Miranda, Francisco C A de Aguiar, Noemia P da Silva Santos, Luana C B B Coelho, Nereide S Santos-Magalhães, Maria T Dos Santos Correia
This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ana Eliza Zeraik, Margarita Staykova, Marina Gabriel Fontes, Indrė Nemuraitė, Roy Quinlan, Ana Paula Ulian Araújo, Ricardo DeMarco
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that are highly conserved among eukaryotes and which are usually membrane-associated. They have been linked to several critical cellular functions such as exocytosis and ciliogenesis, but little mechanistic detail is known. Their assembly into filaments and membrane binding properties are incompletely understood and that is specially so for non-human septins where such information would offer therapeutic potential. In this study we use Schistosoma mansoni, exhibiting just four septin genes, as a simpler model for characterizing the septin structure and organization...
September 26, 2016: Biochimie
Yu-Lin Su, Kuan-Ting Chen, Yu-Chen Sheu, Shuo-Yuan Sung, Ru-Siou Hsu, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Shang-Hsiu Hu
Delivery of drug and energy within responsive carriers that effectively target and accumulate in cancer cells promises to mitigate side effects and to enhance the uniquely therapeutic efficacy demanded for personalized medicine. To achieve this goal, however, these carriers, which are usually piled up at the periphery of tumors near the blood vessel, must simultaneously overcome the challenges associated with low tumor penetration and the transport of sufficient cargos to deep tumors to eradicate whole cancer cells...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
Reshma Mahima Reji, Siddik Uzzaman, Berlin Grace Vm
The high mortality rate of lung cancer is highly associated with faster metastasis spread. All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), being the first choice drug for leukemia therapy is now under intense study for its therapeutic efficiency in other solid cancers. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-metastasis activity of free ATRA and liposome entrapped ATRA (5:4:1) in the experimental C57BL/6 mice model developed by the injection of B16F10 cell line into the tail vein. The ATRA drug was given via i.p for 21 days...
September 27, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Annalee W Nguyen, Ellen K Wagner, Luciano Posada, Xinlei Liu, Sheila Connelly, James F Papin, Roman F Wolf, Michael Kaleko, Jennifer A Maynard
The baboon model of Bordetella pertussis infection is the newest and most clinically accurate model of the human disease to date. However, among the 15 experimentally infected baboons in this study, a subset of baboons did not exhibit the expected high bacterial colonization levels or increase in white blood cell count. Moreover, cultures of nasopharyngeal wash samples from several baboons suggested B. bronchiseptica coinfection. Analysis of serum antibodies recognizing filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin and B...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Timothy Schwinghamer, Alfred Souleimanov, Pierre Dutilleul, Donald L Smith
The objective of this experiment was to assess whether or not the application of lipo-chitooligosaccharide (Nod Bj V [C18:1, MeFuc]) (LCO) would increase yield factors under conditions that would inhibit canola (Brassica napus L.) productivity. The seed application reduced the percentage of plants that were unproductive by 15.10% compared to plants grown from untreated seeds. Based on the 95% confidence interval for the difference, untreated plants would produce 38 to 3% fewer seeds than plants grown from LCO treated seeds...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Valeria Raparelli, Stefania Basili, Roberto Carnevale, Laura Napoleone, Maria Del Ben, Cristina Nocella, Simona Bartimoccia, Cristina Lucidi, Giovanni Talerico, Oliviero Riggio, Francesco Violi
: Patients with cirrhosis may display impaired or enhanced platelet activation but the reasons for these equivocal findings are unclear. We investigated if bacterial lipo-polysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in platelet activation. In a cross-sectional study, conducted in an ambulatory care clinic and hospital, comparing 69 cirrhotic patients and 30 controls matched for sex, age and atherosclerotic risk factors, serum levels of LPS, soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and p-Selectin (sPs), two markers of platelet activation, and zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, were investigated...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Sowmyalakshmi Subramanian, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
Plants, being sessile organisms, are exposed to widely varying environmental conditions throughout their life cycle. Compatible plant-microbe interactions favor plant growth and development, and help plants deal with these environmental challenges. Microorganisms produce a diverse range of elicitor molecules to establish symbiotic relationships with the plants they associate with, in a given ecological niche. Lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO) and Thuricin 17 (Th17) are two such compounds shown to positively influence plant growth of both legumes and non-legumes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Véréna Poinsot, Matthew B Crook, Stéphanie Erdn, Fabienne Maillet, Adeline Bascaules, Jean-Michel Ané
Soil-dwelling, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia signal their presence to legume hosts by secreting lipo-chitooligomers (LCOs) that are decorated with a variety of chemical substituents. It has long been assumed, but never empirically shown, that the LCO backbone is synthesized first by NodC, NodB, and NodA, followed by addition of one or more substituents by other Nod proteins. By analyzing a collection of in-frame deletion mutants of key nod genes in the bacterium Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 by mass spectrometry, we were able to shed light on the possible substitution order of LCO decorations, and we discovered that the prevailing view is probably erroneous...
August 3, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Xu Song, Zhuoya Wan, Tijia Chen, Yao Fu, Kejun Jiang, Xiaoli Yi, Huan Ke, Jianxia Dong, Liuqing Yang, Lin Li, Xun Sun, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang
Finding effective cures against aggressive malignancy remains a major challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Here, we report a "tadpole"-like peptide by covalently conjugating the alanine-alanine-asparagine "tail" residual to the cyclic tumor homing peptide iRGD (CCRGDKGPDC) to afford nRGD, which significantly enhanced tumoricidal effects of doxorubicin, by either co-administered as a physical mixture or as a targeting ligand covalently conjugated to the liposomal carrier. Given twice at an equivalent dose of 5 mg/kg, doxorubicin loaded liposomes modified with nRGD (nRGD-Lipo-Dox) showed excellent antitumor efficacy in 4T1 breast cancer mice, of which 44...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Alireza Partoazar, Sanaz Nasoohi, Sayed Mehdi Rezayat, Kambiz Gilani, Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr, Amir Amani, Nastaran Rahimi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known as a neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in animal models. However, the significant therapeutic effects of CsA have been observed in high systemic doses or manipulating the blood brain barrier (BBB), resulting in systemic side effects and toxicity. Since the liposome nanocarries have been developed for efficient delivery of peptide and proteins, liposomal CsA (Lipo-CsA) could improve cerebral (I/R) injuries. In this study, the liposomal CsA formulation (CsA at dose of 2...
September 12, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Ritika Zijoo, Margaret von Mehren
INTRODUCTION: Trabectedin (ET-743) is a synthetic marine derived alkylating agent, extracted originally from a Caribbean Sea sponge. It is approved for the treatment of Soft Tissue sarcomas (STS) in Europe and recently by the FDA for liposarcomas and leiomyosarcomas. AREAS COVERED: Trabectedin has multiple mechanisms of action, including one targeting the FUS-CHOP oncogene in Myxoid/Round cell Liposarcomas. Numerous Phase I, II and III clinical trials have been conducted with Trabectedin...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Marwan Moussa, S Nahum Goldberg, Gaurav Kumar, Tatyana Levchenko, Vladimir Torchilin, Muneeb Ahmed
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different radio-frequency ablation (RFA) thermal doses on coagulation and heat shock protein (HSP) response with and without adjuvant nanotherapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, Fischer rats were assigned to nine different thermal doses of hepatic RFA (50-90 °C, 2-20 min, three per group) or no treatment (n = 3). Next, five of these RF thermal doses were combined with liposomal-doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox, 1 mg intravenously) in R3230 breast tumours, or no tumour treatment (five per group)...
December 2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
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